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Lama Nachman Intel Corporation Research Santa Clara, CA

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Presentation on theme: "Lama Nachman Intel Corporation Research Santa Clara, CA"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lama Nachman Intel Corporation Research Santa Clara, CA
Imote2 Lama Nachman Intel Corporation Research Santa Clara, CA nesC is a PL for a new area, n.e.s. nesC is the PL used to implement TinyOS, our OS for n.e.s., and its apps nesC and TinyOS tightly intertwined; designed together to address 1! challenges of this area I’ll start by introducing n.e.s, typical apps and the resulting challenges I will then show how nesC and TinyOS address these challenges

2 Imote2 Design Goals Focus on a “value add” mote Use Intel silicon
Demanding applications / data processing Industrial applications Use Intel silicon Incorporate learnings from Imote design and deployments Condition based monitoring Water pipeline monitoring Structural monitoring / damage detection Expand usage model Compute server / simple gateway Linux

3 Imote 2 components

4 PXA 271 Features Low active power @ 13 MHz Enhanced Low power modes
Ultra low voltage at low speeds (0.85V up to 104 MHz) Enhanced Low power modes Many voltage domains Deep sleep (0.1mW) SRAM banks can be individually turned off Enhanced I/O options (sensor boards, alternate radios) I2C, SPI, UART, CIF, USB, SDIO All I/O pins can be configured as GPIOs Scalable performance (DVS : power/performance tradeoff) Internal 256K SRAM Stacked 32MB FLASH/SDRAM option, to reduce form factor size Wireless MMX and ARM5VTE DSP Useful for in-network data processing (FFT, compression, peak detection, etc) Security co-processor

5 Radio Choices Too early to commit to a single radio for WSN
Different applications might need different radios looks promising (medium data rate, low power) Bluetooth has the ubiquity advantage has the installed infrastructure advantage Need to compare the characteristics of different radios and their suitability for WSN Imote2 has an onboard ChipCon CC2420 ( ) Other radio options will be enabled through SDIO cards and UART/USB Bluetooth 802.11b

6 Sensor Board Connectors
Split the connectors into 2 sets basic (front side of the board) Advanced (back side of the board) “Architectural” pins, will be supported in future Imote generations Platform dependent pins, can change in later generations Use two connectors on each side of the board Basic Connector (31 pin, 21 pin, 1 mm pitch) I2C, SPI, UART, GPIO Support most application needs Enable low cost sensor boards Advanced Connector (40 pin, 20 pin, .65 mm pitch) Camera, high speed bus, AC97, I2S Targeted for specialized applications

7 Other components PMIC Antenna Mini USB connector Tri-color LED
Support all 9 voltage domains Battery charger, DVS, battery voltage monitoring Antenna GigaAnt surface mount antenna (Imote1 learning) Optional SMA connector (Imote1 learning) Mini USB connector Tri-color LED Crystals Bulverde requires 13 MHz and KHz crystal ChipCon radio requires 16 MHz crystal Reset button

8 Imote2 Power Solution Usage : Primary, USB/power, Rechargeable
Added battery pads on board

9 Other Features No A/D on mote board SDIO Reduce cost
Digital sensors don’t need it Applications have different A/D requirements (Number of channels, sampling rate, filtering, etc) A/D will be integrated into the sensor board Create generic A/D sensor board to enable quick proto-typing of analog sensors SDIO Connector is too big (30x30 mm) and costly ($1.74) to be included on Imote2 board Pins will be exposed through basic connector Create SDIO connector board

10 Status Dev board in Q3 First form factor board (Q4/’04)
Collection of plug-in boards Enable S/W development Currently running TinyOS 15.4 radio Basic drivers : Timers, SPI First form factor board (Q4/’04) Debug board (Q4/’04) JTAG, expansion headers, USB Power & battery holder 2nd spin of form factor board (Q1/’05)

11 Backup Copyright © 2004, Intel Corporation

12 Existing sensor interfaces
Basic sensor interfaces Analog I2C SPI PWM Custom bit-banged digital interfaces Sensor families Light (usually analog or PWM and some I2C) Thermopile (mostly analog, some PWM) Ultraviolet (analog or PWM) IR (analog, PWM, and a few I2C) Visible Light (analog, PWM, and a few I2C) Color sensors (PWM) Magnetic (analog, I2C) Sound (analog) Ultrasound (analog, PWM) Accelerometers (SPI, I2C, analog and PWM) Temperature sensors (I2C, analog and PWM) Pressure sensors (analog, SPI) Humidity (custom I2C) Touch sensors (analog or PWM) A/D (SPI, I2C, parallel)

13 BOM Cost Estimate Item Description Cost PXA 270/271/273 Discrete / 32M F+S / 32M F $17.75 / $32.44 / $23  PMIC Dialog power management IC $3.75 CC2420 ChipCon 15.4 Radio $3.6 Crystals 13 MHz, 16 MHz, 32KHz ~$2.8 Antenna Giga Ant surface mount $1.5 LED + Driver Agilent $1 Connectors Basic (2) + Advanced (2) $1 + $1.6 Passives ~ $9 Fab + Assembly Rough estimate from imote1 ~ $10 Total With PXA 270 / 271 / 273 $52 + F / $67 / $57 Prices above assume 1K units, except for PXA and PMIC (special Intel pricing) PXA 270 configuration will need an external flash + bringing out addr/data bus

