Presentation on theme: "10 Things You Should Know about Reading Vocabulary and Students with Hearing Loss Dr. Susan Easterbrooks Professor, GSU Dr. Nanci Scheetz Professor, VSU."— Presentation transcript:
10 Things You Should Know about Reading Vocabulary and Students with Hearing Loss Dr. Susan Easterbrooks Professor, GSU Dr. Nanci Scheetz Professor, VSU
First, some startling statistics… The median DHH student graduates high school reading somewhere around a 4th grade level. After achieving a late 2 nd /early 3 rd grade level, DHH students gain approximately 3/10 of a grade level per year in reading ability. Estimates on the percent of 18 year old DHH students who read on grade level upon graduation range between 3 and 10%.
I. Students who are deaf or hard of hearing typically come to school with an impoverished vocabulary when compared to children who can hear. Hearing Children before kindergarten will have heard: 45,000,000 words – College Educated Families 26,000,000 words – Working Class Families 13,000,000 words – Lower Socio- Economic Families (Knoell, 2005). Many children with hearing loss do have access to a rich vocabulary until a) someone starts signing with them, b) they get their first hearing aids, or c) they start school.
Exposure to Language: Hearing Children
Exposure to Language Deaf Children
World Knowledge Words and grammar that represent the ideas Ideas about the world Ability to read the words and make sense Labels Do you remember this pyramid from a previous presentation? This means that they struggle with the bottom two sections of the pyramid. It is a concept and language problem for most, rather than a reading problem, per se. II. You need to determine where on the pyramid your student is experiencing problems.
Heres an example. Read the following, define the words, explain what it means (OK, you math wizards…give the rest of us a chance to figure it out!) There are only 10 kinds of people in the world: those who understand binary and those who dont.
Hmmmmm…Lets analyze this Can you decode all these words? Do you know what the following words mean? 10, People, Understand, Binary, Those? Can you phrase this correctly? Can you read it at an appropriate words per minute? *So you have all the pieces, but you still dont have text comprehension! This is because you dont have the two bottom pieces of the pyramid.
Activating prior knowledge: What does 10 represent in the binary system? –This will help you figure out the answer For children with hearing loss, you cannot access a prior knowledge system if they do not have that information in their system.
III. Students with hearing loss have problems at all the layers of vocabulary knowledge. –Listening (basic) vocabulary –Grammar You cannot read English that you do not understand. –Sight word recognition –Retention Working memory is overtaxed when children read word for word. –Multiple Meanings –Idioms and other figures of speech Can understand these but are 3-4 years delayed. The amount of figurative language in print material is overwhelming. –The language of testing
IV. Teach students with hearing loss a broader vocabulary. 5 year-old hearing children are able to speak about and understand words. Their sentences contain of 5-8 words. They also can almost tell a story with accuracy. 5 year-old children… severely to profoundly deaf …who are severely to profoundly deaf may come to school with a vocabulary as limited as a few words. They may not use complete sentences. hard of hearing or have moderate losses …who are hard of hearing or have moderate losses may come to school with a vocabulary nearer to the average, but many have significant deficits. Vocabulary tends to fall across a limited range of conceptual categories. Words having to do with objects, actions, and ideas outside a childs realm of first-hand experience are limited. clothing food and drink animals basic action verbs places vehicles places body parts useful items people
generic labels They know generic labels (bird, car, shoes) but not examples of the category (parakeet, SUV, sneakers) Work with the SLP and TOD to help your student develop a broader vocabulary. decode known words –Why? Because children learn to decode known words more readily than unknown words. best predictor –Because vocabulary knowledge is the single best predictor of ease of learning to read.
V. Students who are deaf or hard of hearing need a deeper vocabulary: Multiple meanings depthBoth depth and breadth are issues for students with hearing loss. –May know the primary definition, but often lack second and third definitions.Run His allergy to cats made his nose run. He ran down the street. He ran the meeting efficiently. The play had a long run. He ran on and on.
