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1 In Service Training Teaching the Hearing Impaired By Janet Florian.

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1 1 In Service Training Teaching the Hearing Impaired By Janet Florian

2 2 Terms to Know Hard of Hearing - hearing impairment, whether permanent or fluctuating, which adversely affects a childs educational performance… I(National Association of State Directors of Special Education [NASOSE], 1994) Statistics About seven million children have some form of hearing loss Few people are totally deaf Deaf - means a hearing impairment which adversely affects educational performance and which is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification. (NASOSE, 1994)

3 3 Anatomy of the Ear Three parts to the ear (outer, middle and inner)

4 4

5 5 Outer Ear Look at diagram for a visual representation pinna or auricle - The part of the ear that is visible. It captures sound to be transmitted into the ear The ear canal or external auditory meatus is the canal that connects the pinna to the ear drum or tympanic membrane. It transfers sound to the tympanic membrane.

6 6 Middle Ear Look at diagram for a visual representation Eardrum or tympanic membrane vibrates when sound hits it. The vibration causes the sound to be carried through the middle ear. Ossicular Chain are three small bones (malleus, incus and stapes) that help to carry the sound from the tympanic membrane (ear drum) to the inner ear. The ossicular chain vibrates as sound is passed through the middle ear. When the ossicular chain vibrates it transfers the sound to the inner ear by setting the fluid in the inner ear in motion.

7 7 Inner Ear Look at diagram for a visual representation The cochlea contains fluid. When the fluid moves it stimulates hair cells, which in turn send signals, perceived as sound, into the brain. The cochlea also contains the organ of corti or the sensory organ of hearing. Organ of corti contains the sensory cells essential to hearing. These cells move as the fluid is traveling through the cochlea.

8 8 Types of Hearing Losses Conductive Hearing loss resulting in poor sound transmission from the outer ear to the middle ear. Example: Otitis media (ear infection), obstruction in external auditory canal Mixed Combination of conductive and sensorineural Sensorineural Hearing loss due to a problem in the inner ear that could affect the cochlea or the cranial nerve going to the brain Example: absent cochlea, high fever causing permanent damage

9 9 Degree of Hearing Loss See handout on Sound Pressure Level (p. 10) dB stands for decibal and it implies the intensity of sound present Normal Hearing 0-15 dB Mild Loss dB Moderate Loss dB Moderate to Severe Loss dB Severe Loss dB Profound Loss - 91 dB and above

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11 11 Communication Methods Manual Approach The hearing impaired person primarily uses sign language to learn and communicate with people (ASL) Usually has an interpreter to assist in communicating with non ASL speakers Oral Approach The hearing impaired person uses their residual hearing to learn and communicate with people Focuses on using verbal language to communicate Total Communication The hearing impaired person communicates through a combination of sign language and verbal communication

12 12 Technology Hearing Aids Cochlear Implants Assistive Listening Devices (FM Systems)

13 13 Technology Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants Hearing Aid Many different sizes and types Three components (microphone, amplifier and receiver) Amplifies sounds from the environment, but does not make speech clearer Cochlear Implant Electrode(s) placed in the inner ear Designed to directly stimulate nerves in the cochlea in an attempt to send stronger signals to the auditory nerve center in the brain

14 14 Technology FM Systems Usage FM System consists of microphone placed close to the sound source, the sound is transmitted to the receiver in the hearing aid via FM radio waves In the classroom the teacher wears the microphone that picks up his/her voice and sends it to the students hearing aid receiver, which then amplifies the sound Advantage of FM System FM picks up sound source but not background noise FM System is portable Small unit

15 15 Cochlear Electrode FM System

16 16 Communication Strategies for the HI Student Face the student when speaking to him/her Get the attention of the student before speaking Do not turn away while speaking to the student Do not stand in front of a light source while speaking to the student - the glare will prevent the student from reading your lips Repeat yourself if the student did not understand you Speak clearly Use facial expressions and gestures to help convey your message If the student has an interpreter, do not speak directly to the interpreter but to the student

17 17 Teaching Strategies for the HI Student Use visual aids during instruction Provide captioned media Reduce difficult vocabulary load Write out assignment requirements for the student Help the student locate a note taker Break up long, complex sentences Provide the student with a list of new vocabulary and concepts to be taught Check for understanding

18 18 Environmental Adaptations for the HI Student Place the student in a quiet part of the classroom - example: place them away from noisy machines like the air conditioner Place the students desks in a circle so the HI student can see all the students Try to reduce background noise Have only one student talk at once Develop a plan of action with the student in case of an emergency

19 19 References National Association of State Directors of Special Education. (1994) Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students; Educational Service Guidelines. VA. Levenson, M. J. (2001) Cochlear Implants Devices for Persons with Hearing Impairments. (2001). Understanding Hearing Loss/facts about Hearing Disorders. (2001).

20 20 References Information About Hearing Impairments. (2001). Strategies for Teaching Students with Hearing Impairments. (2001). Tell me About Assistive Listening Devices. (2001). Zemlin, W. R. (1988). Speech and Hearing Science; Anatomy & Physiology Third Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

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