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1 EQF: the progress of the implementation European Conference, Tiptoe project Brussels 17 June 2010 Loukas Zahilas, Senior Expert, qualifications and learning.

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Presentation on theme: "1 EQF: the progress of the implementation European Conference, Tiptoe project Brussels 17 June 2010 Loukas Zahilas, Senior Expert, qualifications and learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 EQF: the progress of the implementation European Conference, Tiptoe project Brussels 17 June 2010 Loukas Zahilas, Senior Expert, qualifications and learning outcomes

2 2 Structural Challenges Shift to a society in which the older segment of the workforce and the already elderly will form a new majority Towards knowledge and skills intensive occupations Better educated European citizens amongst youth and women but still high share of low skilled Mismatches due wrong/unbalanced skills and competences Loukas Zahilas 2

3 3 Thinking beyond recovery Working age population will start decline from 2013 The only expected growth is amongst those aged over 50. The number of those aged over 65 in relation to those aged will increase from 26% in 2008 to 38% by 2030 Changes in population and workforce by age category (EU 27 + NO + CH) Impact on jobs and skills: More elderly and an older workforce Source: Cedefop, 2010 Loukas Zahilas 3

4 4 Demand for qualifications rising Source: Cedefop, 2010 Loukas Zahilas 4

5 5 Our view on qualifications has developed considerably over the past few years. Qualifications are at the centre of the policy agenda and our understanding and use has changed significantly. We are gradually moving to a more developed view of the elements that make up a qualification Qualifications; an old concept, a new role 5

6 6 Qualifications as currencies Qualifications are carriers of information for: Individuals: qualifications signal personal, social and professional status Employers: recruitment purposes Education and training institutions: use qualifications as statements of quality Qualifications can signal the level and value of specific learning experiences and learning outcomes Loukas Zahilas 6

7 7 Inflated qualifications? Not only may the value of formal qualifications be inflated (higher qualifications are required for jobs at a lower level of knowledge, skills and competence), the value of alternative forms of learning may be systematically overlooked. Loukas Zahilas 7

8 8 The relativity of value It is important to distinguish between the level and the quality of qualifications. The quality of qualifications should be assessed in relation to their purpose. The value of qualifications can also depend strongly on the frame of reference in an evolving labour market Loukas Zahilas 8

9 9 After just 6 years we can say it is already a success; a lot have been achieved Provides an opportunity for European cooperation and national reform Meeting future challenges. The necessity to address a number of issues EQF Loukas Zahilas 9

10 10 More & more countries use learning outcomes for qualifications frameworks, standards, curricula and assessment. Broad agreement about how LO can increase transparency and strengthen accountability ; Introduce a common language enabling comparison of qualifications Current challenges Some sectors (general education) are lagging behind; Some countries lack commitment or apply LO in a non- coherent way; Shift to Learning Outcomes Loukas Zahilas 10

11 11 EQF has acted as a catalyst for NQF developments in Europe. The importance and priority attributed to NQFs across Europe is confirmed; All 31 countries are developing/introducing an NQF; A clear trend towards comprehensive NQFs covering all levels and types of qualifications; The ambitions and degree of integration/coherence vary between countries; The degree of involvement of stakeholders varies between countries – an important indicator for the future impact of the frameworks. Cedefop overviews NQF developments in: 27 EU member states, 2 EEA countries (IS, NO), 2 candidate countries (HR, TR) and covers a total of 34 frameworks (2 in Belgium, 3 in the UK) EQF and NQFs Loukas Zahilas 11

12 12 UNITED STATES of AMERICA CANADA ALASKA (USA) MEXICO COLOMBIA VENEZUELA BRAZIL PERU BOLIVIA HONDURAS NICARAGUA ECUADOR GUYANA SURINAME FRENCH GUIANA COSTA RICA PANAMA GUATEMALA CUBA PARAGUAY ARGENTINA URUGUAY CHILE GREENLAND ICELAND UNITED KINGDOM REPULIC OF IRELAND NORWAY SWEDEN FINLAND DENMARK ESTONIA LATVIA LITHUANIA POLAND BELARUS GERMANY CZECH REPUBLIC NETHERLANDS BELGIUM FRANCE SPAIN PORTUGAL SWITZ. AUSTRIA SLOVAKIA HUNGARY ROMANIA BULGARIA ITALY UKRAINE TURKEY GREECE SYRIA IRAQ SAUDI ARABIA YEMEN OMAN UAE EGYPT LIBYA ALGERIA MOROCCO TUNISIA WESTERN SAHARA MAURITANIA MALI NIGER CHAD SUDAN ETHIOPIA SOMALIA UGANDA SENEGAL GUINEA LIBERIA COTE DIVOIRE BURKINA GHANA NIGERIA CAMEROON CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC GABON CONGO DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO KENYA TANZANIA ANGOLA ZAMBIA MOZAMBIQUE NAMIBIA BOTSWANA ZIMBABWE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA MADAGASCAR RUSSIA KAZAKHSTAN GEORGIA IRAN UZBEKISTAN TURKMENISTAN AFGHANISTAN KYRGYZSTAN TAHKISTAN PAKISTAN INDIA CHINA NEPAL MYANMAR THAILAND SRI LANKA MONGOLIA NORTH KOREA SOUTH KOREA JAPAN TAIWAN CAMBODIA LAOS VIETNAM PHILIPPINES MALAYSIA INDONESIA PAPUA NEW GUINEA AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND 12 EQF the external dimension Loukas Zahilas

13 13 Roles and functions of NQFs Most NQFs in Europe are presented as communication frameworks; Communication frameworks increase the transparency of the existing qualifications systems - they do not suggest to change them; In some countries communication frameworks represent a first step - in some cases opening up towards reforms; The reforming role of NQFs will depend on their ability to influence the way qualifications are designed and awarded; NQFs may operate according to different objectives and ambitions in different E&T sub-systems. Loukas Zahilas 12

14 14 An opportunity to develop more user oriented qualifications systems by facilitating recognition of LLL and opening up towards validation of prior learning by clarifying learning pathways & providing internationally recognisable levels for qualifications A challenge as 1.More countries must reference to the EQF to make it a reality for individuals 2. EQF must be visible in certificates and diplomas 3. Issues of progression and transfer must be explicitly addressed The Individual Citizen Loukas Zahilas 13

15 15 EQF can facilitate recognition by strengthening the transparency of qualifications; strengthening cooperation and mutual trust by establishing a common reference point for qualifications Challenges Coordination with established recognitions structures at national and European level (ENIC and NARIC) Problematic relationship to the Directive (2005/36) on Recognition of Professional Qualifications; need to improve cooperation and links between the EQF and the Directive Recognition Loukas Zahilas 14

16 16 EQF provides an opportunity, through its reference levels and descriptors, to clarify how to turn the EQF into a (common) reference point also for qualifications awarded by sectors and companies Challenge: How these qualifications can be referenced to the EQF? Sectors Loukas Zahilas 16

17 17 If an international sectoral organisation unilaterally aligns its qualifications to EQF levels, what action can be taken? And how can this be prevented? The body may of course act in full good faith to "show the relationship between international sectoral qualifications and national qualifications systems". On the other hand, deliberate attempts to self-declare EQF levels for given qualifications should be expected, not only from sectoral organisations, but indeed from single learning providers. Sectors … and the ostrich effect Loukas Zahilas 17

18 18 Cedefop 18 Thanks for your attention


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