VI. Students with hearing loss need to know figures of speech Examples found in 1 st grade books Verb idioms The jet will run out of gas. I washed them off. He worked to help the cars get by. Idiomatic expressions Time was running low. PersonificationTriceratops was a skateboard champ. HyperboleNobody ever helps me, said the mouse. LitotesI wanted to blow up my sea horse… Grandma helped a little. AlliterationThe Great Gray Goose gathered her goslings.
Examples found in 3rd grade books Verb idioms Mirette worked up the courage to speak. …but it did not wake up! Idiomatic expressionsThat man had the nerves of an iceberg. PersonificationPlease teach me. My feet are already unhappy on the ground. HyperboleThey tried everything under the sun, but nothing seemed to work. LitotesShe jumped up on the wire, but in a moment she was back on the ground.
When teaching figurative expressions, especially idioms, teach the accurate semantic meaning. Do not spend time on drawings or pictures of the false meaning. E.g., Youre pulling my leg. Deaf children are visually oriented and will want to retain the amusing figure rather than the actual meaning. Youre pulling my leg means youre teasing me. Heres a good book to use to talk about the concept of teasing.
VII. Deaf students benefit from semantic approaches to vocabulary development. Semantic mapping Context-based approaches Concept-based approaches Fairview Program THE least effective approach for teaching vocabulary to deaf children is to have them look up a book in the dictionary, copy the definition, and write a sentence.THE least effective approach for teaching vocabulary to deaf children is to have them look up a book in the dictionary, copy the definition, and write a sentence.
Semantic Mapping The teacher writes a word that represents the key concept. The student think of words that relate to the key word. These words are grouped around the key word in categories. The teacher presents new words and encourages a discussion about where these words might fit into the map. (Duffelmeyer & Banwart, 1993; Heimlich & Pittelman, 1986; Johnson, Pittelman, &Heimlich, 1986)
Here is an example of a semantic map for the solar system
Context-Based Approach Youngsters ultimately need to encounter a word in context to develop a full sense of its meaning (Gipe, 1980 ; Gipe & Arnold, 1979). context is the most frequent way to discover the meaningGuessing vocabulary from context is the most frequent way to discover the meaning of new words. Go to these websites to search for specific vocabulary in different childrens books. The more examples the student reads, the more rich his contextual base.
Steps for exploring context (Blachowicz & Fisher,1996) 1 st - Look before, at, and after the word. 2 nd - Connect what they know to what the author has written. 3 rd - Predict a possible meaning. 4 th - Resolve or re-do. Decide if they know enough, should try again, or consult an expert or reference.
Concept-Based Approach new relationships in old knowledgeConcept-based approaches are grounded on the assumption that new knowledge is gained from finding new relationships in old knowledge and from relating new information to old knowledge. (Schirmer, 2000) –Approaches Expansion maps Distancing Expanded Frayer Model
Expansion maps Develop a semantic map, then have students brainstorm other connections. The basic map designed by students (old relationships) is blue. Expansions by the teacher (new relationships) are yellow. IHOP short stack horse ride farm carriage car saddle pigs cows barn Cinderella Amish Sounds like hoarse sore throat expressions Horse of a different color Horse around expressions To be saddled (burdened) with… Get back in the saddle (try again after a failure) Pigs in blankets
Distancing conversational approach to expanding concepts –Distancing is a conversational approach to expanding concepts into the students real world. Ask questions about a concept in the book. Relate to the students person life. Relate to your life. –Example conversation
Look on this page. It says, Her fear was like a cloud casting its shadow on all she had done. We talked about what that means yesterday. Have you ever felt that way? Yes. I try try very hard. Study. Prepare for academic bowl. Nervous. Thats a great example. Once when I was entering a contest with my dog, we practiced and practices, but I was so nervous and afraid that I just knew we were going to mess up. It made me feel dark. Like a shadow was over me. The doctor tell my Mom, you have bad xray. Come back. Mom was shadow over her. But now Mom OK. Whew! Im glad.