14 Mote feature comparison
Imote Micaz Telos Mica2 Imote 2 CPU 32bit 8bit 16bit 32b SRAM [kB] 64 4 10 256/32,000 FLASH [kB] 512 48 KB / 1024 KB 32,000 Radio BT MHz 15.4 (BT/802.11) Bandwidth [kb/s] 720 250 15 250 (720/11,000) Power C/R/T [mA] 15 / 24 / 24 8 / 20 / 18 1 / 20 / 18 8 / 10 / 27 40/20/18 Power sleep [uA] 1-250 27 6 19 1-100 Security HW 4LFSR-128 AES-128 N Y OS support TinyOS

15 Imote Research goals Cost reduction
Explore more demanding applications (is there a need for a value add mote?) High data rates In network processing Gain experience with Mote development Explore needed features (processing power, radio characteristics, I/O options, RAM, flash, form factor, etc) Imote2 definition Cost reduction No volume in WSN currently Reduce cost by leveraging another high volume market ARM7 + BT radio module cost the same as 8 bit Atmega

16 Early Motes Early Motes (UCB) focused mainly on low power (Mica, Mica2, Mica2 Dot) 8 bit micro-controllers (Atmega128L, 8 MHz) 4 KB of RAM Low bandwidth radio (15 Kb/s, 300–900MHz) Active processor power = 24mW Sleep power = 45uW Suitable for low data rate applications requiring only minimum data processing

17 Imote features Multicolor status LED ARM* core SRAM FLASH BT radio
2.4 GHz antenna Stackable connectors (top and bottom) Optional voltage regulator (bottom) Optional external antenna connector *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others

18 Imote hardware Intel® Mote is a modular, stackable design
Main board (ARM* core, SRAM, FLASH, BT radio) Power supply board (battery, AC, solar, …) Sensor board(s) Other boards (alternate radio, debug, actuator, …) Backbone I2C interconnect provides power, signaling Sensor board Main board Power board Backbone interconnect *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others

19 Learnings from Imote (Condition Based Monitoring App)
Higher bit rates and MAC reliability are very useful features Reduce total energy of the system Enable higher collection frequency Extra RAM is useful Reduce sensor board cost by leveraging internal RAM Eases development considerably Bluetooth resilience to interference

20 Basic Connector 31 pin 21 pin Hirose DF9 Hirose DF9 SCL SDA 1 2 3 4 5
6 9 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 SSPCLK SSPFRM SSPTxD SSPRxD GND MMCLK MMCMD 15 31 MMD0 MMD1 MMD2 MMD3 31 pin 16 GPIO 93 FFRxD FFTxD FFCTS FFRTS BTRxD BTTxD BTCTS BTRTS SSPCLK2 SSPFRM2 SSPTxD2 SSPRxD2 GPIO 94 Hirose DF9 7 GPIO 10 30 8 25 I2C SPI 1 SPI 2 UART 1 UART 2 SDIO Reserved STD_RxD STD_TxD 1.8 V 3.0 V Alarm GND STDUart 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 19 20 21 15 21 pin 16 VBAT Reserved Reset Hirose DF9 7 8 5 V VRTC VCC_IO Future expansion

21 Advanced Connector Imote2 specific
40 pin BB_IB_DATA0 1 21 BB_OB_DATA0 BB_IB_DATA1 2 22 BB_OB_DATA1 20 pin BB_IB_DATA2 3 23 BB_OB_DATA2 MSL & CF MSL & CF BB_IB_DATA3 4 24 BB_OB_DATA3 BB_IB_CLK 5 25 BB_OB_CLK nTRST 1 11 STD_TxD STD Uart BB_IB_STB 6 26 BB_OB_STB TCK 2 12 STD_RxD BB_IB_WAIT 7 27 BB_OB_WAIT JTAG TMS 3 13 VCC_IO GND 8 28 GND TDO 4 14 VRTC USB Host USBH_N 9 29 CIF_DD9 TDI 5 15 GND USBH_P 10 30 CIF_DD8 Reserved 6 16 Reset I2S_BITCLK 11 31 CIF_DD7 GND 7 17 Alarm CF I2S_DATAIN 12 32 CIF_DD6 VBAT 8 18 5V I2S or AC97 I2S_DATAOUT 13 33 GND VBAT 9 19 3.0V I2S_SYNC 14 34 GPIO 10 VBAT 10 20 1.8V I2S_SYSCLK 15 35 SSPRxD GND 16 36 SSPTxD Hirose DF15 SPI 1 FFRTS 17 37 SSPFRM FFCTS 18 38 SSPCLK FF UART FFTXD 19 39 SDA I2C FFRXD 20 40 SCL Hirose DF15

22 Sensor Boards Copyright © 2004, Intel Corporation

23 Backward Compatibility + Generic Analog input
Need to quickly enable using existing sensor boards on Imote2 Develop a board that has the following Imote connectors MICA2 connector Generic 8 channel, 16 bit A/D Enable prototyping of analog sensors Support analog inputs on MICA2 connector

24 Stargate Adapter board
Connects to basic sensor board connector on the imote Connects to the MICA 2 connector on the stargate Wires Power & UART (2 pins)

25 Imote2 (Top View) 36 mm 48 mm LED Basic I/O connector Dialog PMIC
PXA273 Crystals Basic I/O connector 48 mm

26 Imote2 (Bottom View) 36 mm 48 mm Advanced I/O connector Antenna CC2420
Crystal 36 mm Mini USB Connector Advanced I/O connector Optional SMA connector 48 mm


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