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Author: Dr. Jill Duncan University of Newcastle/Royal Institute for Deaf and Blind Children Parramatta, Australia Date submitted to – September.

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Presentation on theme: "Author: Dr. Jill Duncan University of Newcastle/Royal Institute for Deaf and Blind Children Parramatta, Australia Date submitted to – September."— Presentation transcript:

1 Author: Dr. Jill Duncan University of Newcastle/Royal Institute for Deaf and Blind Children Parramatta, Australia Date submitted to – September 6, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.

2 VYGOTSKY AND AUDITORY- VERBAL THERAPY Jill Duncan, PhD, Cert AVT Renwick Centre for Professional Education and Research Royal Institute for Deaf and Blind Children and the University of Newcastle

3 INTRODUCTION Ideally in daily practice auditory- verbal therapists work within a theory of human learning and development Theory serves as a guide for making moment-to-moment decisions in clinical practice ( Schneider & Watkins, 1996)

4 INTRODUCTION The goal here is to put forward a particular social interactionist theory – Vygotskys The end result will facilitate an improved ability to help the child move toward independent performance

5 BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION Lev Vygotsky lived in Russia more than 100 years ago during a turbulent, revolutionary time Although trained in law and the arts, he worked as a psychologist for 10 years ( ), and during that time he accomplished enormous achievements He wrote 200 pieces of literature, founded a scientific school of thought and laid the foundation for several new directions in the field of psychology (Vygodskya, 1999)

6 BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION Soon after Vygotskys untimely death, the Stalinist regime had his work banned For 20 years his widow and two daughters kept Vygotskys manuscripts hidden under their beds in their tiny apartment in Moscow The first collection of Vygotskys works were published in 1956 by his daughter (Vygodskya, 1999)

7 BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION Vygotskys early professional career focused on special education in Moscow He has wrote on deaf education and one of his daughters went on to become a teacher of the deaf (Vygodskya, 1999)

8 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION Constructivism in education is based on notions from cognitive and social psychology The former is grounded in the work of Piaget (1954, 1955, 1970) and accentuates cognitive developmental and individual construction of knowledge (Kaufman, 2004)

9 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION The latter (social constructivism) emphasizes social construction of knowledge and is generally attributed to the work of Vygotsky (1962, 1978) (cited in Kaufman, 2004)

10 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION Constructivist pedagogy is the most influential theory in the field of education today (Baily & Pransky, 2005) Constructivism is a popular educational theory that is actually composed of two distinct branches of thought – –Social construction-Vygotsky –Cognitive construction-Piaget (Baily & Pransky, 2005)

11 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION Vygotsky believed that childrens thinking and meaning-making is socially constructed and emerges out of their social interactions and their environment Childrens learning is facilitated by parents, peers, teachers, and others in their lives (Kaufman, 2004)

12 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION Vygotskys main theories focused on context, culture, and language Vygotskys most well known theory is called Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (cultural transmission of knowledge) (Gindis, 1999)

13 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION Cultural transmission of knowledge is a psychological theory in which the human being is the subject of social- cultural, rather than biological- natural processes Vygotsky is considered the founder of cultural psychology (Gindis, 1999)

14 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION In special education, Vygotsky often wrote of compensatory strategies whereby the objective of intervention was enhancing the mightiness of the mind This included - abstract reasoning logical memory problem solving goal directed behaviours (Gindis, 1999)

15 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION Fundamental to understanding Vygotskys theories and/or constructs is the understanding that Vygotsky viewed language as the force that drives cognitive development because language mediates the childs participation in his intellectual and social environment (Owens, 1996)

16 KEY THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS Two key theoretical constructs associated with Vygotskyian thinking are- – Zone of Proximal Development – Scaffolding (Although not originally used by Vygotsky, it refers to Vygotskys notion of the social- cultural interaction between a more skilled learner and a less skilled learner) (Berk & Winsler,1995)

17 ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT Vygotsky defines the Zone of Proximal Development as the area of immature, but maturing (psychological) process and first used the term in the context of assessing cognitive development (Vygotsky, 1962)

18 ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT The Zone of Proximal Development embodies the learners readiness to learn It is the distance between the learners actual developmental level and the level of their potential development (Kaufman, 2004)

19 ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT A child does not "have" a Zone of Proximal Development – it is not a feature of the child Rather a zone is created whenever children interact with more-capable others in particular activities (Tharp & Gallimore, 1988)

20 ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT For a Zone of Proximal Development to be created, there must be a joint activity that creates a context for student and expert interaction The expert may then use multiple instructional strategies (Tharp & Gallimore, 1988)

