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© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 1 National Innovation System and the Role of National Institute Prof Otto C C Lin The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Tsing-Tech Innovations, Ltd New World Centre, Tsim-sha-Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong Six Countries Programme Conference, Canada June 5-6, 2003
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 2 Outline 1.From science to industry: the myths 2.The Innovation process and the players 3.The national innovation system 4.A case study of Taiwan: 5.The roots of hi-tech industry 6. The way forward
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 3 Hi-Tech Industry Technology Science
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 4 Hi-Tech Industry National Vision Strategy Policy Commitment R&D Funding Taxation & Banking Legal System Regional Planning Physical Infrastructure Basic Sciences Education & Skilled Workforce Entrepreneurship Venture Capital Social Support Project Management
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 5 The Research to Commercialization Process Research Science Applied Research Development Industrial Technology Mid-stream R&D Product & Process Development Pilot Production & Field Trial Manufacturing Commercialization Basic Research Sales & Services
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 6 Mission Jobs/Outputs Criteria Success Talents needed Rewards system Risk Difference Commercialization Excellent People Excellent Management Research Similarity
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 7 Scientific Research Product Commercialization The Innovation Process: Creating Wealth from Knowledge Applied Research Product Development Process Development Pilot Production Technology Diffusion Developing Industrial Technology Policy / Planning / RD Funding Taxation/Legal Systems Infrastructure Skilled Manpower VC Funding / Entrepreneurship Social Support and Stability Nurturing Business Environment
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 8 © Professor Otto C C Lin March 2002 Developing Industrial Technology National Innovation System: the Players UNIVERSITY BUSINESS INDUSTRY INSTITUTE GOVERNMENT Nurturing Business Environment
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 9 The National Innovation System: The Dynamics Product Commercialization UNIVERSITY GOVERNMENT Scientific Research BUSINESS INSTITUTE Technology Development
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 10 National Innovation System: The Role of the Institute UNIVERSITIES Institute ?? INDUSTRIES Business Government Pilot Production Product & Process Development Applied Research Technical Services Manufacturing Industrial Technology Basic Research Focus Funding
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 11 National Innovation System: USA Business Government Pilot Production Product & Process Development Applied Research Technical Services Manufacturing Industrial Technology Basic Research UNIVERSITIES NATIONAL INSTITUTES NATIONAL LABORATORIES INDUSTRIES Focus Funding
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 12 The Economic Growth of Taiwan
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 13 THE STRATEGY: A Case Study of Taiwan A Developing Human Resources B Acquiring Foreign Technologies C Establishing Indigenous Technology Capability D.Converting Science / Technology to Industry Ref: O. C. C. Lin, in Behind East Asian Growth: the political and social foundation of prosperity, Editor, H.S. Rowen. Rutledge, 1998
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 14
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 15
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 16 National Innovation System : Taiwan Business Government Pilot Production Product & Process Development Applied Research Technical Services Manufacturing Industrial Technology Basic Research SCIENCE-BASED INDUSTRIAL PARK (Host for Hi-Tech Companies) Focus Funding Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) All INER, FIRDI, MIDC, CBD, III, TL, CPC Aerospace Pollution Control Industrial Safety Industrial Standards Materials Energy Chemicals Machinery Micro-Electronics Opto-Electronics Computer & Communications ITRI Academic Sinica Universities Industrial Companies
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 17 Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) Founded in 1973 A statutory national institute established by law A non-profit R&D corporation under the auspices of the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) The technical arm of the government s industrial policies A partner to local industries
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 18 ITRI Missions To spearhead the development of high-tech industry in Taiwan To upgrade the competitiveness of traditional industries in the global market
