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Internationalization of R&D (IRD) Dr A R Kidwai Member of Parliament (Upper House) India.

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Presentation on theme: "Internationalization of R&D (IRD) Dr A R Kidwai Member of Parliament (Upper House) India."— Presentation transcript:

1 Internationalization of R&D (IRD) Dr A R Kidwai Member of Parliament (Upper House) India

2 INDIAS S& T POLICY ON INTERNATIONALIZATION OF R&D TO PROMOTE INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COOPERATION TOWARDS ACHIEVING THE GOALS OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND SECURITY AND MAKE IT A KEY ELEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. TO PROMOTE INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COOPERATION TOWARDS ACHIEVING THE GOALS OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND SECURITY AND MAKE IT A KEY ELEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT CAN BENEFIT GREATLY BY INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND COLLABORATION. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT CAN BENEFIT GREATLY BY INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND COLLABORATION.

3 INTERNATIONALIZATION TREND IN GLOBALISING R&D R&D SPENDING ABROAD BY US AND OTHER DEVELOPED COUNTRIES RISING FASTER THAN DOMESTIC SPENDING. IBM AND HEWLETT- PACKARD SPENDING 30% ON R&D OUTSIDE USA. R&D SPENDING ABROAD BY US AND OTHER DEVELOPED COUNTRIES RISING FASTER THAN DOMESTIC SPENDING. IBM AND HEWLETT- PACKARD SPENDING 30% ON R&D OUTSIDE USA. 100 FOREIGN COMPANIES OF JAPAN, GERMANY, UK, FRANCE AND SOUTH KOREA HAVE ABOUT 250 R&D FACILITIES IN USA. 100 FOREIGN COMPANIES OF JAPAN, GERMANY, UK, FRANCE AND SOUTH KOREA HAVE ABOUT 250 R&D FACILITIES IN USA. MORE THAN 100 R&D CENTERS SET UP IN INDIA BY MNCs. MORE THAN 100 R&D CENTERS SET UP IN INDIA BY MNCs.

4 Cont.// EMPHASIS NOW SHIFTING TO EXTERNAL TECHNOLOGY ACQUISITION TO COMPLEMENT INTERNAL EFFORTS. EMPHASIS NOW SHIFTING TO EXTERNAL TECHNOLOGY ACQUISITION TO COMPLEMENT INTERNAL EFFORTS. FOR SUCCESS IN GLOBAL MARKET THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IS TECHNICAL SKILLS TO PRODUCE SUPERIOR PRODUCTS AT COMPETITIVE RATES. FOR SUCCESS IN GLOBAL MARKET THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IS TECHNICAL SKILLS TO PRODUCE SUPERIOR PRODUCTS AT COMPETITIVE RATES. CONVENIENT MECHANISM FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER INSIDE AND ACROSS COUNTRIES. CONVENIENT MECHANISM FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER INSIDE AND ACROSS COUNTRIES. FREE AND FLEXIBLE MOVEMENT OF R&D PERSONNEL. FREE AND FLEXIBLE MOVEMENT OF R&D PERSONNEL.

5 Cont.// SUITABLE TAXATION AND RELATED ARRANGEMENTS IN RESPECT OF R&D. SUITABLE TAXATION AND RELATED ARRANGEMENTS IN RESPECT OF R&D. SUITABLE/APPROPRIATE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR FACILITATING COLLABORATIVE R&D AND DISPUTE SETTLEMENT. SUITABLE/APPROPRIATE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR FACILITATING COLLABORATIVE R&D AND DISPUTE SETTLEMENT.