21 ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT The learners potential for learning guides the design of problem-solving tasks and determines the level and range of scaffolding the learners require for accommodating the learning task (Kaufman, 2004)

22 ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT In using the Zone of Proximal Development, adults structure activities so that the child functions between the baseline and ceiling of capacity The Zone of Proximal Development is the difference between a childs actual developmental level and current potential development

23 SCAFFOLDING Scaffolding (Wood, Bruner & Ross, 1976) is a metaphor that translates into a model of learning through gradual increments as a result of an interactive process In essence, it implies a process of collaboration between teacher and student learners – ideally between a single learner in a one-on-one tutoring relationship (Lefrancois, 2001)

24 SCAFFOLDING In general, scaffolding is providing support through many mechanisms including - directions guidance demonstrations explanations provision of models explanations of objective

25 SCAFFOLDING breaking down information into comprehensible components modelling coaching providing feedback appropriating responsibility for learning to learners (Kaufman, 2004) External Scaffolding supports learners acquisition of knowledge by the teacher-

26 SCAFFOLDING Internal scaffolding engages the learner in reflection and self-monitoring to enhance acquisition of concepts (Kaufman, 2004) The notion of internal scaffolding is not dissimilar to metacognition and meta- linguistics

27 SCAFFOLDING Most good teachers already use scaffolding techniques, so what's new? –Vygotsky's concept of Zone of Proximal Development - what learners are capable of with the help of adults or peers Therefore teachers and other adults arrange for children to engage in activities that lie within this zone

28 SCAFFOLDING To the extent that the environment requires the child to perform at a level slightly in advance of their current developmental level, progress will be enhanced

29 SCAFFOLDING By using the Zone of Proximal Development the childs performance under the adult guidance is at a higher level than they are capable of independently The goal is for the adult to use minimal direction with maximal responsibility left to the child (Kaufman, 2004) Eventually the assistance of the adult is dropped because the skill is internalised by the child (Schneider & Watkins, 1996)

30 SCAFFOLDING Educational Implications By keeping tasks in a childs Zone of Proximal Development or slightly above their level of independent functioning, adults can rouse to life the cognitive processes that are just emerging in a rudimentary form (Tharp & Allimore, 1988)

31 SCAFFOLDING Educational Implications At the prelinguistic level, the child's attention is what must primarily be negotiated (Rommetveit, 1979); at a later age negotiations can involve the nature of the activity and the ways to operate within it

32 SCAFFOLDING Educational Implications Teachers too are learners in this context. They observe and identify the students' Zone of Proximal Development; design appropriate, authentic, and meaningful learning modules; and provide instructional support and scaffolding to propel students to construction of higher levels of understanding (Kaufman, 2004)

33 SCAFFOLDING Educational Implications In striving to promote autonomy, creativity and engagement, teachers' choice of scripts can powerfully motivate or block such endeavours (Stigler & Hiebert, 1999)

34 SCAFFOLDING Educational Implications Demands that are beyond children's capacities (in other words that are beyond their Zone of Proximal Development) are ineffective in promoting growth Similarly demands that are too simple are wasteful (Demetrion, 1999)

35 SCAFFOLDING Educational Implications A discerning teacher is capable of determining the critical edge of a student's learning capacity for self-directed learning at any given time and can decide when assistance is needed to facilitate further learning (Demetrion, 1999)

36 SCAFFOLDING Adult-child Collaboration The adult's contribution cannot be examined in isolation; it must be seen in relation to the child's contribution The nature of the child's ongoing behaviour demands moment-by-moment decisions on the part of the adult as the optimal kind of input to be provided at any particular point (Demetrion, 1999)

37 SCAFFOLDING Adult-child Collaboration The notion of sensitivity implies that the adult's guidance supports what the child can already do Being highly sensitive to the children's verbal cues and signals in performing, means that they are able to respond promptly and appropriately to child- initiated activities and behaviours

38 SCAFFOLDING Adult-child Collaboration The more skilled the child is in performing the task, independently, the less frequently the adults provide guidance A good therapist needs to follow a moving Zone of Proximal Development

39 SCAFFOLDING Adult-child Collaboration Scaffolding is a useful umbrella term to describe a wide range of adult actions There is need for continuous revision of action in response to the child's ongoing activity (Schaffer, 1996)

40 SCAFFOLDING Adult-child Collaboration The term scaffolding is a metaphor but it does not explain the problem of internalisation i.e. how a child become self- regulating after a period of other-regulation It does not help one to understand the processes responsible for mental reorganisation which underlies that independence (Schaffer, 1996)

