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Stormwater Management Eric Winkler, Ph.D. and Susan Guswa, P.E. Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy University of Massachusetts Annual Conference.

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Presentation on theme: "Stormwater Management Eric Winkler, Ph.D. and Susan Guswa, P.E. Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy University of Massachusetts Annual Conference."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stormwater Management Eric Winkler, Ph.D. and Susan Guswa, P.E. Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy University of Massachusetts Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org

2 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Presentation Outline Water Quantity and Quality Issues Rules Today and Tomorrow Structural and Non-Structural Controls Metrics and Measures

3 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Hydrologic Cycle http://www.mde.state.md.us/environment/wma/stormwatermanual/

4 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Inland Natural Systems

5 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Water Quantity Effects Increased flooding potential Changes to streambed morphology http://www.forester.net, 2002

6 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Water Quantity Effects Decrease in base flows

7 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Water Quality Effects Increased pollutant load –Habitat degradation –Public health and recreation impacts Sean Chamberlain, 2002

8 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Water Quality Effects Nutrient and Sediment Transport

9 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Stormwater Pollution Sources Urban runoff Construction Agriculture Forestry Grazing Septic systems Recreational boating Habitat degradation Physical changes to stream channels http://www.sierraclub.org/sprawl, 2002

10 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Flood Control /Conveyance http://www.nae.usace.army.mil/recreati/lvl, 2002 http://www.lawrenceks.org, 2002

11 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Water Quality – Stormwater Constituents Sediment Nutrients: nitrogen and phosphorous Oil, grease, and organic chemicals Bacteria and viruses Salt Metals http://www.txnpsbook.org, 2002

12 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Stormwater Constituents Median Concentrations ConstituentUnitsUrbanNon-Urban Total Suspended Solids (TSS)mg/l67-10170 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)mg/l57-7340 Total Phosphorous (P) g/l 201-383121 Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen g/l 1179-1900965 Nitrate + Nitrite g/l 558-736543 Lead g/l 104-14430 Copper g/l 27-33-- Zinc g/l 135-226195 Source: U.S. EPA, Nationwide Urban Runoff Program, 1983.

13 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Stormwater Management Challenges Variability of Flows (Duration, Frequency, Intensity) Difference between peak control and treatment objectives Different water quality constituents require different treatment mechanisms Site-to-site variability of quantity and quality Maintenance of non-centralized treatment units Monitoring and measurement

14 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Treatment Events Criteria for Storm Events Figure 6. Cumulative Rainfall record for Boston Logan 1920 - 1999.

15 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Sizing Systems Intensity / Duration Frequency Relation

16 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Calculating Peak Runoff Rates Rainfall Runoff Analysis /Rational Method Q p = CiA C = constant runoff coefficient i = rainfall intensity A = drainage area ( t c = time of concentration < rainfall duration)

17 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Federal Regulations 1987 Clean Water Act Amendments (U.S. EPA) –1990 Phase I National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water Program –1999 Phase II NPDES Storm Water Program 1990 Costal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments, Section 6217 (U.S. EPA / NOAA) –Costal Zone Management Program

18 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 NPDES Permit Program Goal: reduce negative impacts to water quality and aquatic habitat Requirement: develop storm water pollution prevention plans (SWPPPs) or storm water management programs with minimum control measures Implementation: use best management practices (BMPs)

19 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 NPDES Applicability Phase I "Medium" and "large" municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) located in incorporated places or counties with populations of 100,000 or more Eleven categories of industrial activity, one of which is construction activity that disturbs five or more acres of land Phase II Certain regulated small municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) Construction activity disturbing between 1 and 5 acres of land (i.e., small construction activities)

20 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Phase II Minimum Control Measures Public education and outreach on storm water impacts Public involvement/participation Illicit discharge detection and elimination Construction site storm water runoff control Post-construction storm water management in new development and redevelopment Pollution prevention/good housekeeping for municipal operations Website for EPA NPDES Phase II Fact Sheets: http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/swfinal.cfm

21 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Massachusetts Regulations Clean Waters Act Wetlands Protection Act Rivers Protection Act 1997 Stormwater Management Standards –Developed jointly by CZM and DEP –Federal permits need to meet Stormwater Management Standards –Administered by DEP and Conservation Commissions

22 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Stormwater Management Standards 1. No new untreated storm water discharges allowed 2. Post-development peak flow discharge rates < pre-development peak rates 3. Minimize loss of recharge to groundwater 4. Remove 80% of average annual total suspended solids (TSS) load (post development) 5. Discharges from areas with higher potential pollutant loads require use of specific BMPs

23 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Stormwater Management Standards 6. Storm water discharges to critical area require use of approved BMPs designed to treat 1 inch runoff volume (post development) 7. Redevelopment sites must meet the Standards 8. Construction sites must utilize sediment and erosion controls 9. Storm water systems must have an operation and management plan

24 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Non-Structural BMPs Pollution prevention/source control Street sweeping Storm water collection system cleaning and maintenance Low impact development and land use planning Snow and snowmelt management Public Education http://www.tennatoco.com/stormwater, 2002

25 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Better Design Green roofs High Density Grassed/Porous Pavement http://www.lrcusace.army.ml, 2002

26 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Structural BMPs Detention/Retention and Vegetated Treatment: detention basins, wet retention ponds, constructed wetlands, water quality swales Filtration: sand and organic filters Advanced Sedimentation/Separation: hydrodynamic separators, oil and grit chamber Infiltration: infiltration trenches, infiltration basins, dry wells (rooftop infiltration) Pretreatment: water quality inlets, hooded and deep sump catch basins, sediment traps (forebays), and drainage channels Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

