Presentation on theme: "Phonemic Awareness, Literacy, and Students who are DHH"— Presentation transcript:
1 Phonemic Awareness, Literacy, and Students who are DHH Rachel Friedman Narr, Ph.D.California State University, NorthridgeDeaf Education
2 Part II Application for developing phonological awareness with Deaf/Hard of Hearing students: ~HOW TO~
3 GOAL: to build INTERNAL phonological representations consider possible routesSpeechreadingSpeech ProductionUse of residual hearing; auditionSpelling; Fingerspelling; Orthography; MorphographyVisual representation of English soundsCued EnglishVisual phonicsUse any or a combination, but remember only Cued Speech and Visual Phonics provide a complete representation. If you provide incomplete representations using any one method, you’ll have to fill in the gaps using other methods too. Students learn to fill in the gaps using their metalinguistic abilities.
4 Remember VOCABULARY!You will need to CONSISTENTLY AND MEANINGFULLY teach vocabulary WHILE you teach decoding strategies.MANY DHH children lack the English lexicon to associate word meaning with English print.
5 Strategies for Decoding SyllabicationRhymingPhonic AnalysisStructural AnalysisVisual configurationContext CuesSemantic, syntactic, pictureDictionaryAssistance from othersThe brain is a pattern seeker, you learn by analogy.Chunking words helps working memory and decoding by breaking words into meaningful piecesConsistent, systematic, and direct instruction is best for these skills
6 Clap, Tap, Jump, the Number of... Word StructureClap, Tap, Jump, the Number of...easyWords in sentencesSyllables in wordsPhonemes in wordscomplex
7 Syllabication- breaking words into syllables truck base ball tel e phoneel e phantSyllables are auditory because rhythm is low frequency information.Syllables are visual because vowels make you open your mouth if you “mouth” the word.Syllables are POWERFUL because they tell about the shape of a word.
8 El e phant Syllabication When fingerspelling This process Provide spelling information using natural breaks in words (SYLLABLES)This processenhances WORKING MEMORY skillsaids retention of spelling wordscapitalizes on “rhythm” of wordsEl e phant
9 Onsets & Rimes and Rhyming Chunking beyond the syllable, but before the phonemeC A T T O P S L I D EThe ONSET is the initial consonant or consonant blend.The RIME is the ending spelling pattern.Onsets are the most visual part of the word- they are usually easy to lipread.
10 ~Using Onsets & Rimes~ Words You Know facilitate independence rain ice snowmaingaintraingrainstainstrainricedicespicevicetwicesplicebowmowslowglowcrowknowthrowIf you can spell rain, then you can spell train.
11 Procedure TIE INTO CONTEXT Pick three or four familiar words that have a RIME (spelling pattern) which is utilized by many words.Place each word at the top of a chart column. Students also copy this chart.Discuss the spelling patterns in each word. Show students several one syllable words utilizing the patterns. Students place the words in the correct column and then read the word.Have students explain the reason for placing each word in a specific column.Discuss the spelling patterns in each word.ProcedureTIE INTO CONTEXT
12 Phonic Analysis Teach how sounds map to letters Select a “special” sound to emphasize during the week. How many ways is that sound spelled? How many times can you find the word in print? Can you use those words in language (spoken or signed)?phone coughflag trafficelephant stuff
13 Link phonics instruction to structural analysis Capitalize on spelling patterns, word shapes, morphemes, and affixes.
14 Examples of Structural Analysis Activities Have children read and write predictable books, stories, and poetry that highlight a specific phoneme or word pattern.Have children construct word family houses and ladders.Have children move letter patterns or letters to create new words(ex: Making Words Activity).
15 Word Shapes Orthographic Cues elephantA child might not remember how to spell elephant, but they might remember the “ph” in the middle because of the SHAPE of the word…if that is taught.
17 Letter combinations Use letter combos to teach PATTERNS Think about their frequency of occurrence in the books you are reading(phone, elephant, cold, told, hold)Some are auditorally and visually similar(sh, ch, oa, oo, ou, and r-controlled vowels ar, er, ir, or)Remember, students learn by analogy. Therefore, common elements of words should be emphasized and context and meaningfulness should be MAXIMIZED.THE BRAIN IS A PATTERN SEEKER
18 Teaching letter combinations use letter combinations that can be used to build wordsSample sequence for introducing letter combos.1. th 5. wh 9. ar 13. ai2. er 6. qu 10. ea 14. ch3. ing 7. ol 11. oo or4. sh 8. oa 12. ee 16. ay
19 Structural analysis skills includeslearning about letter combinationsVC-e patterns (make, bite, hole)VC-e derivatives (named, hoping)
20 Strategic Color Coding to show word parts Green: phonically regular words (ex: cat, swim)Yellow: irregular but frequent pattern ( ex: night)Red: irregular, need to memorize (ex: once)
21 Making Words making words with letter tiles sorting words by patterns, word familiesmaking words quicklyextension activities (writing stories, word wall, etc)Cunningham, P.M., & Hall, D.P. (1994) Making Words. Torrance, CA: Frank Schaffer Publications.
22 Making Words Procedure Tell how many lettersTell which letter/sound to changefirst, last, vowelTell when to change the order of the letters/soundsTell when to start from scratch