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1Dr. Susan Easterbrooks Professor, GSU Dr. Nanci Scheetz Professor, VSU 10 Things You Should Know about Reading Vocabulary and Students with Hearing LossDr. Susan EasterbrooksProfessor, GSU Dr. Nanci ScheetzProfessor, VSU
2First, some startling statistics… The median DHH student graduates high school reading somewhere around a 4th grade level.After achieving a late 2nd/early 3rd grade level, DHH students gain approximately 3/10 of a grade level per year in reading ability.Estimates on the percent of 18 year old DHH students who read on grade level upon graduation range between 3 and 10% .
3I. Students who are deaf or hard of hearing typically come to school with an impoverished vocabulary when compared to children who can hear.Hearing Children before kindergarten will have heard:45,000,000 words – College Educated Families26,000,000 words – Working Class Families13,000,000 words – Lower Socio-Economic Families (Knoell, 2005).Many children with hearing loss do have access to a rich vocabulary until a) someone starts signing with them, b) they get their first hearing aids, or c) they start school.
6grammar that represent the ideas II. You need to determine where on the pyramid your student is experiencing problems.LabelsThis means that theystruggle with the bottomtwo sections of thepyramid. It is aconcept andlanguage problemfor most, ratherthan a readingproblem,per se.Ability to readthe words andmake senseDo you remember thispyramid from apreviouspresentation?Words andgrammar that represent the ideasWorld KnowledgeIdeas about the world
7Here’s an example. Read the following, define the words, explain what it means (OK, you math wizards…give the rest of us a chance to figure it out!)“There are only 10 kinds of people in the world: those who understand binary and those who don’t.”
8Phonological awareness and phonology Hmmmmm…Let’s analyze thisCan you decode all these words?Do you know what the following words mean? 10, People, Understand, Binary, Those?Can you phrase this correctly? Can you read it at an appropriate words per minute?* So you have all the “pieces,” but you still don’t have text comprehension! This is because you don’t have the two bottom pieces of the pyramid.Phonological awareness and phonologyVocabularyFluency
9Activating prior knowledge: What does 10 represent in the binary system? This will help you figure out the answerFor children with hearing loss, you cannot access a prior knowledge system if they do not have that information in their system.
10III. Students with hearing loss have problems at all the layers of vocabulary knowledge. “Listening” (basic) vocabularyGrammarYou cannot read English that you do not understand.Sight word recognitionRetentionWorking memory is overtaxed when children read word for word.Multiple MeaningsIdioms and other figures of speechCan understand these but are 3-4 years delayed. The amount of figurative language in print material is overwhelming.The language of testing
11IV. Teach students with hearing loss a broader vocabulary. 5 year-old hearing children are able to speak about and understand words. Their sentences contain of 5-8 words. They also can almost tell a story with accuracy.5 year-old children……who are severely to profoundly deaf may come to school with a vocabulary as limited as a few words. They may not use complete sentences.…who are hard of hearing or have moderate losses may come to school with a vocabulary nearer to the average, but many have significant deficits.Vocabulary tends to fall across a limited range of conceptual categories. Words having to do with objects, actions, and ideas outside a child’s realm of first-hand experience are limited.food and drinkanimalsbasic action verbsuseful itemsbody partspeopleclothingvehicles places
12They know generic labels (bird, car, shoes) but not examples of the category (parakeet, SUV, sneakers)Work with the SLP and TOD to help your student develop a broader vocabulary.Why? Because children learn to decode known words more readily than unknown words.Because vocabulary knowledge is the single best predictor of ease of learning to read.
13Both depth and breadth are issues for students with hearing loss. V. Students who are deaf or hard of hearing need a deeper vocabulary: Multiple meaningsBoth depth and breadth are issues for students with hearing loss.May know the primary definition, but often lack second and third definitions.RunHe ran down the street.The play had a long run.His allergy to cats made his nose run.He ran on and on.He ran the meeting efficiently.