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 19 ITRI: Scope of R&D Activity ELECTRONICSMATERIALSCHEMICALS ENERGY & RESOURCES MACHINERY AEROSPACE INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL INDUSTRIAL SAFETY & HEALTH METROLOGY OPTO-ELECTRONICS COMPUTER & COMMUNICATIONS VLSI Fabrication IC Design Flat Planel Display Microwave Technology Electronics Packaging Material Design Material Application Material Reliability Improvement New Material Chemical Engineering Process Applied Chemistry Speciality Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals Polymera and Fibers Energy Conservation Systems Design Resource Application Environment Engineering Automation Precision Machinery Power Machinery Precision Parts & Components Quality Assurance Aviation System & Components Inspection/Testing Market & Technology Information Treatment & Control Waste Reduction & Reuse Pollutant Analysis & Monitoring Chemical Accident Prevention Industrial Hygiene Engineering Safety National Measurement Standards Laboratory Accreditation Industrial Quality Assurance & Service Measurement Technology & Instrumentation Optical Information Electro-Optical Components & Materials Optical Components & Systems Computer Communication Consumer Electronics ITRI
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 20 Impacts of ITRI Technology I. Establishing New Technology / Industry VLSI Computing Communication Materials Sp. Chemicals Automation Opto-Electronics IC: CMOS DRAM/SRAM PC Peripherals Telecom, ISDN PLC Auto Engine ELE Components & Parts
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 21 Taiwan IC Company Family Tree (Ref: Dr. F.C. Tseng, 2002) 1974 :Technology Transfer 1980 : First IC Co. UMC Team 3.5μm, CMOS IC Products RCA ERSO /ITRI 7μm, CMOS (3-inch Fab.) TSMC Team 2μm, CMOS 6-inch Fab. Winbond Team 2μm, CMOS IC Products 1987 : First Foundry 1987 : First IDM Vanguard Team 0.5μm, CMOS 8-inch Fab. SRAM/DRAM Products 1994 :First DRAM TI-Acer TI DRAM Tech. IPR 1992 :First JV DRAM
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 22 Source: ITIS/IEK, Nov-2001; SIA, Jan-2002 $M USD Taiwan IC Outperform WW IC
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 23
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 24 Foundry Business Model System Design IC Design Foundry Contract Assembly & Test System Design IC Design Fab Assembly & Test Design Services Foundry Assembly & Test IP IC Design IC Design IDM/ASIC Fabless Co. IDM/ASICFabless Co.System Co. Before sAfter 2000 System Design System Design Assembly & Test Fab Assembly & Test System/IC Design IC Design
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct ,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40, (e)2002(f)2003(f)2004(f) IC Testing IC Package IC Design IC Fab Outlook Taiwan IC Industry M US$ Source: ITIS/IEK, Mar % 36% 31% 15,558 18,056 25,332 34, CAGR= 31%
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 26 Fabless Industry Growth Numerous Fabless Companies Were Formed Since 1987 –Taiwan From 10 to over 200 Many successful IPOs: VIA, Acer Lab, SIS, Realtek, Sunplus etc. –US Several hundreds Many successful IPOs: Cirrus, Trident, ISSI, S3, nVidia, ATI, Broadcom, Oak, ESS, C-Cube, Mosys, Altera, PMC-Sierra etc. –China Emerging with more than 100 companies
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 27 Taiwan IC Key Success Factors (Ref.Dr. F. C. Tseng, 2002) 1. Insightful Government Policies and Effective Execution –Industry Policies Strategic Industries ITRI –Financial Policies Government VC arms IPO for hi-tech companies 2.Successful Commercialization. Tax shelters and RD incentives Shielded from government bureaucracy Science park
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 28 Taiwan IC Key Success Factors (Ref: Dr. F. C. Tseng, 2002) 3. Good Model of Innovation –Technology Continued own development to be among the leaders –Business Model Foundry/Fabless model –Human Resources Many local universities and technical institutes. Thorough training in fundamentals Advanced degrees in US universities RD/management experiences in leading SC companies
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 29 Notebook PC Consortium ITRICCL TEAM A PARTNERS Project Leaders Motherboard (Hitran) Components (King Tel) EMI / Battery (Wiso) Mechanical Design (Tek Star) Software (Cal Roc) Testing (CCL) Reliability (CCL) System Integration (CCL) Promotion (TEAMA) Project Management The Team
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 30 * Reference: MIC / IDC * Estimated for 2000
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 31 CD-ROM/DVD-ROM Production Scale Forecast World v.s. Taiwan The Taiwanese forecast volume will reach 45 Million units, at 40% world market share
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 32 The Industrial Strength
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 33
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 34 Impacts of ITRI Technology II. Upgrade Existing / Traditional Industry Design Sporting: Bicycles, Tennis rackets, Golf clubs Material Plated Plastics Manufacturing Machine Tools / Parts Quality - EHS Fashion Fabrics Pharmaceuticals Green processes
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 35 30
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 36 31
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 37 Composite Materials Technology New Product CAD Design Polymer Matrix Fibre Reinforcement Metal Parts Materials Joining Processing Fabrication Non- Destructive Evaluation Performance Testing
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 38 ITRI: Characteristics of Projects Specificity Niche Advantage Market Orientation Economic Feasibility Industry Participation Transfer Mechanism Championship
