Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Introduction e-Citizen October 20, 2012 What do you envision?
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Introduction E-democracy is: –the use information and communication technologies and strategies –by democratic sectors –within the political processes of local communities, states, nations and on the global stage. Political Organizations Private Sector Government Media and Commercial Content
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Introduction E-democracy: –is now, what kind is it? –is accelerating as is politics –will promote active citizen participation and the public interest only if the e-citizen perspective is understood and built upon Political Organizations Private Sector Government Media and Commercial Content E-Citizens
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Introduction E-democracy should seek to: –improve the democratic outcomes of the policy/political process –engage citizens directly in meeting public challenges Involvement for the sake of involvement has limited value. E-democracy must make a qualitative difference.
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Introduction Questions to consider … What does the e-citizen: –experience? –think? –say they want? –really do online? How can we best use online tools and strategies to achieve better public outcomes?
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Citizen Life Time – People are busy. –Time use studies provide valuable insights. –Civic activities account for a small portion of time. –The United States is starting one now.starting one now –Most studies have found that Internet use displaces time spent with mass media. –Information and interactivity can reach people at different places through different technologies and channels.
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Citizen Life Confidence and Trust – Not much? –The public is less confident in itself than our leaders. How much confidence do you have in the public as a whole when it comes to making judgments about what general direction elected and government officials should take on various issues facing the nation? Source: Public Perspective – Government by the People, Kaiser Family Fund survey released March 30, 2001Public Perspective – Government by the People –Trust in government low – 69% trust it to handle national security, only 38% trust it to handle domestic social issues, 61% sometimes/never Source: ABC News, January 2002 in Public Perspectives July/Aug 2002
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Citizen Life Voting – Sometimes. –In 2002, ~39% of eligible voters voted Record lows in CA 31.5%, AZ 27%, IN 34%, etc. National highs MN 61.4%, SD 61.3%, ME 50.6% Source: Committee for the Study of the American ElectorateCommittee for the Study of the American Electorate –In 2000, 50% of eligible voters voted, citizen response: Democratic system is strong and working well: 25% Democratic system not strong and not working well: 67% Source: NBC News/Wall Street Journal, Dec 7-10, 2000NBC News/Wall Street Journal, Dec 7-10, 2000 –Young voters (18-24)? 16% voted in 1998 mid-term election (Census Bureau)Census Bureau 13% predicted in 2002 (no exit polls) (Press report)Press report UK YVote?YNot report: If not sure how, 76% would ask parents how to vote, 9 % at polling station, 5% a friendUK YVote?YNot report
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Citizen Life Influence - –68% of the public feels the views of the majority should influence government decisions a great deal, 26% a fair amount –9% feel the majority actually has a great deal of influence, 41% a fair amount –Disconnect - Policy leaders and media see the public having a much greater impact than the public sees –Disconnect 2 – Public underestimates influence of lobbyists and special interests as well as the influence they have when they contact government/elective leaders –Disconnect 3 – The public wants campaign contributors and journalists to have less influence than others Source: Public Perspective – Government by the People, Kaiser Family Fund survey released March 30, 2001Public Perspective – Government by the People
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Citizen Life Connecting - Civic things we want. –The best ways for officials to learn what a majority of people in our country think about important issues. Source: KaiserKaiser –Very important Campaign conduct candidates agreeing to participate in forums where the public can question candidates directly – 75% agreeing to participate in public debates - 71% disclosing campaign finances in the Internet - 44% Source: Public Perspectives, Nov/Dec 2002Public Perspectives, Nov/Dec 2002
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Citizen Life Citizen Categories –1. Active Always vote Belong to civic groups Attend public meetings Write to public officials Donate to campaigns/causes –2. Informed Read newspapers, watch/listen to news Feel informed, sometimes act Normally vote –3. Passive Watch TV news sometimes Sometimes vote Turned off by politics –4. Disengaged Tuned out, news? Dont vote Often young
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Citizen Life Making a difference – Questions to ask –What encourages citizens to get involved? To change their normal routine? –What makes involvement an empowering experience? What frustrates people? –What forms of participation can compete for attention? What about online forms? –What strategies work better with different types of citizens? How do we complement what we know works with online assistance?
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net e-Reality American adults online – Slow growth? –Percentage of adults online in the U.S. – 59% –Percentage of those online who went online yesterday – 57% (or 34% of all adults or 64 million people) –Online at home? 43% yesterday, 45% not yesterday, 12% dont go online at home –Online at work? 25% yesterday, 25% not yesterday, 50% dont go online from work –Numbers holding steady over last year. Source: Pew Internet Oct 2002 SurveyPew Internet Oct 2002 Survey –Affluent population drives current Internet user growth 11-20%, households under $50,000/yr less than 5% Source: Neilsen/NetRatingsNeilsen/NetRatings Population % online varies by state: –Top: AK 68.8, MN 63.5, NH 63.5, WY 62.3, MD 61.4 –Lower: CA 52.1, TX 51.2 … AL, AK, LA, MI 46.2 – 41.8 Source: 2002 State New Economy Index, using government NTIA 2001 data2002 State New Economy Index, using government NTIA 2001 data
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net e-Reality Time on the web, average each month –Home 12:07 hours visit 49 sites 23 sessions 55 seconds a page Source: Neilsen/NetRatings October 2002Neilsen/NetRatings Broadband (BB) provides always-on convenience –As of Jan. 2002, 1/2 time online from BB users, only 21% of at- home online pop. (not households) have BB in U.S.. Source: Neilsen/NetRatingsNeilsen/NetRatings –South Korea, 95% of users have BB ~$28 month and spend 16:17 hours online each month Source: ACNeilsen eRatingsACNeilsen eRatings – Work 31:08 hours visit 95 sites 56 sessions 61 seconds a page
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net e-Reality Where oh where online – From home, Oct. 2002 Source: Neilsen/NetratingsNeilsen/Netratings U.S. Government ranks #4 from work. Wasnt measured until this year.
