5Definition-Based Approach Two Forms1st- Students are asked to look up definitions of a list of words in the dictionary, copy them, and write a sentence for each word.2nd- The teacher briefly discusses the meaning of new words in an upcoming reading selection.-Often followed by worksheets in which words and definitions are manipulated through crossword puzzles, columns to be matched by drawing a line from the word to its definition, or cloze procedures.-For D/HH students, opportunities to discuss word meanings provide a milieu for language development not only in the area of vocabulary but also in the areas of conversation and pragmatics.- HOWEVER…looking up the words and forming sentences can become tedious. Also, dictionary definitions are often written in complicated sentence structures that D/HH children have difficulty understanding.
6Definition Related Technologies Many software programs have dictionaries and other reference tools built into themThere are a variety of CD-based dictionaries including picture dictionaries and sign language dictionariesDictionary and ESL websites are another optionCloze procedure (ex. ClozePro by Crick Software) and other vocabulary software programs (ex. Vocabulary Companion by VISIONS Inc.) can be used to present words in different contextsThere are many programs and websites that allow teachers to create materials using their own word lists related to their curriculumESL - English as a Second Language, ELL English Language Learners - there are many websites with wonderful learning activities for students to develop English vocabulary
9Context-Based Approach Youngsters ultimately need to encounter a word in context to develop a full sense of its meaning (Gipe, 1980; Gipe & Arnold, 1979).Guessing vocabulary from context is the most frequent way to discover the meaning of new words.
10Context-Based Approach Students need to be taught to:Look before, at, and after the word.Connect what they know to what the author has written.Predict a possible meaning.Resolve or re-do. Decide if they know enough, should try again, or consult an expert or reference.Blachowicz & Fisher (1996)
11Context-Based Strategy Technologies There are many commercially available educational software programs that focus on introducing vocabulary within passages (ex. Vocabulary Development by Optimum Resources)Many have pre-test to determine the appropriate level for studentsMany track student work done so teachers can print reports and keep data on progressCloze Pro is a program that allows teachers to create Cloze activitiesCloze Pro is by Crick Software
15Concept-Based Approach New Knowledge Is Gained…from finding new relationships in old knowledge andfrom relating new information to old knowledge.(Schirmer, 2000)
16Integration Methods Semantic Maps provide a basis for understanding organize prior knowledge into formal relationsprovide a basis for understanding
17Semantic Mapping Prereading Activity Postreading Activity used to activate prior knowledgeused to introduce key vocabulary wordsPostreading Activityadd words, categories, andnew concepts to the originalmaps to provide understanding
18Semantic MappingVocabulary development activities should consider how a word fits into a student's semantic repertoire rather than how it is used in a particular context. Semantically based activities relate the meaning to the child’s world.
19Semantic MappingThe teacher writes a word that represents the key concept.The students are asked to think of words that relate to the key word.These words are grouped around the key word in categories.The teacher then presents new words and encourages a discussion about where these words might fit into the map.(Duffelmeyer & Banwart, 1993; Heimlich & Pittelman, 1986; Johnson, Pittelman, &Heimlich, 1986)Excellent for D/HH1.) provides a visual display of the relationships between concepts in a key word.2.) It involves intense discussion, which in turn encourages active thinking.
21Concept-Based Strategy Technologies There are a variety of semantic mapping software programs, for example InspirationThe maps can be color-coded, shape-coded, and images can be added to further support studentsVisual Thesaurus is a web-based “program” that links related words to each other as a semantic mapStudents can click on related words to more clearly understand meaning and relationships among concepts
23Hands on Activity Your turn... (Suggestion: Have students create a semantic map here…)Your turn...
24Word Maps A vocabulary word map is a visual organizer engages students with new termshelps students to think about new terms or concepts in several ways
25Antonyms can go here too. The new term goes in the middle of the map. Students fill in the rest of the map with a definition, synonyms, antonyms, and a picture to help illustrate the new concept.source:
26We must enhance our students’ knowledge of: Words with Multiple MeaningsFigurative LanguageIdiomatic Meaning of WordsDenotation/Connotation
27Multiple Meaning Video Clip Word of the Day clip
28Multiple Meanings Run We will have to run to catch the plane. Does the pepper make your nose run?Don’t let the water run.The river will run into the ocean.I have a run in my hose.She will run for class president.How long will the school play run?He will run his father’s business.We run everyday.
