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TwoEA-M seminar, Research Centre for Strategic Environmental Assessment, University of Nankai, Tianjin, China 20-21 March 2010 A review of EA-related taught.

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Presentation on theme: "TwoEA-M seminar, Research Centre for Strategic Environmental Assessment, University of Nankai, Tianjin, China 20-21 March 2010 A review of EA-related taught."— Presentation transcript:

1 TwoEA-M seminar, Research Centre for Strategic Environmental Assessment, University of Nankai, Tianjin, China 20-21 March 2010 A review of EA-related taught Masters programmes in Scottish universities, emphasising the role of strategic environmental assessment Tony Jackson University of Dundee, Scotland, UK

2 Scope of presentation data from recent surveys on UK & Scottish taught Masters programmes data on UK EA-related taught Masters data on UK environmental practitioners impact of Scottish EA legislation on Scottish EA educational trends Scottish EA-Masters in relation to SEA and carbon reduction training SWOT analysis of Scottish EA-Masters

3 UK Masters programmes in general first major survey of UK Masters programmes undertaken in 2009 by UK Higher Education Academy (14,421 responses) indicated that: –students mainly took such programmes for professional qualifications, career enhancement and personal interest –they had very positive views about their teaching and learning experience and about their staff –they rated most highly the development of their research and transferable skills, along with personal confidence about independent learning

4 Desire for professional qualification, career enhancement and personal interest are main motivations for those taking UK Universities Masters programmes

5 Students on UK Masters programmes had very positive views about teaching & learning and about the staff

6 Students rated UK Masters programmes most highly for development of research & transferable skills, and for developing confidence about independent learning

7 Scottish Masters programmes in general latest Scottish Government statistics indicate total numbers on Scottish Masters programmes rose 70% from 1999-00 to 19,510 in 2007-08 students from outside EU account for 68% of overall rise in Scottish post-graduate qualifications over this period two-thirds of holders of Scottish post-graduate qualifications go into professional occupations unemployment levels for holders of Scottish post-graduate qualifications remain very low despite the recession (less than 3%)

8 The number of students graduating from Scottish universities with taught Masters degrees since 1999-00 has risen by 70%

9 Students from outside the European Union accounted for 68% of the increase in Scottish Universities post-graduate qualifications since 1999-00

10 Two-thirds of holders of Scottish Universities post-graduate qualifications go into professions

11 Unemployment levels for holders of Scottish Universities post-graduate qualifications remain low despite global recession

12 IEMA survey of UK EA Programmes Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (IEMA) is leading UK EA professional body (highest professional status is Chartered Environmentalist) IEMA databases indicate: –taught Masters programmes made up 25% of all IEMA-recognised UK courses in 2008 (442 out of 1747 courses) –two-thirds of IEMA-recognised Masters programmes are in environmental sciences, assessment & management, and engineering & technology

13 Masters programmes made up 25% of all IEMA professionally recognised UK courses in 2008

14 Two-thirds of IEMA recognised UK Masters are in environmental sciences, environmental assessment & management, and engineering & technology

15 Information on UK IEMA members 41% of IEMA members surveyed in 2007 hold Masters degree as highest qualification (1,131 out of 2,759) IEMA members cover many areas of environmental responsibility in their work, the most being environmental management systems, waste, environmental legislation

16 41% of IEMA members hold a Masters degree as their highest qualification

17 Main work areas of IEMA members cover environmental management systems, waste & environmental legislation

18 Nature of EA Masters teaching reflects different conceptions of role of EA some academic approaches advocate EA purely as a scientific, technocratic and instrumental process, intended simply to implement policy-decisions on how to protect the environment others regard EA in addition as a communicative, participatory and substantive tool, designed to explore decision-making processes and to examine their validity and underlying value-judgements differences in the interpretation of the role of EA are particularly apparent in strategic environmental assessment (SEA), which forms a central part of teaching in leading Scottish Universities professionally-accredited EA Masters programmes

19 Trends influencing Scottish EA-Masters programmes Environmental Assessment (Scotland) Act 2005 sets most demanding SEA requirements in EU covers all Scottish public sector policies, plans & programmes (PPPs), whether voluntary or statutory without properly-executed SEAs, Scottish public sector PPPs cannot be implemented and have no legal effect legislation intended by Scottish Ministers to make Scotland a world leader in SEA