27 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Detention Basins TSS Removal Efficiency: –60-80% average –70% design Key Features: –Large area –Peak flow control Maintenance: low Cost: low to moderate

28 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Wet (Retention) Ponds Removal Efficiency: –60-80% average –70% design Key Features: –Large area –Peak flow control Maintenance: low to moderate Cost: low to high Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997 http://www.txnpsbook.org, 2002

29 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Constructed Wetlands Removal Efficiency: –65-80% average –70% design Key Features: –Large area –Peak flow control –Biological treatment Maintenance: low to moderate Cost: marginally higher than wet ponds Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997 http://www.txnpsbook.org, 2002

30 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Water Quality Swales Removal Efficiency: –60-80% average –70% design Key Features: –Higher pollutant removal rates than drainage channels –Transport peak runoff and provide some infiltration Maintenance: low to moderate Cost: low to moderate Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997 http://www.txnpsbook.org, 2002

31 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Infiltration Trenches/Basins Removal Efficiency: –75-80% average –80% design Features: –Preserves natural water balance on site –Susceptible to clogging –Reduces downstream impacts Maintenance: high Cost: moderate to high Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997 StormTech, subsidiary to Infiltrator Systems, Inc, 2002

32 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Dry Wells Removal Efficiency: –80% average –80% design On-site infiltration For untreated storm water from roofs only (copper excluded) Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

33 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Sand and Organic Filters Removal Efficiency: –80% average –80% design Design Features: –Large area –Peak flow control Maintenance: high Cost: high Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997 http://www.txnpsbook.org, 2002

34 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Inlets and Catch Basins Removal Efficiency: –15-35% average –25% design Design Features: –Debris removal –Pretreatment Maintenance: moderate to high Cost: low to high Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

35 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Sediment Traps/Forebays Removal Efficiency: –25% average –25% design Design Features: –Pretreatment –Retrofit expansion –Larger space requirement than inlet. Maintenance: moderate Cost: low to moderate Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

36 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Innovative BMPs - Advanced Sedimentation Removal Efficiency: –50-80% average –80% design Design Features: –small area –Oil and Grease control Maintenance: moderate Cost: moderate Rinker Inc, 2002

37 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Innovative BMPs - Sand Filtration Removal Efficiency: –50-80% average –80% design Design Features: –small area –Nutrient and pathogen (potential) Maintenance: moderate Cost: moderate Stormtreat Inc, 2002

38 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Innovative BMPs - Hydrodynamic Removal Efficiency: –50-80% average –80% design Design Features: –small area –Oil and Grease control Maintenance: moderate Cost: moderate Vortechs Inc, 2002

39 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Innovative BMPs – Media Filtration Removal Efficiency: –50-80% average –80% design Design Features: –small area –Oil and Grease control Maintenance: moderate Cost: moderate Stormwater Management Inc, 2002

40 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Innovative BMPs – Inlet Inserts Removal Efficiency: –To be determined Design Features: –Retrofit –Construction –Oil and Grease control Maintenance: moderate Cost: moderate http://www.stormdrainsfilters.com, 2002

41 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Water Quality Monitoring Address technology review and approval barriers in policy and regulations; Accept the performance tests and data from partners review to reduce subsequent review and approval time; Use the Protocol for state-led initiatives, grants, and verification or certification programs; and Share technology information with potential users in the public and private sectors using existing state supported programs TARP- Technology Acceptance Reciprocity Program CA IL MA MD NJ NY PA VA TX

42 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Performance Verification - TARP Storm Event Criteria to Sample 2More than 0.1 inch of total rainfall. 2A minimum inter-event period of 6 hours, where cessation of flow from the system begins the inter-event period. 2Obtain flow-weighted composite samples covering a minimum of 70 % of the total storm flow, including as much of the first 20 % of the storm as possible. 2A minimum of 10 water quality samples (i.e., 10 influent and 10 effluent samples) should be collected per storm event. Determining a Representative Data Set 2At least 50 % of the total annual rainfall must be sampled, for a minimum of 15 inches of precipitation and at least 15, but preferably 20, storms.

43 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Performance Verification - TARP Stormwater Sampling Locations –Sampling locations for stormwater BMPs should be taken at inlet and outlet. Sampling Methods –Programmable automatic flow samplers with continuous flow measurements should be used –Grab samples used for: pH, temperature, cyanide, total phenols, residual chlorine, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), E coli, total coliform, fecal coliform and streptococci, and enterococci. Stormwater Flow Measurement Methods –Primary and secondary flow measurement devices are required.

44 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Performance Verification - TARP Sample Data Quality Assurance and Control Equipment decontamination, Preservation, Holding time, Volume, QC samples (spikes, blanks, splits, and field and lab duplicates), - QA on sampling equipment Packaging and shipping, Identification and labeling, and Chain-of-custody.

45 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Performance Verification - TARP Calculating BMP Efficiencies (ASCE BMP Efficiencies Task 3.1) Process efficiencies or removal rates should be determined from influent and effluent contaminant concentration and flow data. –Efficiency Ratio, –Summation of Loads, –Regression of Loads, –Mean Concentration, and –Efficiency of Individual Storm Loads. Note: The Efficiency Ratio method is preferred.

46 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Contacts Eric Winkler, Ph.D. Director, Technical Services (413) 545-2853 (Voice) winkler@ceere.org Susan Guswa, P.E. Environmental Analyst (413) 545-2165 (Voice) guswa@ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy and Environmental Services 160 Governors Drive University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003-9265 www.ceere.org/ees

47 Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA www.ceere.org Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002 Questions and Answers


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