6 INDIAS S&T AGREEMENT S&T AGREEMENTS WITH MORE THAN 50 COUNTRIES. S&T AGREEMENTS WITH MORE THAN 50 COUNTRIES. S&T AND IPR AGREEMENTS WITH FRANCE, EU AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION. S&T AND IPR AGREEMENTS WITH FRANCE, EU AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION. JOINT R&D PROGRAMS ON MATERIAL SCIENCE, CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. JOINT R&D PROGRAMS ON MATERIAL SCIENCE, CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. LASER AND ELECTRO-OPTICS LASER AND ELECTRO-OPTICS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL SCIENCES AND HUMAN GENOME RESEARH. MEDICAL SCIENCES AND HUMAN GENOME RESEARH. GEOPHYSICES GEOPHYSICES

7 WHY R&D ALLIANCE WITH INDIA ? US GIANT GE HAS A LARGE R&D SET UP IN INDIA. ITS CEO OBSERVED US GIANT GE HAS A LARGE R&D SET UP IN INDIA. ITS CEO OBSERVED INDIA IS A DEVELOPING COUNTRY, BUT IT IS DEVELOPED COUNTRY AS REGARDS ITS SUPERB SCIENTIFICINFRASTRUCTURE. IT IS FOR THIS RERASON THAT WE WANT TO SHIFT A PART OF GES DEVELOPMENT EFFORT TO INDIA. INDIA IS A DEVELOPING COUNTRY, BUT IT IS DEVELOPED COUNTRY AS REGARDS ITS SUPERB SCIENTIFICINFRASTRUCTURE. IT IS FOR THIS RERASON THAT WE WANT TO SHIFT A PART OF GES DEVELOPMENT EFFORT TO INDIA. LOW COST OF R&D. LOW COST OF R&D.

8 Cont.// INDIA IS THE SECOND LARGEST WORLD MARKET. TEHREFORE, THE COMPANIES THROUGH THEIR PRODUCTS SALE EARN MORE THAN WHAT IS SPENT BY THEM ON R&D AND THEIR PRODUCTION CENTER IN INIDA. INDIA IS THE SECOND LARGEST WORLD MARKET. TEHREFORE, THE COMPANIES THROUGH THEIR PRODUCTS SALE EARN MORE THAN WHAT IS SPENT BY THEM ON R&D AND THEIR PRODUCTION CENTER IN INIDA. INDIA ALLOW FOREIGN INVESTORS 100% FOREIGN OWNERSHIP AND FULL REPATRIATION OF CAPITAL AND PROFITS. INDIA ALLOW FOREIGN INVESTORS 100% FOREIGN OWNERSHIP AND FULL REPATRIATION OF CAPITAL AND PROFITS. INDIA HAS ALSO ACCEPTED R&D PROGRAMS UNDER THE CHAPTER ON TRADE IN SERVICES OF WTO. INDIA HAS ALSO ACCEPTED R&D PROGRAMS UNDER THE CHAPTER ON TRADE IN SERVICES OF WTO.

9 Cont.// INDIA HAS A LARGE POOL OF ENGLISH SPEAKING SKILLED MANPOWER. INDIA HAS A LARGE POOL OF ENGLISH SPEAKING SKILLED MANPOWER. INDIAS TELECOM INFRASTRUCTURE IS COMPARABLE TO THAT IN MANY COUNTRIES. INDIAS TELECOM INFRASTRUCTURE IS COMPARABLE TO THAT IN MANY COUNTRIES. INDIAS GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION ENABLES 24X7 SERVICE OFFERING. INDIAS GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION ENABLES 24X7 SERVICE OFFERING. GOOD REGULATORY FRAMEWORK. GOOD REGULATORY FRAMEWORK. MORE THAN 100 R&D CENTERS SET UP IN INDIA BY MNCs. MORE THAN 100 R&D CENTERS SET UP IN INDIA BY MNCs.

10 R&D ORGAINZATIONS ORGANIZATIONNUMBER STRENGTH 1. CSIR LABS AND RES.118SCIENTISTS 10, ICAR AGRI. UNIV.43SCIENTISTS 6,281 R&D INST ICMR R&D INST./CENT.26SCIENTISTS732

11 Cont.// 4. DBT R&D INST. 8SCIENTISTS DRDO R&D INST.52SCIENTISTS 6,500 6 DAE. R&D INST.17 SCIENTISTS 5, DOS ISROSCIENTISTS 10,000