29Multiple Meanings Made I made my bed. I made money. My brother made me do that.The rain made the grass green.I made a present for you.
30Multiple Meanings Interactive Websites (Jeopardy)Develop presentations (ex. PowerPoint) that have multiple meaning words in contextStudents can sign the words appropriately based on context or draw illustrations to demonstrate the meaning
31Figurative Language…those forms of language that result in a non-literal meaning. (Easterbrooks & Baker, 2002)MetaphorsMy brain is a sieve.PersonificationMr. Toothbrush wants you to tickle him.Idiomatic expressionsChip off the old block.SimilesShe looks like an angel.
32Idiomatic Meanings Cut it out - Piece of cake - Hit the hay An idiom is an expression whose meaning is not compositional- that is, whose meaning does not follow from the meaning of the individual words of which it is composed (Google)Interactive Website:Cut it out- Piece of cake- Hit the hay- Bent out of shape- Kick the bucket
33Denotation/Connotation Denotation (Concrete)- Literal meaning of the word… “dictionary definition.”Connotation (Abstract)- Associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings.Denotative:“any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptiles having a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical settings.”Connotative:meanings of the word snake could include evil or danger.Snake
34The Fairview Learning Program It provides direct access to ASL and opens a window for hearing and deaf people to begin to think and sign bilingually. (Fairview Learning Network)It is currently being used in 42 states
35The Fairview Learning Program The Bridge ListsEnglish phrases requiring ASL translation for understanding.‘Down the street’ requires multiple sign concepts, depending on the context.“A ball was hit down the street”“A man walked down the street.”
36The Fairview Learning Program The Bridging Processallows the conceptual signing of phrases, rather than the word for word signing required by most sign codes.“Put out the fire.”Word by word, one is literally signing, “Pick up the fire and put it outside.”Bridging provides the visual translation of the phase’s true meaning, “Extinguish the fire.”(Fairview Learning Network)
37The Fairview Learning Program Dolch words:commonly used wordsfound in most basal readersDeaf children and hearing children do not learn Dolch words in the same wayDeaf childrenmust see the different meanings in context in order to acquire them.Adapted Dolch WordsMost hearing children acquire thevarious meanings effortlesslythrough their sense of hearing.(Fairview Learning Network)
38Helpful Tips for Vocabulary Development: Promote Natural Growth in Meaning VocabularyPromote Lifelong Vocabulary Learning through Indirect Vocabulary InstructionPromote Learning of Specific Words through Direct Vocabulary Instruction(Schirmer, 2000)Promote growth-
39Additional Technologies to Assist with Vocabulary Development Image-to-Text programs can be used to develop vocabulary study cards or learning activities (ex. Picture It, Signing Exact English Interactive, etc.)Image-to-Text programs can be used to make “rebus” passages with images matched with text (ex. The above and Clicker 5, Writing with Symbols)Many programs have settings for images to be shown or not so phrases rather than individual words can have a picture prompt or after a period of time the image can set not to show for specific wordsThere are a variety of image-to-text programs by different publishers. Some include: BoardMaker and Writing with Symbols by Mayer-Johnson, Picture It and Pix Writer by Slater Software, Clicker 5 and Wordbar by Crick Software, Signing Exact English Interactive by Modern Signs Press.
41Additional Technologies to Assist with Vocabulary Development Some software programs allow for the development of class or personal digital dictionaries (ex. Wordbar or Clicker 5 by Crick Software)Grids that contain cells with words or phrases are located below the word processing portion of the screen to assist students in selecting appropriate vocabularyGrids can be custom made related to units of studyStudents can develop their own grids as references for their subject areasWordbar includes only text and Clicker can contain an image as well as text
42Additional Technologies to Assist with Vocabulary Development Specialized sign videotapes and DVDs are available for free to deaf individuals and people who work with deaf/hh individualsCaptioned Media ProgramPEPNetThese videotapes can help students (and others) learn specialized vocabulary for content and career areas in both sign and English
43Bibliography Easterbrooks, Susan R. & Baker, Sharon (2002). Language Learning in Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing.Boston, MA: Allyn and BaconSchirmer, Barbara, R. (2000). Language and LiteracyDevelopment in Children Who Are Deaf. Needham Heights, MA:Allyn & Bacon