14VI. Students with hearing loss need to know figures of speech Examples found in 1st grade booksVerb idioms The jet will run out of gas.I washed them off.He worked to help the cars get by.Idiomatic expressions Time was running low.Personification Triceratops was a skateboard champ.Hyperbole “Nobody ever helps me”, said the mouse.Litotes I wanted to blow up my sea horse…Grandma helped a little.Alliteration The Great Gray Goose gathered her goslings.
15Examples found in 3rd grade books Verb idioms Mirette worked up the courage to speak.…but it did not wake up!Idiomatic expressions That man had the nerves of an iceberg.Personification Please teach me. My feet are already unhappy on the ground.Hyperbole They tried everything under the sun, but nothing seemed to work.Litotes She jumped up on the wire, but in a moment she was back on the ground.
16E.g., You’re pulling my leg. When teaching figurative expressions, especially idioms, teach the accurate semantic meaning. Do not spend time on drawings or pictures of the false meaning.E.g., You’re pulling my leg.Deaf children are visually oriented and will want to retain the amusing figure rather than the actual meaning.“You’re pulling my leg” means “you’re teasing me.”Here’s a good book to use to talk about the concept of teasing.
17VII. Deaf students benefit from semantic approaches to vocabulary development. Semantic mappingContext-based approachesConcept-based approachesFairview ProgramTHE least effective approach for teaching vocabulary to deaf children is to have them look up a book in the dictionary, copy the definition, and write a sentence.
18Semantic MappingThe teacher writes a word that represents the key concept.The student think of words that relate to the key word.These words are grouped around the key word in categories.The teacher presents new words and encourages a discussion about where these words might fit into the map.(Duffelmeyer & Banwart, 1993; Heimlich & Pittelman, 1986; Johnson, Pittelman, &Heimlich, 1986)Excellent for D/HH1.) provides a visual display of the relationships between concepts in a key word.2.) It involves intense discussion, which in turn encourages active thinking.
19Here is an example of a semantic map for the solar system
20Context-Based Approach Youngsters ultimately need to encounter a word in context to develop a full sense of its meaning (Gipe, 1980; Gipe & Arnold, 1979).Guessing vocabulary from context is the most frequent way to discover the meaning of new words.Go to these websites to search for specific vocabulary in different children’s books. The more examples the student reads, the more rich his contextual base.
21Steps for exploring context (Blachowicz & Fisher,1996) 1st - Look before, at, and after the word.2nd- Connect what they know to what the author has written.3rd- Predict a possible meaning.4th- Resolve or re-do.Decide if they know enough, should try again, or consult an expert or reference.
22Concept-Based Approach Concept-based approaches are grounded on the assumption that new knowledge is gained from finding new relationships in old knowledge and from relating new information to old knowledge. (Schirmer, 2000)ApproachesExpansion mapsDistancingExpanded Frayer Model
23Expansion maps Develop a semantic map, then have students brainstorm other connections. The basic map designed by students (old relationships) is blue. Expansions by the teacher (new relationships) are yellow.Horse of a different colorHorse aroundIHOP short stackcowsPigs in blanketspigsfarmbarncarexpressionsridehorsecarriageCinderellaAmishsaddleSounds like “hoarse”expressionssore throatTo be saddled (burdened) with…Get back in the saddle (try again after a failure)
24DistancingDistancing is a conversational approach to expanding concepts into the student’s real world.Ask questions about a concept in the book.Relate to the student’s person life.Relate to your life.Example conversation
25Look on this page. It says, “Her fear was like a cloud casting it’s shadow on all shehad done.” We talked about what that meansyesterday. Have you ever felt that way?Yes. I try try very hard. Study Prepare for academic bowl Nervous.That’s a great example. Once when I wasentering a contest with my dog, we practicedand practices, but I was so nervous and afraidthat I just knew we were going to mess up. Itmade me feel dark. Like a shadow was over me.The doctor tell my Mom, you have bad xray.Come back. Mom was shadow over her. Butnow Mom OK.Whew! I’m glad.