12 INSTITUTIONS OF HIGER EDUCATION (2001) 1. HIGHER EDUCATION NUMBERSTRENGTH UNIVERSITIES 253FACULTY 411,628 COLLEGES 13,150 STUDENTS 8,399,433 SC STUDENTS 1,670,273 SC STUDENTS 1,670, ENGINEERING EDUCATION HIGHER EDUCATION &RES. HIGHER EDUCATION &RES. IITs 7FACULTY 2,500 STUDENTS23,000 ENGG.COLLEGESSTUDENTS 463,965 ENGG.COLLEGESSTUDENTS 463,965 DEGREE1347DEGREE262,882 DIPLOMA1228DIPLOMA201,093

13 Cont.// 3. MEDICAL EDUCATION MEDICAL COLLEGES 189STUDENTS 18,168 PG STUDENTS 3,181 PG DIPLOMA 1,316

14 INDIAN SOFTWARE INDUSTRY EXPORT EARNINGS IN US $ 12.7 BILLION EXPORT EARNINGS IN US $ 12.7 BILLION GROWTH RATE 26% DESPITE SLOWDOWN. EXPORTS TO 95 COUNTRIES. MAJOR COUNTRIES: EXPORTS TO 95 COUNTRIES. MAJOR COUNTRIES: USA, UK, GERMANY, FRANCE, JAPAN, CHINA HONKONG, TAIWAN AND SOUTH KOREA. THE CLIENTS INCLUDE MORE THAN 250 OF FORTUNE 500 COMPANIES. THE CLIENTS INCLUDE MORE THAN 250 OF FORTUNE 500 COMPANIES.

15 ESTIMATED EXPORTS FOR 2008 SERVICESUS $ IN BILLION __________________________________________ IT SERVICES23 SOFTWARE PRODUCTS8 IT-ENABLED SERVICES15 E-BUSINESS4 TOTAL50

16 Cont..// The above data shows how development of software industry in India has greatly contributed to promotion of specialized services in sectors of finance, banking solutions, security knowledge, management and customer relation services where expertise is sought from India by overseas countries. The above data shows how development of software industry in India has greatly contributed to promotion of specialized services in sectors of finance, banking solutions, security knowledge, management and customer relation services where expertise is sought from India by overseas countries.

17 SOTWARE ADVANTAGE INDIA LOW COST QUALITY MANPOWER LOW COST QUALITY MANPOWER HIGH QUALITY WORK DELIVERY. HIGH QUALITY WORK DELIVERY. WELL-DEVELOPED INFRASTRUCTURE SUPPORT TO AID CONNECTIVITY AND DATA TRANSFER. WELL-DEVELOPED INFRASTRUCTURE SUPPORT TO AID CONNECTIVITY AND DATA TRANSFER. GROWTH OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENABLED SERVICES (ITES) GROWTH OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENABLED SERVICES (ITES)

18 INDIAN PHARMA POLICY % FOREIGN INVESTMENT AUTOMATICALLY PERMITTED. 100% FOREIGN INVESTMENT AUTOMATICALLY PERMITTED. FOREIGN TECHNLOGY AGREEMENTS- AUTOMATIC APPROVAL THROUGH RESERVE BANK OF INDIA. FOREIGN TECHNLOGY AGREEMENTS- AUTOMATIC APPROVAL THROUGH RESERVE BANK OF INDIA. ABOLITION OF INDUSTRIAL LICENSING FOR ALL BULK DRUGS, INERMEDIARIES AND FORMULATIONS. ABOLITION OF INDUSTRIAL LICENSING FOR ALL BULK DRUGS, INERMEDIARIES AND FORMULATIONS.

19 Cont.// DRUG CONTROL RESTRICTED ONLY TO ESSENTIAL DRUGS TO DEAL WITH DISEASES LIKE TB, MALARIA AND DIABETES (INSULIN). DRUG CONTROL RESTRICTED ONLY TO ESSENTIAL DRUGS TO DEAL WITH DISEASES LIKE TB, MALARIA AND DIABETES (INSULIN). THE ONLY EXCEPTIONTHE DRUGS BASED ON DNA TECHNOLOGY HAVE TO BE CLEARED FOR POTENTIAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS. THE ONLY EXCEPTIONTHE DRUGS BASED ON DNA TECHNOLOGY HAVE TO BE CLEARED FOR POTENTIAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS.

