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Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia

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Presentation on theme: "Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia"— Presentation transcript:

1 Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia
Date submitted to deafed.net – April 4, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.

2 Modes of Communication
Orientation to Deaf Education Chapter 5 Nancy A. Scheetz

3 Communication: “a process in which two entities enter into an exchange of information to transmit thoughts, messages, or ideas” Scheetz

4 Language The foundation for communication.
“a system comprised of relatively arbitrary symbols and grammatical symbols that can be modified or enhanced by members of the community” (Baker & Cokely, 1980)

5 Language Development and Acquisition
Hearing individuals benefit from information given to them from the environment via the auditory channel Deaf and Hard of Hearing individuals must use other means of exchanging information in order to provide a base for language development

6 Controversy Oralists and manualists continue to debate over the mode of communication that results in the best exchange of information for the deaf and hard of hearing From this debate, many new methods of communication were founded

7 Sign Systems: History, Structure, and Role in the Deaf Community
First communication through sign in A.D. 530 Benedictine monks formed a sign system to communicate daily needs while keeping a vow of silence Each country developed a sign system Signs were shared and systems changed

8 History of ASL Created by deaf individuals in the United States
ASL = American Sign Language or Ameslan Created by deaf individuals in the United States Now it is used by 250,000 to 500,000 Americans of varying ages 60% of ASL signs originated from French sign language Accounts of sign communication is recorded as early as mid-1700’s

9 Martha’s Vineyard A population of deaf individuals emigrated from England’s Kentish region and settled in Martha’s Vineyard between the late 1600’s and the early 1700’s

10 Martha’s Vineyard This population communicated using Old Kentish Sign Language This sign language is credited to have influenced ASL development

11 Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet
Graduate of Yale University – ministerial program Interested in communicating with his friend’s deaf daughter, Alice Cogswell Wanted to find methods of using written English as part of her communication

12 The Mission Mr. Cogswell sent Gallaudet to Europe to learn more about deaf education Europe was reluctant to share T.H. Gallaudet went to Paris The French were more willing to share their instructional methods Gallaudet mastered the sign language from Laurent Clerc, a deaf instructor, who returned to Connecticut with Gallaudet

13 The First School for the Deaf

14 The First School for the Deaf
April 15, 1817 Institute for Deaf Mutes later named the American Asylum at Hartford for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb Founded by Clerc and Gallaudet Eighty-nine enrolled students at that time Still in operation today Renamed the American School for the Deaf

15 The Communication Methods
American Sign Language (ASL) Manually Coded English Systems Contact Signing (CS) Rochester Method Total Communication Oral Communication Cued Speech

16 ASL: It’s Own Language Visual/manual communication system with it’s own syntax and vocabulary Signs in conjunction with facial expression and body language convey concepts Facial and bodily cues differ from nonverbal cues used with speech An interactive language between the signer and the receiver

17 Speech Production vs ASL
Speech aspects that communicate the speaker’s intention include consonantal and vocalic segments that are blended together to form the message ASL also has segmental distinctions that are blended to form signs that are then organized to convey the signer’s intention

18 Three Components of a Sign
Research conducted by William Stokoe identified three independent part of a sign Handshape or dez (designator) how the fingers are extended Location or tab (tabulation) where on the body or in space the sign is made Movement or sig (signation) how the hand or hands move – up, down, circular, etc. (Baker & Battison, 1980)

19 William C. Stokoe

20 Categorizing Signs 19 basic handshapes 12 basic locations
24 basic movements These basics were given written symbols Signs can be identified by dez, tab, and sig as spoken words are identified by phonemes By using the symbols, ASL can be transcribed, although it cannot be read the same way written English can be read

21 Comparing Signs to Speech
Morphological Process Referential Indexing Reciprocity Grammatical Number Manner and Degree Derivational Processes

22 The Morphological Process
“refers to studying how a word or a sign is changed in order to express different meanings” Scheetz Referential Indexing Reciprocity Grammatical Number Distributional Aspects Temporal Aspect Focus

23 Referential Indexing Using space to identify important words
“Directional Signing” Moving the sign closer to the target point or toward the target point Ex: Signing “That book”

24 Reciprocity Signs that involve the action between two or more people
Signs that show action Use both hands in simultaneous movement Ex: Signing “We looked at each other”

25 Grammatical Number Modifications to the verb that show the action is occurring for more than one person Ex: Signing “Give to both of them.”Dual Inflection “Give to those three people” Trial Form “Give to all of them” Multiple Inflection

26 Distributional Aspects
Exhaustive Inflection Actions that are done to each person in a group When an action is viewed as one event Allocative Determinate Inflection Actions that are done to specific people at certain times Allocative Indeterminate Inflection Actions that are done to unspecified people at different times

27 Temporal Aspect and Focus
Signs that can be expressed with different intensity simply by the intensity with which it is signed The sign “look at” can mean the following: To stare To gaze To look at for a long time To look at again and again

28 Manner and Degree The direction of a sign or the way a sign is expressed can show the way in which it was done (easily, with difficulty) or how it was done (to what degree) Signs change their dynamic qualities: rate, tension, evenness, duration, and manner of movement

29 Derivational Processes
Parts of speech can be changed to different parts of speech The sign for “type” can be a verb, but the same sign can be a noun “keyboard” The sign for “sit” can be altered to “chair” by the number of times is is repeated

30 Nonmanual Aspects of ASL
Movements of the eyes, face, head position, and body differentiate sentence types from each other These movements can be used alone or in a series to communicate the type of sentence Questions, negated statements, asserted statements, negated questions have different nonmanual cues

31 Formation of Plurals Using the quantifier MANY
Changing the number of hands (or fingers) used to form the sign Continuing the sign as the arm or hand moves across the signer’s space

32 Tense Indicators ASL does not use endings of signs to show the verb tense as English Sign does The tense of the verb is shown in the beginning of the conversation and is not referred to again until it changes If the tense is not shown at the onset of conversation, one can assume the action is taking place in the present tense.

