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Author: Dr. Susan Easterbrooks Georgia State University Date submitted to deafed.net – March 24, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use this.

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Presentation on theme: "Author: Dr. Susan Easterbrooks Georgia State University Date submitted to deafed.net – March 24, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use this."— Presentation transcript:

1 Author: Dr. Susan Easterbrooks Georgia State University Date submitted to deafed.net – March 24, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.

2 An Overview of Systems for the Development of English through Visual Representations Spring, 2002 Susan R. Easterbrooks, Georgia State University

3 An Overview of Systems for the Development of English through Visual Representations Spring, 2002 Susan R. Easterbrooks, Georgia State University

4 English Based Sign Systems The purpose of the English- based sign systems is to represent the structure of spoken English through visual means

5 Types of Visual Manual Codes Contact Sign Manually Coded English Cued Speech Fingerspelling Augmentative Communication

6 Manually Coded English Invented sign systems that have the purpose of visually representing English. Typically used in conjunction with speech with the goal of English literacy. There are many MCEs including SEE I, SEE II, LOVE and CASE.

7 Contact Sign or Pidgin Sign English (PSE) A combination of ASL and English. Tends to be more English. This cannot be learned because it is the natural result of bilingual interaction and will change from person to person. Not a complete language.

8 Cued Speech A visual communication system that uses eight handshapes positioned around the face to help distinguish between sounds which may look similar. Used primarily with speechreading.

9 Fingerspelling Each of the 26 letters of the alphabet have a corresponding sign. Through finger spelling, words may be spelled out for clarity. This is used in conjunction with either ASL or the MCEs.

10 Augmentative Communication Methods and/or devices which supplement verbal communication. May take many forms from very simple to complex. Includes pointing to items on a board, gesturing, using programs for synthesized speech, etc. Goal is personal expression.

11 Discussion of Manually Coded English Advantages easier for parents and teachers to learn aids in speechreading allow for a mode of communication while learning ASL Disadvantages slower to use difficult to speak and sign at the same time signs often left out in favor of speed literacy does not appear to be significantly improved

12 Discussion of Contact Sign This form is used in communication between people who do not use the same language. It cannot really be chosen as an option for communication because it is not learned. Knowledge of either English or ASL is necessary for this to happen.

13 Discussion of Cued Speech Advantages easy to learn helps to make sense of distorted sound children learn to self correct speech improves speechreading in all situations Disadvantages not commonly used there are few cued speech transliterators it is difficult for the child to express himself until mastery is achieved

14 Discussion of Augmentative Communication Typically only used when no other mode is possible. Advantages simplifies input making it easier to focus on the task/subject at hand pressure for speech is removed physical demands are decreased

15 Things to consider when choosing a method Community or Population Degree of Parental Involvement Additional Disabilities

16 Community or Population Certain areas are more likely to use a particular mode. Large numbers of New Englanders use ASL, however, there are only a few small pockets of people who use cued speech. It is best to research communicative options in your area before committing to one.

17 Degree of Parental Involvement When a mode is chosen the parents must learn and use that mode consistently for any progress to occur.

18 Additional Disabilities This must be taken into consideration because some children will be unable to use certain modes of communication. Some systems are more physically taxing than others. Some systems are more cognitively taxing than others.

19 Can Methods be Combined? Yes, more than one method can be used at the same time. both ASL and MCEs also use fingerspelling receptive cued speech may be combined with expressive sign contact sign, by definition, must be combined with some other system augmentative communication is often a bridge to or facilitator of speech and speechreading

20 Glossary Lipreading - understanding speech by watching the lips. Speechreading - understanding speech by watching the talker. Lips, jaw, tongue, etc Transliterator - someone who understands the mode and can communicate with and speak for the cuer.

21 References esp202/deafsign.htm nfotogo/492/492-3.html over.cfm

22 References Continued up.org/options1.htm gment.htm Secord, W.A., Shames, G.H., & Wigg, E.H. (1998). Augmentative and Alternative Communication. In S.D. Dragin (Ed.) Human Communication Disorders ( ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon

23 Other Resources old/methods.html basics.html definition.html language.htm


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