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3The future“Intelligence-led policing is crime fighting that is guided by effective intelligence gathering and analysis—and it has the potential to be the most important law enforcement innovation of the twenty-first century”Kelling, G.L. and Bratton, W.J. (2006) 'Policing terrorism', Civic Bulletin, 43, p. 6.
4Public support for proactivity ACPO market research report found thatYoung people and working adults lower on the socio-economic spectrum favored proactive, targeted, solution-oriented policing.Midlife adults in the middle to higher socio-economic groups, older men, and ethnic groups naturally identified with visible patrolling; however, they could be readily convinced through logical argument that proactive and targeted activities are the most effective and beneficial.It was only older women and the retired that retained a connection with visible patrolling as a symbol of reassurance, relating visible patrolling to perceptions of safety.Bradley, R. (1998). Public expectations and perceptions of policing. Police Research Group: Police Research Series, Paper 96.
5Issues for managementHow do we know that informants are telling the truth?How do we place covert information into a wider context of criminality, especially when we may not have confidential sources in other areas?How do we manage the wider strategic responsibilities and avoid degenerating into an informant-led policing model?
65×5×5 Information/Intelligence Reporting System Source evaluationAlways reliableMostly reliableSometimes reliableUnreliableUntested sourceInformation evaluationKnown to be true without reservationKnown personally to the source but not to the person reportingKnown personally to the source but not corroboratedCannot be judgedSuspected to be false
75×5×5 Information/Intelligence Reporting System Handling codesPermits dissemination within the police service and to other law enforcement agencies as specified (default code)Permits dissemination to non-prosecuting partiesPermits dissemination to foreign law enforcement agenciesPermits dissemination within originating force/agency only: specify reasons and internal recipient(s). Review period must be set.Permits dissemination but receiving agency to observe conditions as specified
8Principle of proportionality Sir John Stevens noted that the likely target from a crime intelligence assessment of the highest risk for a local police department…‘will not be the head of an organized crime syndicate. It is more likely that they will be a prolific 15-year-old thief’Stevens, J. (2001, 3-7 December 2001). Intelligence-led policing. Paper presented at the 2nd World Investigation of Crime Conference, Durban, South Africa.
9Combating ‘surveillance creep’ Gary Marx identified ‘surveillance creep’, an increasing acceptance of intrusion in the name of crime controlThe principle of proportionality is therefore a balance of the apposite tactics applied to the appropriate offenders and should be a tenet of intelligence-led policing
10Data protection Title 28 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 23 The purpose of 28CFR23 is to ensure that criminal intelligence systems are operated and maintained so that individual privacy and rights are not violated unless in accordance with the law.UK Data Protection Act Information must…be fairly and lawfully processedbe processed for limited purposes and not in any manner incompatible with those purposesbe adequate, relevant and not excessivebe accurate and where necessary, up to datenot be kept for longer than is necessarybe processed in accordance with individual rightsbe stored securely
11The widening security agenda UK HMIC analysis points to a future policing environment characterized by:widespread enterprising organized criminality, proliferating international terrorism and domestic extremisma premium on intelligence, expertise and smart use of capacityan increasingly risk concerned public and intrusive mediaHMIC. (2005). Closing the gap. London: Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary.
13Strategic harm modelStrategic harm models are not the same as models to reduce fear of crimeReassurance policingMedia scaremongeringMedia-led policing?Mike Maguire and Tim John described reassurance policing as having a ‘populist’ or ‘consumerist’ focus
14National security and ILP Intelligence-led policing has become a policing paradigm at the same time that national security issues have expanded to become domestic priorities. Terrorism has been linked toNarcoticsOrganized crimeTransnational crime
15Information Sharing Environment Work to better coordinate national security information across the US is undertaken by the Program Manager for the Information Sharing Environment (in the Office of the Director of National Intelligence) and the Information Sharing Council
16Information Sharing Council Program Manager for the Information Sharing Environment (Chair)Central Intelligence AgencyDepartment of CommerceDepartment of Defense (Joint Chiefs of Staff)Department of Defense (Office of the Secretary of Defense)Department of EnergyDepartment of Health and Human ServicesDepartment of StateDepartment of Homeland SecurityDepartment of the InteriorDepartment of JusticeDepartment of TransportationDepartment of the TreasuryDirector of National IntelligenceFederal Bureau of InvestigationNational Counterterrorism CenterOffice of Management of Budget
17Lack of executive training Recognized as a national way forward, ILP is an all-crimes approach to enforcement that will revolutionize law enforcement. ILP richly integrates existing strategies and technologies into a coherent ‘game-plan’ approach in allocating resources efficiently. Currently, without a national strategy, or a place where police executives can learn how to implement ILP, it is sitting on the shelf unused.(Bratton 2007: 7–8)
18The future?Both police executives and analysts will have to demonstrate leadership, ownership and understanding of the tenets of intelligence-led policing for it to succeedPage 237
1910 yardsticks for intelligence-led policing Supportive and informed command structureIntelligence-led policing is the heart of an organization-wide approachIntegrated crime and criminal analysisFocus on prolific and serious offendersAnalytical and executive training availableBoth strategic and tactical tasking meetings take placeMuch routine investigation is screened outData are sufficiently complete, reliable and available to support quality products that influence decision-makingManagement structures exist to action intelligence productsAppropriate use of prevention, disruption and enforcement