26Begins with the Frayer Model but expand words out three levels: Expanded Frayer Model Frayer, D., Frederick, W. C., and Klausmeier, H. J. (1969). A Schema for Testing the Level of Cognitive Mastery. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Center for Education Research.Begins with the Frayer Model but expand words out three levels:Multiple meaningsFree associationFigurative language
27Jostled and jolted jolt Jolt out of the blue Jolt of java Sudden emotionJostled and joltedaccidentTo jar with a quick, hard blow.unexpectedshockingquickCrowds of peopleSudden jerky motionA small, potentportionjoltThe car started with a jolt.Stop “The policeman jolt the car.”Shake “I jolt the mixture.”A sudden feeling of shock, surprise, or disappointment.Jolt out of the blueJolt of java
28The Fairview Learning Program: A semantically-based The Fairview Learning Program: A semantically-based program developed for students with hearing loss.Provides direct access to ASL and opens a window for hearing and deaf people to begin to think and sign bilingually. (Fairview Learning Network)Currently used in 42 states
29Fairview Continued… The Bridge Lists & The Bridging Process The bridge lists are English phrases requiring ASL translation for understanding.Example: “Down the street” requires multiple sign concepts, depending on the context.“A ball was hit down the street”“A man walked down the street.”
30Example: How would you teach the multiple meaning of the word “of” Example: How would you teach the multiple meaning of the word “of”? Through context!!!!A measure of somethinga lb. of (what) ………cheese, chocolate, nailsa bag of (what) …….peanuts, clothespinsa box of (what) …….dishes, cereal, ricea book of (what) …..matches, addressesyears of (what) ……deprivation, growthTalking about something Locationa story of (about) survival North of (where) the lake.A book of (about) names In the middle of (where)the forestA tale of (about) two cities FromThe case of (about) the The Duchess of York.missing pen.Cause BeforeDied of a heart attack Quarter of three
31VIII. Deaf students benefit from morphographemic vocabulary instruction. What is a morphograph?Based on morphemes (word parts):Root words- dog, car, at, on, justBound morphemes (affixes)Prefixes (un, re, dis)Suffixes (ly, ment, s, ness)Students learn word meanings by first writing parts of words (graphemes) and then by analyzing their meaning.
32Morphographic analysis is effective with deaf students because: The patterns of letters are visually mediated and are thus available to the deaf student. You see and sign them, not necessarily say them.Morphographic correspondence in English is more stable and therefore more reliable than graphophonemic correspondence.Ability to apply syntactic knowledge to decoding text is highly correlated with comprehension performance of good readers who are deaf (Kelly, 1995).Skilled readers who are deaf pay attention to form features of English text more so than poor readers.Strong evidence exists for the role of a large vocabulary in reading proficiency, and manipulation of morphological forms is critical to development of more advanced vocabulary.Spellings derived from morphographic analysis are more stable than spelling from phonic analysis.
35IX. One of the best ways to improve reading vocabulary is to read to and read with a student. Read to and read with children with hearing losses as often as possible.This mimics the reading exposure that hearing children receive from their parents.Use standard children’s literature.
36Allow the student to view text to ASL renderings of stories -Use materials developed specifically for children who are deaf and hard of hearing.Allow the student to view text to ASL renderings of storiesSundance/Newbridge accessible textsGallaudet’s Shared Reading stories
37X. Interpreters need to use conceptually accurate signs. MadeI made my bed.I made money.My brother made me do that.The rain made the grass green.I made a present for you.Each of these uses is represented by a different sign. If you sign the generic sign for “make”, this will not support concept development.
38I. Students who are deaf or hard of hearing typically come to school with an impoverished vocabulary when compared to children who can hear.II. You need to determine where on the reading pyramid your student is experiencing problems.III. Students with hearing loss have problems at all the layers of vocabulary knowledge.IV. Teach students with hearing loss a broader vocabulary.V. Students who are deaf or hard of hearing need a deeper vocabulary: Multiple meaningsVI. Students with hearing loss need to know figures of speechVII. Deaf students benefit from semantic approaches to vocabulary instruction.VIII. Deaf students benefit from morphographemic vocabulary instruction.IX. One of the best ways to improve reading vocabulary is to read to and read with a student.X. Interpreters need to use conceptually accurate signs.