33 The “Time-line” Present tense – signs are made in the signing space directly in front of the signer Near future – signs are made in the signing space just beyond the signer Distant future – signs are made in the extended signing space beyond the signer Past tense – signs are made in the direction behind the signer Distant past – beyond the shoulder

34 Manually Coded English Systems
Signed English Seeing Essential English (SEE I) Linguistics of Visual English (L.O.V.E.) Signing Exact English (SEE II)

35 Signed English Developed so that an individual could speak English and sign at the same time Comprised of Sign words And 14 sign markers Sign Markers show change in verb form, number, possession, and other changes in words parallel to English word modifications

36 Signing Essential English (SEE I)
Developed in the 1960’s David Anthony (a deaf individual) Every English word has a sign Incorporated signs for parts of words A deaf child could see the English language as a hearing child can hear the English language

37 Linguistics of Visual English (L.O.V.E.)
Developed by Dennis Wampler in 1972 Signs are represented in the symbols developed by Stokoe, not by pictures A word is signed the same way no matter what – it will not differ because of content or change in concept Not widely used today

38 Signing Exact English (SEE II)
Three group members working with David Anthony to develop SEE I broke off to develop a system that would “ease the basic acquisition of English by deaf children.” Initialized sign were found by this sign system

39 Contact Signing (CS) A communication system that can be used between a deaf individual fluent in ASL and a hearing individual Referred to as Pidgin Not a native language Influences from the native language of the individual is apparent through vocabulary and grammar Becomes the bridge or middle ground

40 Contact Signing (CS) Educational professionals often use pidgin with more of an English base Others who acquired the language outside of the educational setting may use pidgin with an ASL base

41 Rochester Method Developed in 1919 by Zenus F. Westervelt, Superintendent of the Rochester School for the Deaf Based on fingerspelling (dactylology) 26 handshapes that represent 26 letters of the alphabet No separate syntax, phonology, morphology, or semantics Mirrors the the language it is representing

42 Total Communication Term became used in the 1960’s during the development of new sign systems Proposed by Roy Holcomb, “The Father of Total Communication” First used by the Maryland School for the Deaf By 1976 a majority of schools for the deaf incorporated TC for instructional purposes

43 Total Communication Defined in 1976
“Total Communication is a philosophy requiring the incorporation of appropriate aural, manual, and oral modes of communication in order to insure effective communication with and among hearing impaired persons” Gannon, 1981, p.369

44 Oral Communication Alexander Graham Bell, “The Father of Oral Communication” Influenced the establishment of early oral schools in America

45 Oral Communication Speech skills and speech-reading skills were incorporated into instruction Restricted the use of manual languages Emphasis was on the mastery of communicating with hearing individuals Some schools adopted a “combined approach” where emphasis on sign was still limited, but utilized to some degree

46 Cued Speech Developed by R. Orin Cornett
Used to distinguish between sounds that appear the same on the lips when spoken B, P, M / F, V / etc. 8 configurations and 4 positions of one hand Hand positions and configurations are used as speech occurs Each syllable is visual This distinguishes the difference between b,p,m or f,v, etc.

47 How Cued Speech Works 36 cues exist for the 44 phonemes (or sounds) used in English To show vowel-consonant blends (such as or) the configurations can be combined at the location of the vowel Some handshapes are similar to ASL, but serve a different purpose Cued Speech is not a language, but a tool to use with the English language to enhance speech-reading skills

48 Written Forms of Communication
The Barry Five Slate System Wing’s Symbols Straight Language System – The Fitzgerald Key

49 The Barry Five Slate System
Miss Katherine B. Barry, teacher at the Colorado School for the Deaf in 1893 5 columns consisting of basic parts of speech, later adding a 6th column for adverbial elements that may shift position in the sentence Adopted by many schools in the United States

50 Wing’s Symbols Mid-1870’s – George Wing, hearing impaired teacher at the Minnesota School for the Deaf 1884 titled his system “Function Symbols” later referred to as “Wing Symbols” Philosophy – sentence essentials could be taught and students could learn how the order could vary Continued to be used today in some schools for the deaf

51 Straight Language System – the Fitzgerald Key
In 1926 Edith Fitzgerald, a deaf instructor of English wrote Straight Language for the Deaf Utilized 6 key words Utilized 8 symbols for the parts of speech Became very widely used from 1927 through the early 1970’s in oral and manual schools

52 Three Premises of the Fitzgerald Key
Teacher must be aware of the child’s mental picture so that the student may be provided with a clear picture Student must be provided with an alternate channel of expression aside from hearing Student cannot be taught through English

53 Modes of Communication
American Sign Language (ASL) Manually Coded English Systems Contact Signing (CS) Rochester Method Total Communication Oral Communication Cued Speech


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