Presentation on theme: "Teaching the Hearing Impaired By Janet Florian"— Presentation transcript:
1 Teaching the Hearing Impaired By Janet Florian In Service TrainingTeaching the Hearing ImpairedByJanet Florian
2 Terms to KnowHard of Hearing - “hearing impairment, whether permanent or fluctuating, which adversely affects a child’s educational performance…” I(National Association of State Directors of Special Education [NASOSE], 1994)StatisticsAbout seven million children have some form of hearing lossFew people are totally deafDeaf - “means a hearing impairment which adversely affects educational performance and which is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification.” (NASOSE, 1994)
3 Anatomy of the EarThree parts to the ear (outer, middle and inner)
5 Outer Ear Look at diagram for a visual representation pinna or auricle - The part of the ear that is visible. It captures sound to be transmitted into the earThe ear canal or external auditory meatus is the canal that connects the pinna to the ear drum or tympanic membrane. It transfers sound to the tympanic membrane.
6 Middle Ear Look at diagram for a visual representation Eardrum or tympanic membrane vibrates when sound hits it. The vibration causes the sound to be carried through the middle ear.Ossicular Chain are three small bones (malleus, incus and stapes) that help to carry the sound from the tympanic membrane (ear drum) to the inner ear.The ossicular chain vibrates as sound is passed through the middle ear.When the ossicular chain vibrates it transfers the sound to the inner ear by setting the fluid in the inner ear in motion.
7 Inner Ear Look at diagram for a visual representation The cochlea contains fluid. When the fluid moves it stimulates hair cells, which in turn send signals, perceived as sound, into the brain.The cochlea also contains the organ of corti or the sensory organ of hearing.Organ of corti contains the sensory cells essential to hearing. These cells move as the fluid is traveling through the cochlea.
8 Types of Hearing Losses ConductiveHearing loss resulting in poor sound transmission from the outer ear to the middle ear.Example: Otitis media (ear infection), obstruction in external auditory canalMixedCombination of conductive and sensorineuralSensorineuralHearing loss due to a problem in the inner ear that could affect the cochlea or the cranial nerve going to the brainExample: absent cochlea, high fever causing permanent damage
9 Degree of Hearing Loss See handout on Sound Pressure Level (p. 10) dB stands for decibal and it implies the intensityof sound presentNormal Hearing 0-15 dBMild Loss dBModerate Loss dBModerate to Severe Loss dBSevere Loss dBProfound Loss - 91 dB and above
11 Communication Methods Manual ApproachThe hearing impaired person primarily uses sign language to learn and communicate with people (ASL)Usually has an interpreter to assist in communicating with non ASL speakersOral ApproachThe hearing impaired person uses their residual hearing to learn and communicate with peopleFocuses on using verbal language to communicateTotal CommunicationThe hearing impaired person communicates through a combination of sign language and verbal communication
13 Technology Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants Many different sizes and typesThree components (microphone, amplifier and receiver)Amplifies sounds from the environment, but does not make speech clearerCochlear ImplantElectrode(s) placed in the inner earDesigned to directly stimulate nerves in the cochlea in an attempt to send stronger signals to the auditory nerve center in the brain
14 Technology FM Systems Usage FM System consists of microphone placed close to the sound source, the sound is transmitted to the receiver in the hearing aid via FM radio wavesIn the classroom the teacher wears the microphone that picks up his/her voice and sends it to the student’s hearing aid receiver, which then amplifies the soundAdvantage of FM SystemFM picks up sound source but not background noiseFM System is portableSmall unit
16 Communication Strategies for the HI Student Face the student when speaking to him/herGet the attention of the student before speakingDo not turn away while speaking to the studentDo not stand in front of a light source while speaking to the student - the glare will prevent the student from reading your lipsRepeat yourself if the student did not understand youSpeak clearlyUse facial expressions and gestures to help convey your messageIf the student has an interpreter, do not speak directly to the interpreter but to the student
17 Teaching Strategies for the HI Student Use visual aids during instructionProvide captioned mediaReduce difficult vocabulary loadWrite out assignment requirements for the studentHelp the student locate a note takerBreak up long, complex sentencesProvide the student with a list of new vocabulary and concepts to be taughtCheck for understanding
18 Environmental Adaptations for the HI Student Place the student in a quiet part of the classroom - example: place them away from noisy machines like the air conditionerPlace the students desks in a circle so the HI student can see all the studentsTry to reduce background noiseHave only one student talk at onceDevelop a plan of action with the student in case of an emergency
19 ReferencesNational Association of State Directors of Special Education. (1994) Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students; Educational Service Guidelines. VA.Levenson, M. J. (2001) Cochlear ImplantsDevices for Persons with Hearing Impairments. (2001).Understanding Hearing Loss/facts about Hearing Disorders. (2001).
20 ReferencesInformation About Hearing Impairments. (2001).Strategies for Teaching Students with Hearing Impairments. (2001).Tell me About “Assistive Listening Devices”. (2001).Zemlin, W. R. (1988). Speech and Hearing Science; Anatomy & Physiology Third Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.