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By Holly Maines & Ashley Ayers Fall 2000

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1 By Holly Maines & Ashley Ayers Fall 2000
Curriculum & Instructional Strategies for Use With Deaf & Hard of Hearing Students By Holly Maines & Ashley Ayers Fall 2000

2 Table of Contents Introduction National Organizations
National Standards Online Curricular Resources Online Instructional Activities Common Technology problems Reflections

3 Introduction This curriculum guide has been developed to expand on existing deaf education curriculum and enhance resources for new and existing teachers, parents, students, and aids. We have built upon the information provided in the Kendal Deaf Studies Curriculum Guide from Kendal Demonstration Elementary School.

4 Kendall Demonstration Elementary School: Deaf Studies Curriculum Guide

5 Deaf Studies Our project will be focusing on the Identity strand of the Deaf Studies curriculum guide. We will provide teaching strategies and information for future teachers, parents, students, and aids with the belief that they will be used for d/hh students that have been in school for seven years. For more information and strategies concerning three to six years please see the material presented by Lisa Matt and Michelle Kalish at:

6 National Organizations
Joining National Organizations geared towards the Deaf and Hard of Hearing is an important part of educating d/hh students. It enables teachers, parents, and aids to obtain additional resources, activities, teaching strategies, support services, and networking links.

7 National Organizations
Students may join some organizations to help them form a greater sense of identity and to improve upon their involvement within the deaf community.

8 National Organizations
A directory of over sixty national organizations and associations dealing with deafness can be found at Scroll down to Organizations and Agencies and click on the directory. The top three national organizations we found to be beneficial: 1. National Association for the Deaf 2. Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf/HH 3. American Society for Deaf Children

9 National Association for the Deaf
What is here? Networking link to deaf culture and community online Information on the latest technology for d/hh individuals Lists top ten requests for information on deafness Why did we choose this site? We were overwhelmed with the abundant amount of resources and support networks available to educate parents, professionals, and the public about deafness.

10 National Association for the Deaf
How can it be used by a teacher of d/hh? To obtain additional resources and establish networking links between deaf communities. Where can you find this site?

11 Alexander Graham Bell Association for the D/HH
What is here? Historical information Resources on all aspects of deafness: medical, emotional, and social Why did we choose this site? There is an abundance of resources and updated press releases on the latest information dealing with deafness.

12 Alexander Graham Bell Association for the D/HH
How can it be used by a teacher of d/hh? Teachers can obtain the latest information about advocacy, conferences, workshops, and publications, all of which will help them focus on the personal, emotional and academic growth of their students. Where can I find this site?

13 American Society for Deaf Children
What is here? Representative support services Link to families w/ individuals who are d/hh Directory of members and parent networking services Why did we choose this site? This site was specifically designed with the hopes that d/hh children would use this site to help them form their own identity within the deaf community. It is colorful and easy to read.

14 American Society for Deaf Children
How can it be used by a teacher of d/hh? Teachers can use the resource search engine to find specific information on the world wide web geared towards the topic of deafness. Where can I find this site?

15 National Organizations
The national organizations listed are just a preview of the wealth of knowledge diverse racial and ethnic groups provide within the expanse of the deaf world.

16 National Standards With the help of two of our classmates, Bethany Yerkovich and Nicole Kovacs, we have found that the National Association of the Deaf has proposed a bill of rights for d/hh students. An in depth explanation of the bill of rights can be found at the following website: It is our hope that our curriculum guide will uphold specific standards from the bill of rights, which are listed on the next few slides.

17 National Standards Deaf and hard of hearing children shall have an education with a sufficient number of same language mode peers who are of the same age and ability level. We chose this standard because when working with the identity of the d/hh individuals it is important for them to feel like they are not alone. They need to feel a sense of belonging and be able to share common experiences with diverse individuals.

18 National Standards Deaf and hard of hearing children shall be provided opportunities to interact with deaf and hard of hearing adult role models. We chose this standard because d/hh students need to be able to develop a sense of belonging in the deaf community and to take pride in deaf culture. D/hh adults can serve as positive role models for d/hh students and share their experiences and knowledge of the deaf community.

19 National Standards Deaf and hard of hearing children shall derive equal benefit from all services and programs at their schools. We chose this standard because we feel that d/hh students should be treated fair and need to be given the same opportunities and services of hearing students, whether it be academic, social, or transitional.

20 National Standards Through personal and social interactions, within same age peers and adults of whom are Deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing, students develop a sense of belonging and positive group identity. The three standards listed on the previous slides encompass the true meaning of identity.

21 Online Curricular Resources
The following section contains ten curricular resources that we feel will be very beneficial to educators, parents, and d/hh students themselves. These resources provide both essential information on d/hh identity in addition to curricular materials.