20 SEA in Scottish public sector any Scottish public sector PPP that may have significant environmental effects (both positive & negative) is now subject to SEA prior to adoption & implementation, which entails: –undertaking an assessment evaluating the significant effects on the environment –publishing this information in an Environmental Report (ER) and consulting the public on both the ER and the PPP –taking account of the ER and of the views expressed during the consultation prior to adopting the plan –putting into place mitigation actions to prevent, reduce or offset adverse effects –monitoring the effects of the PPP on the environment

21 SectorPPP carried over from previous year PPP started in 2008 Total PPPs active in 2008 % Agriculture Forestry Fisheries Energy Industry Transport Waste Management Water Management Telecommunications Tourism Planning & land use Miscellaneous 1 14 0 4 2 0 32 24 12 1 0 1 2 0 5 7 0 16 62 17 2 14 1 2 0 9 2 0 48 86 29 1.0 6.9 0.5 1.0 0.0 4.5 1.0 0.0 23.7 42.5 14.4 Total91111202100.0 PPPs subject to Scottish SEA 2008 (Source: SEA Unit Scottish Government)

22 National level PPPsLocal & regional level PPPs Second National Planning Framework Scottish Planning Policy Scottish Forestry Strategy EU Structural Funds Programmes Rural Development Programme National Transport Strategy Historic Environment Programmes Radioactive Waste Plan Scottish Climate Change Legislation Scotlands Railways Plan Marine Renewables Plan Aquaculture Strategy Scottish Soils Framework Strategic Transport Projects Review Development plans Land Use Master Plans and Development Briefs Regional Transport Strategies Renewable Energy Strategies Local Biodiversity Action Plans Housing Strategies Access Strategies Forestry Strategies Drainage Plans Planning Frameworks Regeneration Strategies Local Transport Strategies Sustainable Development Strategies Economic Development Operating Plans Area Waste Plans Core Path Plans Regional Park Plans National Park Plans Range of Scottish PPPs subject to SEA

23 Examples of Scottish Universities Masters programmes in EA and EMS three Scottish examples demonstrating EA programmes in engineering, in environmental sciences, and in spatial planning: –University of Strathclyde (Glasgow) MSc in Environmental Studies (12 months Faculty of Engineering programme delivered through David Livingstone Centre for Sustainability) –University of St. Andrews MSc in Sustainable Development (12 months School of Geography and Geosciences) –University of Dundee MSc in Spatial Planning with Environmental Assessment (12 months School of Social and Environmental Sciences planning-based programme)

24 University of Strathclyde MSc in Environmental Studies (180 credits) Compulsory modules (12 credits each) Electives (10-12 credits each = 72 in total) Principles of sustainable development Applied strategic environmental assessment Research methods and participatory approaches International environmental governance Environmental Impact Assessment Ecology, biodiversity & sustainability Biotechnology & the environment Pollution & rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems Coastal processes & management UK & EU environmental law Environmental economics Environmental education Environmental management systems Energy resources & policy Environmental modelling Water & environmental management Solid waste issues Business strategy & the environment Air pollution control Atmospheric pollution impact assessment Pollution control policy Spatial query & analysis using GIS Transport, development & sustainability Eligible for IEMA accreditationResearch project (60 credits)

25 University of St. Andrews MSc in Sustainable Development (180 credits) Core modules (70 credits total) Electives (10-20 credits = 50 in total) either: Introduction to SD issues or: Review of SD issues (both 20 credits) Knowledge & SD (30 credits) Master classes in SD (20 credits) Quantitative methods in social science Enterprise, creativity and innovation GIS for social research GIS for environmental management Advanced GIS Environmental change Data capture & analysis: lab methods Basic concepts in ecology & evolution Plant responses to their environment Marine mammal biology Anthropology, indigenous peoples & resource management Qualitative methods in social science Management as if the earth mattered Responsibility, sustainability & accountability in organisations Global & local issues of the environment Environmental genomics Environmental microbiology & toxicology Conservation & management of marine mammals Current issues in biologging Environmental management & policy Research project (60 credits)