Expanded Frayer Model Frayer, D., Frederick, W. C., and Klausmeier, H. J. (1969). A Schema for Testing the Level of Cognitive Mastery. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Center for Education Research. Begins with the Frayer Model but expand words out three levels: –Multiple meanings –Free association –Figurative language
jolt Sudden jerky motion unexpected shocking quick The car started with a jolt. Stop The policeman jolt the car. Shake I jolt the mixture. To jar with a quick, hard blow. A sudden feeling of shock, surprise, or disappointment. A small, potent portion Sudden emotion accident Crowds of people Jolt of java Jostled and jolted Jolt out of the blue
The Fairview Learning Program: A semantically-based program developed for students with hearing loss. Provides direct access to ASL and opens a window for hearing and deaf people to begin to think and sign bilingually. (Fairview Learning Network) Currently used in 42 states
Fairview Continued… The Bridge Lists & The Bridging Process English phrases requiring ASL translation for understanding –The bridge lists are English phrases requiring ASL translation for understanding. requires multiple sign concepts –Example: Down the street requires multiple sign concepts, depending on the context. A ball was hit down the street A man walked down the street.
Example: How would you teach the multiple meaning of the word of? Through context!!!! A measure of something a lb. of (what) ……… cheese, chocolate, nails a bag of (what) ……. peanuts, clothespins a box of (what) ……. dishes, cereal, rice a book of (what) ….. matches, addresses years of (what) …… deprivation, growth Talking about somethingLocation a story of (about) survival North of (where) the lake. A book of (about) names In the middle of (where) the forest From A tale of (about) two cities. From The case of (about) theThe Duchess of York. missing pen. CauseBefore Died of a heart attackQuarter of three
VIII. Deaf students benefit from morphographemic vocabulary instruction. What is a morphograph? Based on morphemes (word parts): –Root words- dog, car, at, on, just –Bound morphemes (affixes) Prefixes (un, re, dis) Suffixes (ly, ment, s, ness) Students learn word meanings by first writing parts of words (graphemes) and then by analyzing their meaning.
Morphographic analysis is effective with deaf students because: The patterns of letters are visually mediated and are thus available to the deaf student. You see and sign them, not necessarily say them. Morphographic correspondence in English is more stable and therefore more reliable than graphophonemic correspondence. Ability to apply syntactic knowledge to decoding text is highly correlated with comprehension performance of good readers who are deaf (Kelly, 1995). Skilled readers who are deaf pay attention to form features of English text more so than poor readers. Strong evidence exists for the role of a large vocabulary in reading proficiency, and manipulation of morphological forms is critical to development of more advanced vocabulary. Spellings derived from morphographic analysis are more stable than spelling from phonic analysis.
IX. One of the best ways to improve reading vocabulary is to read to and read with a student. Read to and read with children with hearing losses as often as possible. –This mimics the reading exposure that hearing children receive from their parents. –Use standard childrens literature.
-Use materials developed specifically for children who are deaf and hard of hearing. Allow the student to view text to ASL renderings of stories Sundance/Newbridge accessible textsSundance/Newbridge accessible texts Gallaudets Shared Reading storiesGallaudets Shared Reading stories
X. Interpreters need to use conceptually accurate signs. Made I made my bed. I made money. My brother made me do that. The rain made the grass green. I made a present for you. Each of these uses is represented by a different sign. If you sign the generic sign for make, this will not support concept development.
I. Students who are deaf or hard of hearing typically come to school with an impoverished vocabulary when compared to children who can hear. II. You need to determine where on the reading pyramid your student is experiencing problems. III. Students with hearing loss have problems at all the layers of vocabulary knowledge. IV. Teach students with hearing loss a broader vocabulary. V. Students who are deaf or hard of hearing need a deeper vocabulary: Multiple meanings VI. Students with hearing loss need to know figures of speech VII. Deaf students benefit from semantic approaches to vocabulary instruction. VIII. Deaf students benefit from morphographemic vocabulary instruction. IX. One of the best ways to improve reading vocabulary is to read to and read with a student. X. Interpreters need to use conceptually accurate signs.