20 EMERGING TRENDS FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) PERMITTED UP TO 100% THROUGH AUTOMATIC ROUTES. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) PERMITTED UP TO 100% THROUGH AUTOMATIC ROUTES. INDIA AGREED TO IMPLEMENT A PRODUCT PATENT REGIME WITH EFFECT FROM 1 ST JUANUARY 2005 AS PER WTO AGREEMENT. INDIA AGREED TO IMPLEMENT A PRODUCT PATENT REGIME WITH EFFECT FROM 1 ST JUANUARY 2005 AS PER WTO AGREEMENT. MNCs HAVE STARTED STRENGTHENING THEIR BUSINESS IN INDIA. THEY HAVE INCREASED STAKES IN EXISTING VENTURES OR SET UP NEW WHOLLY OWNED SUBSIDIARIES (e.g. PFIZER) MNCs HAVE STARTED STRENGTHENING THEIR BUSINESS IN INDIA. THEY HAVE INCREASED STAKES IN EXISTING VENTURES OR SET UP NEW WHOLLY OWNED SUBSIDIARIES (e.g. PFIZER)

21 Cont.// INCREASED FOCUS BY INDIAN PHARMA COMPANIES ON R&D. INCREASED FOCUS BY INDIAN PHARMA COMPANIES ON R&D. R&D CAN BE PERFORMED IN INDIA AT 15-20% OF THE COST IN EUROPE OR USA. ON DOLLAR BASIS THE COST ADVANTAGE IS ABOUT TIMES. R&D CAN BE PERFORMED IN INDIA AT 15-20% OF THE COST IN EUROPE OR USA. ON DOLLAR BASIS THE COST ADVANTAGE IS ABOUT TIMES. THE INDIAN COMPANIES ARE PURSUING CONTRACT MANUFACTURING FOR SUPPLY OF BULK DRUGS/INTERMEDIATES FOR MNCs. THE INDIAN COMPANIES ARE PURSUING CONTRACT MANUFACTURING FOR SUPPLY OF BULK DRUGS/INTERMEDIATES FOR MNCs.

22 Cont.// WITH LOW COST OF PRODUCTION, INDIA HAS BECOME A BASE FOR OUTSOURCING DRUGS. WITH LOW COST OF PRODUCTION, INDIA HAS BECOME A BASE FOR OUTSOURCING DRUGS. INDIAN COMPANIES SETTING UP SUBSIDARIES ABROAD OR SEEKING STRATEGIC ALLIANCES TO EXPLORE TREMENDOUS OPPURTUNITIES IN THE GENERICS MARKET EXPECTED IN THE NEXT 5-10 YEARS. INDIAN COMPANIES SETTING UP SUBSIDARIES ABROAD OR SEEKING STRATEGIC ALLIANCES TO EXPLORE TREMENDOUS OPPURTUNITIES IN THE GENERICS MARKET EXPECTED IN THE NEXT 5-10 YEARS.

23 INDIA--A GLOBAL HUB FOR TESTING AND DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRUGS PHARMA INDUSTRY TODAY TAKES $ MILLION AND YEARS TO INTRODUCE A NEW DRUG IN THE MARKET. PHARMA INDUSTRY TODAY TAKES $ MILLION AND YEARS TO INTRODUCE A NEW DRUG IN THE MARKET. A LARGE POOL OF WELL QUALIFIED AND SKILLED MANPOWER AVAILABLE AT LOW COST. A LARGE POOL OF WELL QUALIFIED AND SKILLED MANPOWER AVAILABLE AT LOW COST. AVAILABILITY OF LARGE NUMBER OF PATIENTS WITH ALL FORMS OF DISEASES. AVAILABILITY OF LARGE NUMBER OF PATIENTS WITH ALL FORMS OF DISEASES. ALSO PATIENTS AVAILABLE WHO HAVE NOT RECEIVED ANY OTHER MEDICAL TREATMENT. ALSO PATIENTS AVAILABLE WHO HAVE NOT RECEIVED ANY OTHER MEDICAL TREATMENT.