22 Top Ten Online Curricular Resources
Identity and Deafness: Who Am I? Deaf Kids and Youth Deaf Views Hand Glass Deaf Today Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center Gallaudet University Library Deaf Education: A Parents Guide Residential Schools & Deaf Culture Personal & Social Identity of Hard of Hearing People

23 Identity and Deafness: Who Am I?
Why Selected? This site claims that deafness is not the cause of most of the problems that young d/hh students have in school, but it is the reactions that the parents and professionals working with the student that causes confused identity and poor self concept.

24 Identity and Deafness: Who Am I?
How used? Educators, parents and especially professionals working with d/hh students can read this article in order to get a better understanding of the identity issues facing today’s young d/hh students. Where can I find this site?

25 Deaf Kids and Youth Why selected?
This site puts a lot if information on the fingertips of educators, parents and students. It contains many different ways for students to connect to one another and form friendships and bonds that they will can be everlasting.

26 Deaf Kids and Youth How used? Where can I find this site?
Exploration of this website shows d/hh students that they are not alone in the world. It helps boast self confidence by allowing them to find and learn about the thousands of other children their age that have similar feelings. Where can I find this site?

27 Deaf Views Why selected? How used? Where can I find this site?
This site gives d/hh individuals a chance to voice their opinions on certain hot topics. How used? Educators, parents and young d/hh individuals can use this site to gather information about a hot topic that interests them or add to the information already presented. Where can I find this site?

28 Hand Glass Why selected?
This site shows that people that are d/hh can be great writers. It also shows that d/hh people do not, and should not, only write about deafness. It is a fun and easy read.

29 Hand Glass How used? Where can I find this site?
Educators, parents, and children can all use this website by giving their addresses to subscribe to newsletters that contain poems, short stories, and novels written by d/hh individuals. Where can I find this site?

30 Deaf Today Why selected? How used? Where can I find this site?
This site contains a daily updated newspaper that includes information about d/hh individuals and transition. How used? Educators, parents, and young d/hh individuals can come to this site to keep up to date on issues facing other d/hh individuals like themselves. Where can I find this site?

31 Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center
Why selected? This site contains a multitude of information dealing with the latest teaching activities used at the Kendall Demonstration School in Washington D.C. as well as the latest information concerning Deaf Culture.

32 Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center
How used? Parents and students can use this site to gain a better knowledge of the deaf community, explore deaf message boards and chat rooms, and understand that there are millions of diverse people who are d/hh in the world. Teachers may use this site as a guide to various teaching activities related to deaf community involvement. Where can I find this site?

33 Gallaudet University Library
Why selected? This site allows teachers, parents, and students unlimited access to deaf related periodicals, research guides, and web sites. How used? Students and parents can access specific subject matter relating to deafness by author, title, or subject in order to gain a better understanding of the concerns and questions they may have. Where can I find this site?

34 Deaf Education A Parents Guide
Why selected? This site acts as a guide for parents, students, and professionals by providing information on issues related to deafness, the education of the d/hh students, and Deaf Culture.

35 Deaf Education A Parents Guide
How used? Parents and teachers can choose from a list of books related to deafness, read up on the laws pertaining to the education and transition of the d/hh, and obtain a list of community resources. Easy tips on reading audiograms and teaching literacy to deaf students can be acquired as well. Where can I find this site?

36 Residential Schools and Deaf Cultures
Why selected? This site describes, with great detail, how students deal with different cultural relationships within the d/hh community as well as outside.

37 Residential Schools and Deaf Cultures
How used? Teachers, parents and aids can use this as a guide to help make their classrooms and homes more deaf friendly. There is an amazing list with tips on how to use d/hh role models in the classroom. Where can I find this site?

38 Personal and Social Identity of Hard of Hearing People
Why Selected? This site deals specifically with the very important issue of “Who am I?”. Many d/hh students have a very difficult time identifying themselves as deaf or hard of hearing, especially in their adolescent years.

39 Personal and Social Identity of Hard of Hearing People
How used? This site provides support to teachers, parents and aids to help them with the emotional, physical and social transitions students will undergo, especially in the teen years. Where can I find this site?

40 Online Curricular Resources
The ten online curricular resources presented on the previous slides are just a few examples of the thousands of resources waiting to be found on the world wide web. All you have to do is visit any search engine and type in key words to access the information on deafness and identity.

41 Online Instructional Activities
The following section contains example activities designed so that parents, students, and teachers can do the following: Investigate the similarities and differences between each other. Build self-confidence and self-respect for who they are as a person. Examine personal experiences and how they relate to a society filled with diverse ethnic groups. Gain pride as a d/hh individuals with a unique backgrounds that can add to the richness of a diverse ethnic culture.