41 EVIDENCE BASED AUDITORY- VERABL INTERVENTION Skilled auditory-verbal therapists observe and identify a students Zone of Proximal Development, design appropriate authentic and meaningful learning tasks, and provide instructional support and scaffolding to facilitate the construction of higher levels of understanding

42 EVIDENCE BASED AUDITORY- VERBAL INTERVENTION Evidence based auditory-verbal intervention is the use of best evidence in making decisions about individual children and students in planing therapy, in conducting therapy and in deciding placement options

43 EVIDENCE BASED AUDITORY- VERBAL INTERVENTION Vygotsky (1962) believed that decisions regarding intervention and/or interactions should be both qualitative and quantitative in nature Effective auditory-verbal therapists use a combination of informal observation(s) as well as standardised assessments

44 EVIDENCE BASED AUDITORY- VERBAL INTERVENTION Evidenced based auditory-verbal intervention demands ongoing functional and informal diagnostic therapy and observation as well as comprehensive standardised assessment of linguistic, auditory, speech and cognitive skills development

45 FRAMEWORK FOR APPLYING VYGOTSKY STEP ONE Obtain comprehensive child/student/family information STEP TWO Observe child in a variety of communicative contexts STEP THREE Conduct initial therapy to establish baseline of contextualised functional communication

46 FRAMEWORK FOR APPLYING VYGOTSKY STEP FOUR Complete qualitative data analysis STEP FIVE Complete standardised assessments STEP SIX Establish Zone of Proximal Development (basal and ceiling) and use this information to set goals

47 FRAMEWORK FOR APPLYING VYGOTSKY STEP SEVEN Plan therapy based on set goals using the information obtained through establishing the Zone of Proximal Development STEP EIGHT Conduct therapy and use a range of scaffolding techniques to work within the Zone of Proximal Development

48 FRAMEWORK FOR APPLYING VYGOTSKY STEP NINE Modify therapy based on ongoing diagnostic observations of the childs behaviour STEP TEN Repeat the cycle as often as necessary and at every step be sure to provide parent education to assist the parents in recognising how to best scaffold the childs learning

49 THE CHALLENGE Understanding Zygotskys Vision –Determining and working within the Zone of Proximal Development –The power of explicit, meaningful scaffolded instruction –Scaffolded instruction can optimise learning

50 Understanding Zygotskys Vision One must keep in mind that any child with a disability is first of all a child…From a psychological and pedagogical points of view, one must treat the child with a disability in the same way as a normal one (Vygotsky, 1995, p.4) A disability in and of itself is not a tragedy. It is only an occasion to provoke a tragedy (Vygotsky, 1995, np) (Cited by Vygotskys daughter in Vygodskaya, 1999) THE CHALLENGE

51 REFERENCES – One Baily, F., & Pransky, K., (2005). Are other peoples children constructivist learners too? Theory into Practice, 44(1), Berk, L., & Winsler, A. (1995). Scaffolding childrens learning: Vygotsky and early childhood education. Washington. D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Demetrion, G. (1999). A scaffolding paradigm: Small group tutoring at the Bob Steele Reading Centre Career and Technical Education, 9(1), Gindis, B. (1999). Vygotskys vision: Reshaping the practice of special education for the 21 st century. Remedial and Special Education, 20 (6), Kaufman, D. (2004). Constructivist issues in language learning and teaching. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, pp Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lefrancois, G. (2001). Lifespan of children. Canada: Wadsworth. Owens, R. (1996). Language development (4 th ed). Boston: Alyn and Bacon. Rommetveit, R. (1979). On architecture of intersubjectivity. In R. Rommetveit and R. Blaker (Eds.) Studies of language, thought and verbal communication. London: Academic Press.

52 REFERENCES - Two Schaffer, H.R. (1996). Joint involvement episodes as context for development. In H. Daniels, An introduction to Vygotsky (pp ). London: Routledge. Schneider, P., & Watkins, R. (1996). Applying Vygotskian developmental theory to language intervention. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 27, Stigler, J., & Hiebert, J., (1999). The teaching gap: best ideas from the worlds teachers for improving education in the classroom. New York: Free Press. Tharp, R., & Gallimore, R. (1988). Rousing minds to life. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Vigodskaya, G. (1999). Yygotsky and problems of special education. Remedial and special education, 20 (6), Vygotsky, L. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in science: The development of higher psychological processes. M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Sourberman, Eds. & Trans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Vygotsky, L. (1995). Problemy defectology [Problems of defectology]. Moscow: Prosvecshenie Press. Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G., (1976). The role of tutoring in problem-solving. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 17,

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