24 Cont.// CLINICAL TRIALS COST HALF OR ONE THIRD OF A DEVELOPED COUNTRY AND TAKES MUCH LESS TIME TO COMLETE. CLINICAL TRIALS COST HALF OR ONE THIRD OF A DEVELOPED COUNTRY AND TAKES MUCH LESS TIME TO COMLETE. REGULATIONS PERMIT TESTING OF NEW DRUGS WITH NECESSARY PROTECTIVE MEASURES. REGULATIONS PERMIT TESTING OF NEW DRUGS WITH NECESSARY PROTECTIVE MEASURES.

25 BIOTECHNOLOGY IN INDIA SKILLED MANPOWER SKILLED MANPOWER GRADUATES 3,000,000 POST-GRADUATES70,000 Ph.Ds1,500 CONVENTIONAL BIOTECH. COMPANIES110 CONVENTIONAL BIOTECH. COMPANIES110 MODERN BIOTECH. COMPANIES60 BIOTECH ASSOCIATED INSTITUTIONS BIOTECH ASSOCIATED INSTITUTIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTEIONS241 INDUSTRIES328

26 Cont.// CONSUMPTION OF BIOTECH. CONSUMPTION OF BIOTECH. PRODUCTS IN 1999US $ 1.79 BN. PROJECTED CONSUMPTION IN 2005US $ 3.72 BN. PROJECTED CONSUMPTION IN 2010US $ 4.27 BN.

27 MAIN ACTITIVITES AND POTENTIAL RICH BIODIVERSITY-INDIA HAS 7.76% OF TOTAL MAMMAL SPECIES 12.6% OF BIRD SPECIES, 11.7% OF FISH AND ROUGHLY 6.0% OF TOTAL FLOWERING PLANTS PRESENT IN THE WORLD WITH EXCELLENT AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS. THIS IS A GREAT RESOURCE FOR RESEARCH AND DEVLOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY. RICH BIODIVERSITY-INDIA HAS 7.76% OF TOTAL MAMMAL SPECIES 12.6% OF BIRD SPECIES, 11.7% OF FISH AND ROUGHLY 6.0% OF TOTAL FLOWERING PLANTS PRESENT IN THE WORLD WITH EXCELLENT AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS. THIS IS A GREAT RESOURCE FOR RESEARCH AND DEVLOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY. FOCUS– GENOMICS, RECOMBINANT DNA, TRANSGENICS. STEM CELL RESEARCH AND NEW DRUGS DEVELOPMENT. FOCUS– GENOMICS, RECOMBINANT DNA, TRANSGENICS. STEM CELL RESEARCH AND NEW DRUGS DEVELOPMENT.

28 Cont.// VACCINEMARKET AROUND US $ 100 Mn. VACCINEMARKET AROUND US $ 100 Mn.VALUED GROWTH20% RATE DIAGNOSTICSMARKET DEMAND US $ 50 Mn. DIAGNOSTICSMARKET DEMAND US $ 50 Mn. DEMAND GROWING RAPIDLY ANIMAL HEALTHBIOTECHNOLOGY MARKET ANIMAL HEALTHBIOTECHNOLOGY MARKET RAPIDLY GROWING ENZYMES70% REQUIREMENT IMPORTED ENZYMES70% REQUIREMENT IMPORTED MARKET GROWING WITH INCREASING AWARENESS

29 Cont.// PHARMATODAY 40-45% OF ALL DRUG ORIGINATE PHARMATODAY 40-45% OF ALL DRUG ORIGINATE INDUSTRYIN BIO-TECHNOLOGY BUT IN THE NEXT DECADES BIOTECHNOLOGY WILL HAVE A MUCH GREATER ROLE ON THE PROD- UCTION OF DRUGS AND PHARMACUET- CALS. FERMENTATIONMODEST FERMENTATAION INDUSTRY INDUSTRY MAINLY BREWERIE, FERMENTATIONMODEST FERMENTATAION INDUSTRY INDUSTRY MAINLY BREWERIE, ANTIBIOTICS AND CHEMICALS BUT GREAT POTENTIAL IN THE AREAS OF –FOOD PROCESING, PHARMA AND CHEMICALS.