42 Top Ten Online Instructional Activities
“Dummy” Hoy Culturally Sensitive Education Silent Web The Deaf: Included or Forgotten Career Choices Growing up Deaf in Hearing Families VSDC-Services for Deaf Children “Deafness Is No Barrier” Ask Question, Answer Question; Self Identity HIP Magazine for Deaf & Hard of Hearing Kids & Their Pals The Life of Helen Keller

43 “Dummy” Hoy Why selected?
This site is dedicated to baseball great George Hoy (aka “Dummy” Hoy). This website shows that just because someone is deaf, it doesn’t limit them in what they can do. Hoy was the first deaf baseball player and is the reason that hand signals are now used in baseball.

44 “Dummy” Hoy How used? Where can I find this site?
Activity: Have students visit the website and read the quotes that reporters used to describe Hoy. Then, have students pick out a quote that they think would hurt Hoy’s feelings and single out the words that need to be changed in order to make it a positive statement. As a class, change the negative words into positive ones. Where can I find this site?

45 Culturally Sensitive Education
Why selected? This site contains two excellent case studies about gifted d/hh individuals. It shows that while many d/hh students have a language delay and function lower then their expected grade level, there are still those who do go beyond all expectations.

46 Culturally Sensitive Education
How used? Activity: Have students go to website and scroll down to the case studies. Have them read the case study about Stephen. After finishing, have them discuss the benefits Stephen may have had if he was involved with the deaf community in his teen years and in his transitional stage? Next, have them read Alice’s case study and discuss how her involvement in the deaf community benefited her future career plans. Where can I find this site?

47 Silent Web Why Selected? How used? Where can I find this site?
This site increases students awareness of the what is going on in the deaf world and encourages students to keep up with what's going on in the world today. How used? Activity: Assign a specific newsletter to each student. Have them go to the website and summarize the newsletter. When finished, have students go in front of the class and present it. Where can I find this site?

48 The Deaf: Included or Forgotten
Why selected? This site contains a wonderful essay written by a 9th grader on her personal experiences with a friend who is deaf. It presents great examples of personal identity issues.

49 The Deaf: Included or Forgotten
How used? Activity: Have students go to the website and read the essay. Then have then each write about a similar experience that they have had OR have students write an essay about what they think they can teach a hearing individual about the identity of d/hh individuals. Where can I find this site?

50 Career Choices Why Selected?
This site addresses the issue of whether to work in the deaf or hearing fields and gives pros and cons of each.

51 Career Choices How used? Where can I find this site?
Activity: Split the students up into groups based on whether they would prefer to work in the deaf field or hearing field. Have a debate. At the end of the debate, have students read the article. Has anyone changed their mind? If so, why? Where can I find this site?

52 Growing up Deaf in Hearing Families
Why Selected? This is a site that we feel is a good example of how students can get a clear picture of the unique aspects of growing up in a deaf family vs. a hearing family.

53 Growing up Deaf in Hearing Families
How used? Activity: Have students interview a d/hh individual from a deaf family and then when finished, have them interview a d/hh individual from a hearing family. After these individuals leave, discuss similarities and differences between d/hh children from hearing families and d/hh children from deaf families. Where can I find this site?

54 VSDC-Services for Deaf Children “Deafness Is No Barrier”
Why selected? It gives young deaf people an opportunity to express their ideas and dreams, commitment to turn their dream to reality, contribute to their personal development, and the enjoyment of creating their own project.

55 VSDC-Services for Deaf Children “Deafness Is No Barrier”
How used? Activity: Have students read about the youth awards VSDC has to offer and have them contact the VSDC youth awards coordinator, Paula Thornton (TTY: or to enter the Personal Development Awards Project. Where can I find this site?

56 Ask Question, Answer Question; Self Identity
Why Selected? This site provides a chance for all individuals who are interested to find out what “deaf” individuals prefer to be called. How used? Activity: Ask d/hh students what the prefer to be called. Next, have students visit the site view the postings. Then, have a discussion about whether they agree with what is being said or not. Where can I find this site?

57 HIP Magazine for Deaf & Hard of Hearing Kids & Their Pals
Why Selected? It is an excellent site allows d/hh youth to enhance their reading skills by sharing stories and articles written by other d/hh youth. Students can see that very talented d/hh writers do exist. Parents, teachers, and students can access the literature that is meaningful to the development of their own identity.

58 HIP Magazine for Deaf & Hard of Hearing Kids & Their Pals
How used? Activity: After students peruse the site have them access the media main page and scroll down to the magazine’s front page. Have students Robin Gladstone to obtain copies of HIP Magazine. Once the students have obtained a copy of the magazine and have read through the articles have them discuss what articles they liked the most and why. Students can also design and write their own articles to be gathered together in a classroom magazine and post them on the web. Where can I find this site?

