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Chapter 10: Challenges for the future
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The future Intelligence-led policing is crime fighting that is guided by effective intelligence gathering and analysisand it has the potential to be the most important law enforcement innovation of the twenty- first century Kelling, G.L. and Bratton, W.J. (2006) 'Policing terrorism', Civic Bulletin, 43, p. 6.
Public support for proactivity ACPO market research report found that Young people and working adults lower on the socio-economic spectrum favored proactive, targeted, solution-oriented policing. Midlife adults in the middle to higher socio-economic groups, older men, and ethnic groups naturally identified with visible patrolling; however, they could be readily convinced through logical argument that proactive and targeted activities are the most effective and beneficial. It was only older women and the retired that retained a connection with visible patrolling as a symbol of reassurance, relating visible patrolling to perceptions of safety. Bradley, R. (1998). Public expectations and perceptions of policing. Police Research Group: Police Research Series, Paper 96.
Issues for management How do we know that informants are telling the truth? How do we place covert information into a wider context of criminality, especially when we may not have confidential sources in other areas? How do we manage the wider strategic responsibilities and avoid degenerating into an informant-led policing model?
5×5×5 Information/Intelligence Reporting System Source evaluation A.Always reliable B.Mostly reliable C.Sometimes reliable D.Unreliable E.Untested source Information evaluation 1.Known to be true without reservation 2.Known personally to the source but not to the person reporting 3.Known personally to the source but not corroborated 4.Cannot be judged 5.Suspected to be false
5×5×5 Information/Intelligence Reporting System Handling codes 1.Permits dissemination within the police service and to other law enforcement agencies as specified (default code) 2.Permits dissemination to non-prosecuting parties 3.Permits dissemination to foreign law enforcement agencies 4.Permits dissemination within originating force/agency only: specify reasons and internal recipient(s). Review period must be set. 5.Permits dissemination but receiving agency to observe conditions as specified
Principle of proportionality Sir John Stevens noted that the likely target from a crime intelligence assessment of the highest risk for a local police department… will not be the head of an organized crime syndicate. It is more likely that they will be a prolific 15-year-old thief Stevens, J. (2001, 3-7 December 2001). Intelligence-led policing. Paper presented at the 2nd World Investigation of Crime Conference, Durban, South Africa.
Combating surveillance creep Gary Marx identified surveillance creep, an increasing acceptance of intrusion in the name of crime control The principle of proportionality is therefore a balance of the apposite tactics applied to the appropriate offenders and should be a tenet of intelligence-led policing
Data protection Title 28 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 23 The purpose of 28CFR23 is to ensure that criminal intelligence systems are operated and maintained so that individual privacy and rights are not violated unless in accordance with the law. UK Data Protection Act Information must… be fairly and lawfully processed be processed for limited purposes and not in any manner incompatible with those purposes be adequate, relevant and not excessive be accurate and where necessary, up to date not be kept for longer than is necessary be processed in accordance with individual rights be stored securely
The widening security agenda UK HMIC analysis points to a future policing environment characterized by: widespread enterprising organized criminality, proliferating international terrorism and domestic extremism a premium on intelligence, expertise and smart use of capacity an increasingly risk concerned public and intrusive media HMIC. (2005). Closing the gap. London: Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary.
GMAC integrates strategic meetings
Strategic harm model Strategic harm models are not the same as models to reduce fear of crime Reassurance policing Media scaremongering Media-led policing? Mike Maguire and Tim John described reassurance policing as having a populist or consumerist focus
National security and ILP Intelligence-led policing has become a policing paradigm at the same time that national security issues have expanded to become domestic priorities. Terrorism has been linked to Narcotics Organized crime Transnational crime
Information Sharing Environment Work to better coordinate national security information across the US is undertaken by the Program Manager for the Information Sharing Environment (in the Office of the Director of National Intelligence) and the Information Sharing Council
Information Sharing Council 1. Program Manager for the Information Sharing Environment (Chair) 2. Central Intelligence Agency 3. Department of Commerce 4. Department of Defense (Joint Chiefs of Staff) 5. Department of Defense (Office of the Secretary of Defense) 6. Department of Energy 7. Department of Health and Human Services 8. Department of State 9. Department of Homeland Security 10. Department of the Interior 11. Department of Justice 12. Department of Transportation 13. Department of the Treasury 14. Director of National Intelligence 15. Federal Bureau of Investigation 16. National Counterterrorism Center 17. Office of Management of Budget
Lack of executive training Recognized as a national way forward, ILP is an all- crimes approach to enforcement that will revolutionize law enforcement. ILP richly integrates existing strategies and technologies into a coherent game-plan approach in allocating resources efficiently. Currently, without a national strategy, or a place where police executives can learn how to implement ILP, it is sitting on the shelf unused. (Bratton 2007: 7–8)
The future? Both police executives and analysts will have to demonstrate leadership, ownership and understanding of the tenets of intelligence-led policing for it to succeed Page 237
10 yardsticks for intelligence-led policing 1. Supportive and informed command structure 2. Intelligence-led policing is the heart of an organization-wide approach 3. Integrated crime and criminal analysis 4. Focus on prolific and serious offenders 5. Analytical and executive training available 6. Both strategic and tactical tasking meetings take place 7. Much routine investigation is screened out 8. Data are sufficiently complete, reliable and available to support quality products that influence decision-making 9. Management structures exist to action intelligence products 10. Appropriate use of prevention, disruption and enforcement