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Author: Jack Slemenda Converse College, SC Date submitted to deafed.net – March 20, 2008 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please.

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Presentation on theme: "Author: Jack Slemenda Converse College, SC Date submitted to deafed.net – March 20, 2008 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please."— Presentation transcript:

1 Author: Jack Slemenda Converse College, SC Date submitted to deafed.net – March 20, 2008 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please e-mail: slemenjc@spart5.k12.sc.us To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author. 2/1/20141

2 2 Sign Languages Around the World Jack Slemenda Converse College A look at France, China and South Africa

3 2/1/20143 Did you know? Contrary to popular belief, sign languages are not universal. Each country or culture has its own gestures or hand shapes for words and sentences.

4 2/1/20144 Introduction Sign languages are either the main or only languages used by certain members of society. Considered its own language Has its own set of rules

5 2/1/20145 More about Sign Each society, then, has its own primary sign language Variations in dialect just as in spoken language As many sign languages as there are spoken languages.

6 2/1/20146 Just to name a few… French Sign Language South African Sign Language Chinese Sign Language

7 2/1/20147 French Sign Language – Langue des Signes Francaise (LSF) 1 st known sign language identified as a true language Discovered by accident Abbe Eppe Met twin sisters who were deaf Developed interest in their communication (OFSL)

8 2/1/20148 Development of LSF Epee created methodical signs Very difficult First attempt for a sign language to have spoken language appearance Started a school for the deaf Located in Paris Deaf students in one place Continuous communication Accelerated the language Deaf could still be intelligent without using spoken language

9 2/1/20149 Transformation of LSF Abbe Sicard Student of Abbe Epee Headmaster of Paris school following Epee Theory of Ciphers Code system to help put language into patterns Helped students create sentences using grammatical French

10 2/1/201410 Other Instrumental Individuals Jean Massieu Born deaf Head Teaching Assistant at the Paris school Laurent Clerc Studied under Jean Massieu Met Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet Decided to go to America to help establish The American School for the Deaf

11 2/1/201411 Spread of Sign Language Schools for the deaf Graduates took what they learned and found new schools Contributed to transformation of sign language into other dialects

12 2/1/201412 The Battle: LSF vs. Oralism Round 1 Milan Congress 1880 LSF banned from classrooms Only allowed to use oral approach Round 2 1970s - Deaf began fighting for use of LSF Fabius law passed 1991 Allowed use of LSF to educate deaf children

13 2/1/201413 And the Winner is… 2004 - LSF officially recognized as a language Oralism still used

14 2/1/201414 South African Sign Language – SASL Introduction to South Africa 1881 Deaf school established by W. Murray Children from Afrikaans-speaking families British Sign Language first used By 1900s three deaf schools existed in SA

15 2/1/201415 Communication Between Hearing and Deaf Few hearing people know SASL Mix of speech, signs, and fingerspelling Between Deaf Adults Sign and fingerspelling Some confusion Residential schools develop own dialects Passed down to each generation Individuals leave schools Still use their own dialect Can create misunderstanding

16 2/1/201416 Norman Neider- Heitmann 1974 – Appointed to research sign languages used in South Africa Hoped to standardize the signs Help all language groups communicate better

17 2/1/201417 7 years later… Talking to the Deaf was published 1 st sign dictionary in SA Further research to test validity of signs Seven deaf groups from SA questioned 95% of signs recognized by groups Not necessarily used

18 2/1/201418 Whats happening now? Talking to the Deaf Primary method in many schools Follows grammatical rules of language Designed to teach children spoken language Part of both communities

19 2/1/201419 Chinese Sign Language – CSL First deaf school in China 1887 American missionary C.R. Mills and his wife Focused on oral methods ASL had no influence on CSL CSL fairly new Proposed in 1950 by SL Reform Committee 1961 – sign language book published

20 2/1/201420 Chinese Sign Language Shapes and motions along with facial expressions Signs resemble written pictorial characters Manual alphabet Used only to fingerspell words Rarely used among deaf Write characters on palm or air

21 2/1/201421 Some Statistics Approximately 21 million people in China with hearing loss 3 million are deaf Last 50 years CSL discouraged Banned from some classrooms Oral-only policy 1500 hearing rehabilitation centers For preschool children <10% of children leaving hearing rehabilitation centers are able to grasp enough CSL for school

22 2/1/201422 Why so few? Chinese is a tonal language Same phonetic pronunciations with different intonations have different meanings Deaf children cannot hear to distinguish tones

23 2/1/201423 The Deaf are disabled? Chinese view deafness as a disability Deaf view themselves as disabled Parents aim to cure deafness Spend 10s of thousands of yen Acupuncture Hearing Aids Rehabilitation Centers Deaf students prefer hearing teacher to a deaf one

24 2/1/201424 Is there hope for CSL? Schools aiming to embrace deaf culture Tianjin Third largest city Working to create jobs for deaf 2001 Tianjin School for the Deaf Adopted CSL as primary communication method Aim to have deaf employees Tianjin Technical College for the Deaf First technical college for deaf Chinese Focuses on computer technology

25 2/1/201425 References Chinese Sign Language. In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [online]. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 2007 [cited 8 July, 2007] http://en.wikipedia.org French Sign Language. In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [online]. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 2007 [cited 8 July, 2007] http://en.wikipedia.org Herbst, Johan M. South African Sign Languages. Cleve, John V. van (ed): Gallaudet encyclopedia of deaf people and deafness (Vol. 3. S-Z. New York, NY: McGraw Hill (1987) pp. 106-108

26 2/1/201426 References (continued) J., Julie Sign language – Can Deaf People from Different Countries Understand Each Other? Online posting. February 2007. Yahoo! Answers. 8 July 2007. http://answers.yahoo.comhttp://answers.yahoo.com Moody, William. French Sign Languages. Cleve, John V. van (ed): Gallaudet Encyclopedia of deaf people and deafness (Vol. 3. S-Z. New York, NY: McGraw Hill (1987) pp. 74-77. Singer, M., Afsari, N., Michaut, Frederik, & Lamit, Virginia. LAlphabet en LSF. [online] The DESS Nouvelles Technologies and Handicaps Sensory and Physical at Paris8 University. [cited 20 July 2007] http://ufr6.univ-paris8.fr.http://ufr6.univ-paris8.fr

27 2/1/201427 References (continued) South African Sign Language. In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [online]. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 2007 [cited 8 July, 2007] http://en.wikipedia.org http://en.wikipedia.org Standard Manual Alphabet. [online] A to Z to Deafblindness. 17 September 2002. [cited 20 June 2007]. http://www.deafblind.com/ukthma.html http://www.deafblind.com/ukthma.html Yau, Shun-chiu. Chinese Sign Languages. Cleve, John V. van (ed): Gallaudet encyclopedia of deaf people and deafness (Vol. 3. S-Z. New York, NY: McGraw Hill (1987) pp. 65-67


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