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net e-Reality E-mail is king –Top three web properties include e-mail centric uses. –Pew Internet - Of adult Internet users each day: 50% send/read e-mail, 93% have ever 29% use search engine, 85% have ever 3% buy a product, 61% have ever 5% download music files, 32% have ever –Opt-in E-mail newsletters are hot, click-through range from 9.5% by catalog companies to 4.4% for the hospitality industry, Source: DoubleClickDoubleClick –Web banner ad click-through often under 0.5% E-mail strengthens private connections among family and friends. What about public life? –Online groups offer opportunity – 84% of Net users have used the net to contact or get information from a group. 79% of them stay in regular online contact Source: Pew Internet, Online CommunitiesPew Internet, Online Communities
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net e-Reality Getting Informed –According to Markle Foundation Internet Acct. Survey: 91% Internet users find the Internet informative Top benefits: 61% cite information/knowledge, 27% e- mail/communication, 23% convenient/fast, 5% shopping Image: 45% library, 15% highway, 14% mall … 3% town hall Source: Markle Foundation Internet Accountability Study Chapter 1Markle Foundation Internet Accountability Study Chapter 1 –More Pew Internet daily numbers: 26% Get news online on average day, 68% have ever 11% Look for political news/information, 45% have ever (rising) 9% Visit a government web site, 56% have ever –Power Users access online newspapers 37% have broadband at home, three times more likely to have high speed office connection Readers are online almost twice the average 18:00 versus 10:00 General users online 5-10pm when newspaper sites receive lowest use 48% sought local news past year 47% like e-mail best, 15% national/world news, 9% local news 13% interested in political news, (37% yes in their online survey) Source: Power Users: Profile of Online Newspaper Consumers, May 2002Power Users: Profile of Online Newspaper Consumers, May 2002
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net e-Reality Trust. Online? –23% feel you can trust most things you read online –70% feel you have to question truthfulness of most things you read online Source: Markle Internet Accountability Survey Trust. Credibility. Usability. Looks Matter. –Net users trust Federal government more than web sites offering consumer advice, selling products –Users say they want: 1. Easy to navigate sites 2. Ability to trust site information 3. Ability to identify information sources 4. Knowing site is updated frequently 5. Being able to find out important fact about a site 6. Knowing who owns the web site –Credible sites must actually look good first except for non- profit sites where identity of site operator was top concern Source: Consumer WebWatchs A Matter of Trust and How do People Evaluate a Web Sites CredibilityA Matter of TrustHow do People Evaluate a Web Sites Credibility
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Activating e-Citizens Combining civic life with e-reality. Need to figure out what people say they want versus what they really do. In general, we need more survey research and analysis on strategic use of the Internet/ICTs to improve citizen participation, policy development, and governance between elections.