26 University of Dundee, Scotland, MSc in Spatial Planning with Environmental Assessment (180 credits) Core modules (15 credits each)Elective specialist module (30 credits) Sustainable environments Urban economics Planning theory Place design Statutory planning Statutory systems Development project management Planning knowledge management Environmental assessment (covering EIA and SEA) Accredited by Royal Town Planning Institute Eligible for IEMA accreditation Research project (30 credits)

27 Scottish EA Masters training for specific professional skills: carbon budgeting Scottish Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 has adopted target of 50% of Scottish energy from renewables by 2020 greenhouse gas reduction targets to be delivered via mandatory carbon reduction commitment placed on all large non-energy intensive businesses & Scottish public sector organisations objective to reduce emissions by 0.5 million tonnes of carbon per year by 2015, rising to 1.2 million tonnes per year by 2020 5,000 Scottish organisations with energy consumption of 6 MW or more per year covered SEA crucial in promoting a low carbon development process, in combination with new software for measuring carbon footprints

28 Local Footprint initiative Scottish public bodies must now calculate their carbon allowance responsibility, purchase requisite allowances, monitor & report annual energy consumption, & keep evidence pack which involves an audit trail carbon accounting software being developed to help them meet these statutory obligations termed Local Footprints Project, this is joint venture by WWF Scotland & the Sustainable Scotland Network, with funding & support from Eco-Schools Scotland, the Improvement Service, the Scottish Government & Scottish Power University of Dundee MSc in Spatial Planning with Environmental Assessment provides training in applying this technique for SEA of development plans

29 Carbon modelling of development plans project uses Stockholm Environment Institute Resources and Energy Appraisal Programme (REAP) inter-active software package, designed to model their current & projected local activities for their carbon (and ecological) footprints input data on relevant scenarios (next slide) decision on new housing or transport or energy developments then modelled through REAP software to identify lowest carbon footprint (second slide)

30 Housing/Transport Calculator Projections translated into REAP variables Enter REAP variables into Scenario editor Scenario Development – Data Input

31 Councils developing scenarios

32 SWOT analysis of Scottish EA/EMS Masters programmes based on personal involvement in all three Scottish EA-related Masters programmes outlined, including interviews with students taking these programmes: –around half 20-30 annual intake of each programme consists of overseas students from non-EU countries –two programmes (Dundee & Strathclyde) offer direct entry into professional careers, through RTPI and IEMA qualifications –all three subject to regular external academic programme review, with Dundee & Strathclyde also subject to professional review

33 SWOT analysis of Scottish EA/EMS Masters programmes strengths: –often professionally-accredited, with graduates quickly gaining employment in appropriate careers –graduates meet need for new skills in EIA & SEA to deliver climate change targets through application of quantitative carbon-budgeting techniques –dovetailing of university training at Masters level with Scottish Government initiatives in training public sector staff to undertake new legislative responsibilities in SD, SEA, EIA and carbon budgeting

34 SWOT analysis of Scottish EA/EMS Masters programmes weaknesses: –limited exposure to environmental law & auditing –limited training in policy-formulation, project appraisal and programme management skills –emphasis on electives in some programmes allows possibility of degree pathways which do not fully cover professional EA/EMS requirements, necessitating further subsequent on-the-job training –limited on-site experience during programme: little opportunity for placements, so exposure to actual practice mainly from guest speakers and research project

35 SWOT analysis of Scottish EA/EMS Masters programmes opportunities: –rapidly increasing global demand for professionals with EA/EMS skills, demonstrated by growth of international bodies such as International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) –career in EA/EMS offers flexible career opportunities for disseminating professional expertise across many sectors and many countries because of extensive international sharing of core skills and techniques, reflected in common components in university Masters EA/EMS syllabi

36 SWOP analysis of Scottish EA/EMS Masters programmes threats: –potential divergence between: technical/instrumental approaches to EA/EMS covered by science- & engineering-based Masters programmes, which often assume such skills are simply designed to facilitate delivery of policy decisions; and deliberative/substantive approaches in social science- & management-based Masters programmes, which see EA/EMS also as means of exploring and questioning values on which decisions are made, helping promote better policy formulation for sustainable development –need to ensure that both instrumental and substantive aspects of EA/EMS are supported

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