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 39 ITRI: Technology Diffusion Technology Licensing Contract Services Technology Spin-off Strategic Alliances Workshops and Training Programs Technical Publication
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 40 ITRI: Technology Output Item Technology Transferred to Industry Technologies Companies Services ContractsNumber9041,0041,019 1,050 General Services to Industry Companies20,17727,06126,25327,81128,000 Patents GrantedNumber Technology Conferences and Training Programs Cases Attendees , , , , ,000
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 41 ITRI: Intellectual Property Rights - Patents Awarded and Inventions Patent Inventions
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 42 ITRI: Contributions to Taiwan 1.Establishing new high-tech industries 2.Upgrading traditional industries 3.Developing human capital 4.Protecting the environment & increasing industry safety
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 43 Structural Change of Manufacturing Industry: Taiwan ( ) Manufacturing, as %GDP As % of Manufacturing: Capital Intensive Labour Intensive Technology Intensive Technology Manpower % of (Total Employment) R&D, as % Sales (7.73M)(9.04M)(9.17M) Source: Cheng Sun, Development of Knowledge Economy in Taiwan (Chinese) 2001, Sun Min Books, Taipei, 2001 Data from (MOEA & NSC)
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 44 Shares of Taiwans Manufacturing Enterprises (Unit: %) By number of enterprises By persons engaged By value added Data Source: Industrial & Commercial census, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, ROC, Reference: M-W Hu, Futures 35 (2003) Employment size (persons) >500
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 45
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 46 Source : Lee, Miller and Rowen, The Silicon Valley Edge, 2000
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 47 The Features of the Silicon Valley Habitat Knowledge intensity High quality and mobile work force Result Oriented meritocracy Climate that rewards risk-taking and tolerates failure Favorable government policies Open business environment University-Institute-Industry interactions Collaboration : business, government and non-profits High quality of life Specialized business infrastructure Ref: Lee, Miller, Hancock, Rowen, The Silicon Valley Edge, Stanford University Press, 2000
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 48 Resources Infrastructure Knowledge Capital Leadership Human Network The Roots of Hi-Tech Industry
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 49 LEADERSHIP RESOURCES National vision Strategy content Policy commitment KNOWLEDGE RESCOURCES Basic research R&D support Technology capacity HUMAN RESOURCES Education Training & Re-education Entrepreneurship Project management CAPITAL RESOURCES Taxation Banking practices Venture capital NETWORK RESOURCES Globalization culture Regional planning Marketing Channel INFRASTRUCTURE RESOURCES Physical infrastructure Legal system Social support Effective governance The Roots of High Tech Industry
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 50 The Changing World! Three axes of change: * Technology * Globalization * Democracy
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 51 New Environment: Science,Technology, Society * Accelerated speed of change * Ubiquity of personal computer * Internet and wireless technologies * Overlapping manufacturing and service * Compressed and transformed middleman trade * Prominence of small and medium enterprises * Globalization based on localization * Competition and cooperation * Life time learning and continued education * Participative management
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 52 The old vertical computer industry, circa 1980 The transformation of the computer industry FROM Only the paranoid Survive, by Andrew S. Grove, © 1996 by Andrew S. Grove Used by permission of Doubleday, a division of Random House, Inc. Source : Lee, Miller and Rowen, The Silicon Valley Edge, 2000 IBMDEC Spery Univac Wang sales and distribution application software operating systems computer chips
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 53 The transformation of the computer industry FROM Only the paranoid Survive, by Andrew S. Grove, © 1996 by Andrew S. Grove Used by permission of Doubleday, a division of Random House, Inc. Source : Lee, Miller and Rowen, The Silicon Valley Edge, 2000 The new horizontal computer industry, circa 1995 sales and distribution application software operating systems c omputer c hips
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 54 Concluding Remarks Establish a national innovation system with clear goals and responsibility for the players Nurture the roots of hi-tech industry Strengthen national institute as linkage Improve effectiveness of national institute by project selection, project management, and technology diffusion Enable SMEs to take lead in innovation and technology entrepreneurship Re-educate people for creativity & innovation
© Professor Otto C C Lin June 2003 c:ppt/02_ShanghaiOct 55 Thank You!
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