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3The new police‘The primary object of an efficient police is the prevention of crime: the next that of detection and punishment of offenders if crime is committed. To these ends all the efforts of police must be directed’Mayne, S.R. (1829) Instructions to “The new police of the Metropolis” (London: Metropolitan Police).
4Drivers for change Complexity in policing and the performance culture Managing internal riskThe demand gapLimitations of the standard model of policingOrganised and transnational crimeChanges in technology
5The growing paperwork burden Police administrators demand greater internal accountabilityIn the ‘knowledge is power’ culture, police overproduce information to retain in case it might be usefulAn obsession with reporting drives internal audits and monitoring systemsRedundancy in retaining paper and electronic records creates duplication and drains resources.Ericson, R.V. and Haggerty, K.D. (1997) Policing the Risk Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
6Lack of investigative innovation “In many fundamental respects, the investigation process, though showing some advances, seems to have been relatively uninfluenced by significant changes in policing, the crime problem and technological advances made in the past thirty years. In the main, it is our view that progress in police criminal investigative efforts remains largely isolated from broader police efforts to respond more effectively, more efficiently and more resolutely to the crime problem in general.”Horvath, F., Meesig, R.T. and Lee, Y.H. (2001) 'National Survey of Police Policies and Practices Regarding the Criminal Investigations Process: Twenty-Five Years After Rand' (Washington DC: National Institute of Justice). Page 9.
9US policing landscape Fragmented and uncoordinated organizations Mistrust of the word ‘intelligence’Community policing eraSlow emergence of problem-oriented policingRapid emergence of Compstat
10Fragmented and uncoordinated Type of agencyNumber of agenciesNumber of full-time sworn officersLocal police12,766446,974Sheriff3,067175,018State4958, 190Special jurisdiction1,48149,398Constable/Marshal5132,323US non-federal police agencies and officer totals, 2004
12Fragmented and uncoordinated – solutions? 1973 National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and GoalsEvery department with 75 of more sworn officers should develop an intelligence capabilityLed to development of the Regional Information Sharing Systems (RISS) network, andCriminal Intelligence System Operating Policies (28 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) Part 23) – known as 28CFR23
13Demonizing intelligence House Committee on Un-American ActivitiesSome police kept dossiers on communists or communist sympathizers, and civil rights activistsFBI’s counterintelligence program (COINTELPRO), which ran from 1956 to 1971, rapidly moved from its original aims of targeting foreign intelligence agencies during the Cold War to spying on American citizens and dissident political bodies“Many activists publicized their intelligence files as a badge of honor, often to the embarrassment of the police”Carter, D.L. (2004) 'Law Enforcement Intelligence: A guide for State, Local, and Tribal Enforcement Agencies' (Washington DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services). Page 25.
14Crime Commission of 1965President Lyndon Johnson’s Crime Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of JusticeStarted 1965, published report 1967‘The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society’Recommended that:the police work especially hard in minoritycommunities,they make attempts to regain legitimacyand offset the unpopularity of the police through community relations programs.
15Problem-Oriented Policing Herman Goldstein and the Madison, Wisconsin police departmentNewport News Police Department and SARAScanAnalyzeRespondAssessEck, J.E. and Spelman, W. (1987) 'Problem solving: Problem-oriented policing in Newport News' (Washington DC: Police Executive Research Forum).
16CompstatStarted in the Crime Control Strategy meetings of the New York City Police Department (NYPD)January 1994Police Commissioner William Bratton, newly hired from the city’s Transit Police by Mayor Rudy Giuliani
179/11After Sept 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the US, the IACP held a Criminal Intelligence Sharing Summit (spring 2002)Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (Global) Intelligence Working Group (GIWG) formedCreated the National Criminal Intelligence Sharing PlanKey theme that resonates throughout the plan is the need to overcome the ‘long-standing and substantial barriers that hinder intelligence sharing’Also to use the plan as a ‘mechanism to promote intelligence-led policing’ (GIWG 2005: iv)
18UK: New public management New public management movement in the UK began in the early 1980s1993 Sheehy Inquiry into Police ResponsibilitiesPolice and Magistrates Courts ActA focus on greater ‘efficiency, effectiveness and economy’Sporadic emergence of problem-oriented policing
19Further developmentsHelping with Enquiries: Tackling Crime EffectivelyExisting policing roles and the levels of accountability lacked integration and efficiencyThe police were failing to make the best use of resourcesGreater emphasis on tackling criminals would be more effective than focusing on crimesSaw problems as:insufficient interview trainingforensic potential not utilizedscientific support under-resourcedpattern of activity highly reactiveintelligence work having low status and under-resourcedfailure to exploit crime pattern analysis and informants
20Policing with Intelligence (HIMC, 1997) Policing with Intelligence: Criminal Intelligence – a Thematic Inspection on Good PracticeKey factors that HMIC considered to be vital in promoting intelligence-led policing:enthusiastic and energetic leadership that endorses intelligence-led policing and promotes it through a Director of Intelligence;a published strategy that sets the intelligence agenda for a force;an integrated intelligence structure so that analysts can work at the hub of operational policing activities;criteria to measure performance;the forging of effective partnerships with local agencies that may be able to help police combat local crime and disorder problems
21Mike Maguire and Tim John Reviewed criminal intelligence systems in 8 UK forces. Concluded:Major organizational reforms can only be implemented with wholehearted commitment from the senior officers in the forceIt is vital that all officers understand overall purposes and expected benefits and their own contributionThe possible negative influence of broader ‘cultural’ factors should not be underestimatedSystem should be continually monitored and reviewedObjectives and strategies should be reviewed at intervals, informed wherever possible by evaluations of outcomesAccess to resources, such as surveillance teams, should be seen to be equitableMaguire, M. and John, T. (1995) 'Intelligence, Surveillance and Informants: Integrated Approaches', Police Research Group: Crime Detection and Prevention Series, Paper 64.
22National Intelligence Model National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS), commissioned by Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO), released National Intelligence Model (NIM) in 1999
23Summary of main factors relevant to development of intelligence-led policing Universal factorsComplexity in policingManaging internal riskThe demand gapLimitations of the standard model of policingOrganized and transnational crimeChanges in technology
24Summary of main factors relevant to development of intelligence-led policing – country specific US Policing landscapeUK Policing landscapeFragmented and uncoordinatedNew public managerialism and oversightDemonizing ‘intelligence’Sporadic emergence of POPCommunity policing eraHelping with EnquiriesSlow emergence of POPPolicing with IntelligenceRapid emergence of CompstatNational Intelligence Model9/11 and homeland security