30 Cont.// FOOD INDIA IS THE LARGEST PRODUCER FOOD INDIA IS THE LARGEST PRODUCER PROCESSINGOF MILK AND SECOND LARGEST INDUSTRYPROCUCER OF FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND FOODGRAINS. BUT PROCESSING IS LIMITED TO ONLY 2% OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES AND 15% MILK. THUS, TREMENDOUS SCOPE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESSING OF MILK FRUITS &VEGETABLES, MEAT, FISH AND FOODGRAINS

31 Cont.// AGRI-BIOTECH.-GENETICALLY ENGINEERED AGRI-BIOTECH.-GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SEEDS AND PLANTS HAVE A MARKET OF US $ 250 Mn.. -DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSGENICS FOR QUALITY AND CHARACTERS. -DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSGENICS WITH RESISTANCE TO DROUGHT AND OTHER ABIOTIC STRESSES. -TISSUE CULTURE FOR PROPAGATION OF PLANTS. -DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICINAL AND OTHER AROMATIC PLANTS.

32 ADVANTAGE INDIA NO INDUSTRIAL LICENCE REQUIRED FOR FOODS EXCEPT ALCHOHLIC PRODUCTS. NO INDUSTRIAL LICENCE REQUIRED FOR FOODS EXCEPT ALCHOHLIC PRODUCTS. NATIONAL POLICY TO INCREASE FOOD PROCESSING FROM PRESENT 2% TO 10% BY NATIONAL POLICY TO INCREASE FOOD PROCESSING FROM PRESENT 2% TO 10% BY INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES: INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES: UPTO 51% FOREIGN EQUITYAUTOMATIC APPROVAL. UPTO 100% EQUITY ALLOWED ON APPROVAL UNDER FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) SCHEME EXCEPT MALTED FOOD, ALCHOHOLIC BEVERAGES. UPTO 100% EQUITY ALLOWED ON APPROVAL UNDER FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) SCHEME EXCEPT MALTED FOOD, ALCHOHOLIC BEVERAGES. CUSTOM DUTIES SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCED ON PLANT AND EQUIPMENT, RAW MATERIALS AND INTERMEDIARIES. CUSTOM DUTIES SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCED ON PLANT AND EQUIPMENT, RAW MATERIALS AND INTERMEDIARIES.

33 CHEMICALS PESICIDES AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES INDIA IS SELF-SUFFICIENT IN MEETING LOCAL DEMANDS. INDIA IS SELF-SUFFICIENT IN MEETING LOCAL DEMANDS. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IS HIGHLY HETEROGENIOUS CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IS HIGHLY HETEROGENIOUS COVERING SECTORS LIKE ORGAINIC, INORGANIC CHEMICALS, DYESTUFF, PAINTS, PESTICIDES, ETC. THE PESTICIDE INDUSTRY HAS DEVELOPED SUBSTANTIALLY CONTRIBUTING TOWARDS AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH. THE PESTICIDE INDUSTRY HAS DEVELOPED SUBSTANTIALLY CONTRIBUTING TOWARDS AGRICULTURE AND HEALTH.

34 PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY RAPID STRIDES IN TERMS OF PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION (FIGS IN KT) CATEGORY (Actual)(Actual)(Actual) Prod. Cons.Prod Cons Prod. ________________________________________________ SYNTHETIC FIBRE POLYMER SYNTHETIC RUBBER SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS

35 EXPORT OF CHEMICALS STEADY GROWTH IN EXPORTS OF CHEMICALS DURING THE LAST THREE YEARS (US $ IN MILLIONS) ________________________________________________________ DYES AND DYE INTERMEDIATES BASIC ORGANICS & INORGANICS CHEMICALS INCLUDING AGROCHEMICALS


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