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Activating e-Citizens e-Citizens – Online campaigning, someone always wins/loses –2002 information on Internet role in elections emerging Provider of election information to major sites reported 60% increase in traffic in 2002 - Source: Capitol AdvantageCapitol Advantage Politicalweb.info found that 64% of all candidates for U.S. House, U.S. Senate, and Governor had their own web sites. Incumbents 75%, challengers 60%, third parties 45% - Source: Politicalweb.infoPoliticalweb.info –From the Institute for Politics Democracy and the Internet (fmr Democracy Online Project) in 2000. Of internet users: 54% sent or received e-mail jokes about the candidates or campaign 39% sent or received e-mail about the election with friends or family 35% used the Net to get information about politics, campaigns, or issues – of this group, 40% felt Net important to deciding their vote 25% contacted or got information about political campaigns 10% contacted partisan interest groups 10% participated in live chat or web-based discussion 2% donated money to non-partisan organizations 1% donated money to political candidates Source: Post-Election 2000 Survey on Internet Use for Civics and PoliticsPost-Election 2000 Survey on Internet Use for Civics and Politics
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Activating e-Citizens e-Citizens – E-Government and accountability –E-Government must deliver democracy not just service. Survey says, most important benefit of e-government: 36% Government more accountable to citizens 23% Greater public access to information 21% More efficient/cost-effective government 13% More convenient government services Source: Center for Excellence in Government, E-Government – The Next American Revolution, Sept 2000Center for Excellence in Government, E-Government – The Next American Revolution, Sept 2000 –How can e-gov improve accountability – most important way? 29% allow citizens to communicate their opinions on major issues to officials quickly and easily 21% allow citizens to tell government agencies about info they need or problems they experience 21% give the public more info about the govts policies & decisions Also, 66% say that it is very or fairly important that e-government investments enable them to stay informed and voice their concerns and opinions to Congress Source: Ctr. Excellence in Gov, e-Government to Connect, Protect, and Serve Us, Feb 2002Ctr. Excellence in Gov, e-Government to Connect, Protect, and Serve Us, Feb 2002 –36% govt web sites users have high trust in government compared to 22% of those online with high trust who have not Source: Center for Excellence in Government, January 2001 Supplemental PollCenter for Excellence in Government, January 2001 Supplemental Poll
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Activating e-Citizens e-Citizens – Elected Officials and E-mail –Local elected officials use e-mail effectively 88% for their official duties, 61% daily 73% online officials say e-mail with constituents helps them better understand public opinion 56% improves relations with local groups 32% have been persuaded by e-mail campaigns on merit 21% e-mail lobbying campaigns opened eyes to strong opinions about which they were previously unaware 61% of online officials agree e-mail can facilitate public debate, but 38% say e-mail alone cant carry full debate on complex issues Source: Pew Internet – Digital Town Hall, Oct. 2002Pew Internet – Digital Town Hall, Oct. 2002 –Citizens in online groups provide foundation for two-way governance 13% often or sometimes email public officials 11% of Internet users say they are aware of at least one local issue where the net played a role in organizing citizens to communicate with public officials. Percentage doubles to 22% for Internet users who are active members of online communities. Source: Pew Internet, Online CommunitiesPew Internet, Online Communities –E-mail overload and spam a problem in U.S. Congress
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Activating e-Citizens What to do? –Develop strategies that attempt to move citizens up one step 1. Active citizens 2. Informed citizens 3. Passive citizens 4. Disengaged citizens –Most e-democracy projects sought multi-step improvements (shot for moon, got half-way) and did not meet overly optimistic expectations –Develop support for democracy at each level with appropriate technologies and strategies
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Activating e-Citizens Disengaged citizens –Start early – develop online civic K-12 education components that establish expectations for Internet/ICTs use in society –18-30 – Find out where they really are online, what they do online and work to introduce tailored political information experiences within those sites –Be realistic – the Internet is a medium that normally requires information seeking –Study how low income/education groups use the Internet, purchase cheaper banner ad space for civic branding efforts?
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Activating e-Citizens Passive Citizens –Utilize Tell a friend and viral e-mail features. –Create a site where parents/relatives can create an online voter/participation information CARE package with tracking for senders –Leverage e-government service transaction opportunities (online taxes, etc.) to introduce trust building information –Partner with local news and entertainment sites to build awareness of civic news and opportunities, particularly volunteer listings –Online polls are entry point activity
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Activating e-Citizens Informed Citizens –MyBallot.Net 2004 et al Presidential primary offers tremendous early opportunity for.org/media online participation efforts Change the relationship between informed undecided/persuadable voters and the campaigns –Select a candidate/party concepts highly popular, adapt for use between elections –Online advocacy – share best practices, study ill effects, online efforts that improve things – avoid turning off informed citizens –Develop online constituent services from elected officials –Bring public life into e-mail communication through neighborhood and city/regional online groups – the commons online
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Activating e-Citizens Active citizens –e-Citizen Portal – Create a trusted national network of local and state starting points for effective citizen participation – cannot be top-down Help the 1% who show up, including elected officials, interest groups, and activists improve public policy outcomes Connect people and organizations solving public problems from the local level on up based on communities of practice/interest –Hold Online Town Halls or consultations – primarily hosted by government and non-profits –Extend the Commons Online up to statewide and national info exchange networks, connect to Congress –Establish Government E-Democracy applications – including personalized meeting notices, and legislative issue tracking
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Conclusion Measure and evaluate the right things –Does it save the time it takes to become informed or sustain involvement? –Does it increase the quality of the information available in desired formats and delivery channels? –Does it enable society and government to effectively accommodate and incorporate higher levels of input and involvement? –Does it build public life, strengthen trust among people and their government, or inspire us to believe that we can make a difference?
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Conclusion The Internet and ICTs are accelerating as is politics. We must intervene in the public interest based on our experience and knowledge. It is time use the advantages of this new medium to improve peoples lives and the world around us.
Eye on the e-Citizen Copyright 2002, Steven Clift, Publicus.Net Further Information Democracies Online Newswire http://www.e-democracy.org/do Over 2500 people around the world exchanging announcements, news, and articles related to e-democracy, e-government, and e-politics. http://www.e-democracy.org/do E-Democracy Resources Flyer http://publicus.net/articles/edemresources.html Links to the top e-democracy starting points on a two page flyer available in HTML, Word, and PDF. http://publicus.net/articles/edemresources.html Publicus.Net http://www.publicus.net More articles and presentations by Steven Clift http://www.publicus.net