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Franck BRULHART Lecturer University of Aix-Marseille AGEFA PME Project INTENT January 17, 2008 Intercultural Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Franck BRULHART Lecturer University of Aix-Marseille AGEFA PME Project INTENT January 17, 2008 Intercultural Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Franck BRULHART Lecturer University of Aix-Marseille AGEFA PME franck.brulhart@univmed.fr Project INTENT January 17, 2008 Intercultural Management

2 17 janvier 2008 2 Structure of the presentation 1. The state of affairs on international cultural diversity Globalization and uniformization of cultures? Explanation of international cultural diversity 2. Characterization of international cultural diversity 3. Management of international cultural diversity Intercultural awareness Mastering foreign languages Merging in the situation Using vocational/sectoral culture as bridge Nonverbal communication G. Hofstede (1980, 1991) – House (2004) E.T. Hall (1990)

3 17 janvier 2008 3 1. The state of affairs on international cultural diversity (a) 1.1 Globalization and uniformization of cultures ? Globalization : « The processes and their results on phenomena of different disciplines (political, economic, cultural, social…) are of a worldwide dimension » A. Mattelard (2007) The trend to cultural uniformity « Mankind has established a monoculture; it prepares to produce a mass- civilization, as if eating beetroot. Its daily food doesnt consist of more than this » C. Levi-Strauss (1955) The convergence of consumers cultures or the « coca-colonization » U. Hannerz (1992) The emergence of a global village

4 17 janvier 2008 4 1. The state of affairs on international cultural diversity (b) 1.2 Explanation of international cultural diversity The configuration of a global village of 1000 inhabitants (Houston India Herald, Oct. 1998 ): Geographical origins : 584 Asians, 124 Africans, 95 Europeans, 84 South-Americans, 52 North-Americans… Language : 165 speak Mandarin, 86 English, 83 Hindi or Urdu, 65 Spanish, 58 Russian, 37 Arabic … Religion : 329 Christians, 178 Muslims, 60 Buddhists, 45 Atheists, 32 Hindustani, … Age : 330 children, 60 above 60 years old, … Income : 200 habitants possess 75% of wealth, 200 others posses 2% of wealth, …

5 17 janvier 2008 5 1. The state of affairs on international cultural diversity (c) Germany 500$ / week Peru 31$ / week 1.2 Explanation of international cultural diversity Weekly menus as seen by Peter Menzel (part)

6 17 janvier 2008 6 1. The state of affairs on international cultural diversity (c) 1.2 Explanation of international cultural diversity Weekly menus as seen by Peter Menzel (part) Culture (C. Usunier, 2004): The symbolic organization of a group and the representation that the group creates of itself and of its relations with others Explicit elements : languages, customs, habits, traditions, skills, knowhow… Implicit elements : values, myths, beliefs, concepts, representations…

7 17 janvier 2008 7 1. The state of affairs on international cultural diversity (d) 1.3 Synthesis Cultural heterogenity on global scale: From homogeneity to mixture of races: creolization (Hannerz, 1992) International entrepreneurial strategy: Facing the state of a continuous cultural diversity, the development of a strategy of international entrepreneurship calls for the identification of the dimensions of this cultural diversity and for the preparation for those. Indeed, if social interactions are based on specific cultural models, the international entrepreneur should adapt his behaviour and his attitude in order to avoid disturbing or violating the norms held consciously or subconsciously by his business relations (E. Hall, 1990).

8 17 janvier 2008 8 2. Characterization of international cultural diversity (a) 2.1 Identifying the dimensions of cultural diversity: G. Hofstede The Hofstede model (1980, 1991) : 5 indepent bipolar dimensions: The importance of hierarchical distance (HIE) The degree of individualism (IND) The relation with insecurity (INC) Masculine / feminine orientation (MAS) Short-term / long-term orientation (LTO) House (2004) Globe study HIEINDINCMASLTO DK1874231645 FR6871864339 JAP5446929580 NL3880531435 RO90913042 USA4091466229

9 17 janvier 2008 9 2. Characterization of international cultural diversity (b) 2.2 Identifying the dimensions of cultural diversity : E. Hall The model of E.T. Hall (1990) : Culture is a system of creating, emitting, retaining and of processing information (Chevrier, 2003). The objective of Hall is to provide the necessary tools to decode messages of another culture. 3 hidden dimensions of communication: The concept of time (monochronic versus polychronic) The concept of space (cultural proximity) The context of communication (rich versus poor)

10 17 janvier 2008 10 2. Characterization of international cultural diversity (c) Rich context versus poor context (E. Hall) Switzerland Germany Denmark United States United Kingdom France Italy Latin America Middle East Africa (below the Sahara) China Japan explicitimplicit Strong IMPLICIT Communication style EXPLICIT Communication style Preferential message types Weak Appeal on the context of the message

11 17 janvier 2008 11 2. Characterization of international cultural diversity (d) 2.3 Synthesis Characterizing international contexts: The identification of cultural specifics of international contexts permits the comprehension of the influence of culture on behaviour, management practices and communication: interpersonal interactions. This comprehension constitutes the prerequisites of intercultural management practices for the international entrepreneur. Good practices of the international entrepreneur: The refined comprehension of international cultural contexts has to facilitate the necessary adaption of behaviour and to avoid the classic errors due to failing intercultural management.

12 17 janvier 2008 12 3. Management of international cultural diversity (a) 3.2 Mastering foreign languages Acknowledgement of the relativity of behaviours and practices (Trompenaars, 2003) The limits of a generic approach on culture 3.1 Intercultural awareness The risks of not understanding Avoid lathophobia – fear of making errors (C. Hagège, 1996)

13 17 janvier 2008 13 3. Management of international cultural diversity (b) 3.4 Using vocational/sectoral culture as bridge Learning by experience Real experience, shared of simulated: Simulation EUROSIM 3.3 Merging in the situation Capitalizing on the culture of the vocation or the sector to overcome the cultural gap (Chevrier, 2003)

14 17 janvier 2008 14 3. Management of international cultural diversity (c) Physical movements, paralanguage, use of space, physical environment… (Meier, 2004) A necessary nonverbal gesture 3.5 Nonverbal communication Shaking the head from left to right: USA : no France: no Netherlands : no Bulgary : yes Malaysia : yes Saoudi Arabia : yes

15 17 janvier 2008 15 3.6 Synthesis A statement: The existence of great cultural differences between countries and regions. A neccessity : perceive and understand the differences in order to improve the ability to deal with international exchanges. A means : Intercultural management and intercultural communication. 3. Management of international cultural diversity (d)

16 Thank you for your attention Project INTENT January 17, 2008


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