59 The Life of Helen Keller
Why selected? As this site shows, Helen Keller is one of the most famous deaf-blind people in the world. She succeeded in overcoming her “disability” to become a world famous author, public speaker, and positive role model for all. Her life story proves that you can do anything you set your mind to.

60 The Life of Helen Keller
How used? Activity: Though Helen Keller had a hard time overcoming the many obstacles in her way, she did. Have students list some of the obstacles that she had to overcome. Next, have them list some of the obstacles that they will face today while out searching for a job. Where can I find this site?

61 Instructional Activities
The ten instructional activities listed on the previous slides are just a few examples of the activities that we feel would be beneficial for d/hh students who have been in the program for seven years. We believe that these activities will help them develop personal career goals along with helping them with the transition from school to whatever they choose to do afterwards.

62 Common Technological Problems
In an era where technology is used so often but is not clearly developed yet, there are many problems that the average technological user will face. On the next few slides, we have listed common technological problems and their solutions.

63 Technology Problems In order to access our curriculum project and carry out the activities, a teacher would need to have access to multiple computers with internet access, access to fax machines, copy machines, and printers.

64 Technology Problems Problem: Solution:
No Computer access or internet access. Solution: Most local libraries today have at least one computer with internet access that is available to the public.

65 Technology Problems Problem: Solution:
Slow modem, or old software, incompatible software. Solution: If no funds are available to update old computers write grants to local, state, and government companies and organizations.

66 Technology Problems Problem: Solution:
No access to fax machine within the school. Solution: Local library should have one, but if not ask a local business to get involved in supporting the school by allowing the use of their fax machine.

67 Technology Problems Problem: Solution: Inability to download website.
Webwacker is a nonprofit organization that provides software to download websites to a hard disc so that you can then use the disc on a computer that does not have access to the internet or a computer that tends to have difficulties downloading information. More information can be found on their website:

68 Technology Problems Problem: Solution:
No access to a copier or the copier is broken. Solution: Local business or local library can aid in the use of a copier. Most local libraries will help support the school for little to no cost. If funds are a problem try fundraisers in the local community.

69 Technology Problems Problem: Solution:
Inability to print or no access to a printer. Solution: Save information to a disc and print it out at the local library.

70 Technology Problems Though technology can be frustrating and can breakdown often it is important to not give up on it. There is so much information out there that can be linked, shared, and networked through the worldwide web. Many solutions seem unpractical, but keep in mind that not only are you learning about the good points and bad points of computers, but your students are as well. Make it a positive learning experience for them.

71 Reflection Upon finishing this project there are five major insights that we have gained from this experience. Abundance of information vs. lack of information on the world wide web Learning experience Instructional Specialists vs. Curricular Specialists How to research and work collaboratively Time consuming yet helpful

72 Information on the WWW Too Much Vs. Too Little
We had very little problems finding information on the health aspects of deafness. There is such a wealth of information on the causes of deafness and the services that exist. We had an extremely difficult time finding information relating to the identity strand of deaf studies. It is our hope that this project will be available on the www to help teachers, parents, and students gain a better understanding of what it means to be d/hh.

73 Learning Expierence This was a wonderful learning experience for us on a subject we knew little about. We were able to understand what the term Identity really means. It is a single word that encompasses a concept that revolves around personal reflection and understanding. Identity is self-acceptance, self-confidence, self-awareness, group acceptance, and exploration of personal goals throughout ones life.

74 Instructional Specialists vs. Curricular Specialists
As future teachers of the d/hh we are trained in instruction rather than in designing curriculums. We now have a greater awareness and respect of the difficulties that are involved in such a task. By doing this project, we feel that it will make us better instructional specialists because we have a taste of how curriculums can be designed.

75 How to Research and Work Collaboratively
In doing this project, Ashley and I have gained a better understanding of what it is to work collaboratively while doing research. Working collaboratively is a skill that we, as teachers of the deaf, have to get used to and comfortable with. This is a learning experience that will last a lifetime. This project has taught us how to effectively research on the internet by developing our own specific guidelines to follow.

76 Time Consuming Yet Helpful
While this project took hours upon hours to complete, it will be very useful to educators of the deaf. Deaf studies is an area of great importance to the emotional, social, cognitive and academic growth and development of d/hh that is very hard to find information on. By doing this project, we hope that it is just one more step towards the goal of personal identity in d/hh students.

77 Reflections This project has made us aware that it is only through continuous learning and exploring that we will become master teachers of the d/hh.


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