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Intelligent Design Dr. Heinz Lycklama

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1 Dr. Heinz Lycklama
Intelligent Design Dr. Heinz Lycklama All truth passes through three stages: 1. Ridicule 2. Violent opposition 3. Self-evident acceptance. Arthur Schopenhauer @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

2 Chance, Necessity or Design?
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

3 Intelligent Design What is it? History of “Intelligent Design”
Key movers and shakers Irreducible complexity Specified complexity Testing for complexity Arguments for a designer More examples of design Intelligent Design v. Creationism @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

4 What is Intelligent Design?
"The theory of intelligent design holds that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection." Source: The Discovery Institute The leaders in the ID movement purposely do not equate the intelligent cause with God; moreover, they are agnostic on the issue of the age of the earth and of the universe @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

5 Scientific Creationism Propositions
There was a sudden creation of the universe, energy and life from nothing Mutations and natural selection lack ability to develop all living kinds from a single organism Changes of the originally created kinds of plants and animals occur only within fixed limits There is a separate ancestry for humans and apes Earth’s geology can be explained by catastrophism, primarily by the occurrence of a worldwide flood Earth and living kinds had a relatively recent beginning (6000 -> 10,000 years ago) @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

6 Intelligent Design Propositions
Specified complexity and irreducible complexity are reliable indications of design Biological systems exhibit specified complexity and use irreducibly complex subsystems Naturalistic mechanisms or undirected causes do not suffice to explain origin of complexity Intelligent design constitutes the best explanation for the origin of specified complexity and irreducible complexity in biological systems @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

7 Evidence for Design Cosmology: evidence suggests the universe--including all matter, space, time, and energy--came suddenly into existence a finite time ago, contradicting the picture of an eternal and self-existing material cosmos Physics: evidence has shown that the universe is "finely-tuned" for the existence of life, suggesting the work, as Astrophysicist Fred Hoyle puts it, "of a super-intellect” @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

8 Evidence for Design - 2 Biology: the presence of complex and functionally integrated machines has cast doubt on Darwinian mechanisms of self-assembly Molecular biology: the presence of information encoded along the DNA molecule has suggested the activity of a prior designing intelligence Harvard biologist Richard Lewontin urges scientists to embrace a "materialism [that] is absolute" and to stick with "material explanations, no matter how counter intuitive." @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

9 History of Intelligent Design
Greek philosophers a few 100 years before Christ Some early church fathers in 3rd/4th centuries William Paley, Natural Theology (1802) Watch is the product of intelligence (watchmaker), not the result of undirected natural processes Organisms (e.g. the eye) are the product of intelligence Purposeful design -> purposeful designer Important sign of design is complexity @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

10 An Early Argument From Design
Rev. William Paley in Natural Theology, 1802: "In crossing a heath, suppose I pitched my foot against a stone and were asked how the stone came to be there, I might possibly answer that for anything I knew to the contrary it had lain there forever; nor would it, perhaps, be very easy to show the absurdity of this answer. But suppose I had found a watch upon the ground, and it should be inquired how the watch happened to be in that place, I should hardly think of the answer which I had before given, that for anything I knew the watch might have always been there.  Yet why should not this answer serve for the watch as well as for the stone?  For this reason, and none other, viz., that when we come to inspect the watch, we perceive what we could not discover in the stone, that its several parts were put together for a purpose." @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

11 Modern Intelligent Design (ID)
Began with the work of Charles Thaxton, Walter Bradley, Michael Denton, Dean Kenyon and Phillip Johnson Scientifically, Darwinism is an inadequate framework for biology Philosophically, Darwinism is hopelessly entangled with naturalism Michael Behe, William Dembski, Stephen Meyer, Paul Nelson and Jonathan Wells Proposed positive research program wherein intelligent causes become key for understanding the diversity and complexity of life @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

12 Some Influential ID Books
The Mystery of Life’s Origin, Charles Thaxton et. al. in 1984 A Theory in Crisis, Michael Denton in 1986 Darwin on Trial, Phillip Johnson in 1991 Creation Hypothesis, Dean Kenyon in 1994 Reason in the Balance, Phillip Johnson in 1995 Darwin’s Black Box, Michael Behe in 1996 The Design Inference, William Dembski in 1999 Icons of Evolution, Jonathan Wells in 2000 The Design Revolution, William Dembski in 2004 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

13 Can Evolution be Proved in a Courtroom?
A Lawyer’s Perspective Phillip E. Johnson Jefferson E. Peyser Professor of Law School of Law University of California, Berkeley Published in 1991 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

14 Johnson’s Critique Spreads
This 1994 collection of philosophers, physicists, astronomers, chemists, biologists, and linguists critiqued Darwinism and promoted Intelligent Design @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

15 Johnson’s Influence Leads to 1996 Conference
This conference at Biola University brought scholars from around the world The world learns of the Discovery Institute’s Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture (CRSC). @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

16 Darwin’s Black Box Lehigh U. biochemistry professor, Mike Behe’s 1996 book was reviewed in mainline science journals. For the first time Darwinists only argued with his conclusions, not his facts. CT’s 1996 Book of the Year. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

17 Irreducible Complexity
Mike Behe introduced the concept of irreducible complexity in his book, Darwin’s Black Box Something is irreducibly complex if it is composed of two or more necessary parts Remove one part and function is not just impaired but destroyed A mousetrap is irreducibly complex @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

18 The Mousetrap A mousetrap cannot be built by natural selection
A mousetrap is composed of five integral parts; the platform to which everything is attached, the hammer which does the dirty work, the spring which provides the force, the holding bar to keep the hammer in tension, and finally the catch to keep the holding bar in tenuous position. Remove any one of these parts and the mousetrap is not just less efficient, it cease to function at all. All five parts are necessary. You can’t build a mousetrap by natural selection by adding one piece at a time because it has no function to select until all five parts are together. A mousetrap cannot be built by natural selection @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

19 The Mousetrap – An Explanation
“An everyday example of an irreducibly complex system is the humble mousetrap. It consists of (1) a flat wooden platform or base; (2) a metal hammer, which crushes the mouse; (3) a spring with extended ends to power the hammer; (4) a catch that releases the spring; and (5) a metal bar that connects to the catch and holds the hammer back. You can't catch a mouse with just a platform, then add a spring and catch a few more mice, then add a holding bar and catch a few more. All the pieces have to be in place before you catch any mice.” Michael Behe @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

20 “Irreducible Complexity”
“By irreducibly complex I mean a single system composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning An irreducibly complex system cannot be produced directly... by slight, successive modifications of a precursor system, because any precursor to an irreducibly complex system that is missing a part is by definition nonfunctional” Michael Behe, Darwin’s Black Box, p. 39. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

21 Johnson and Behe Meet the Press
Both Behe and Johnson began speaking and debating on major university campuses Both also began writing articles and editorials for the WSJ, Washington Post and other major media outlets Johnson appeared on Nightline @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

22 William Dembski Bill Dembski publishes The Design Inference in 1999 with the prestigious Cambridge University Press. Bill has earned doctorates in philosophy and mathematics and an M.Div. from Princeton. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

23 1999 Is a Pivotal Year Kansas Board of Education reduces the influence of naturalism in high school biology standards Education and scientific establishments vastly overreact Johnson, Behe, Dembski, and others are published widely, exposing the naturalistic bias of science and media Darwinists only repeat tired, predictable science vs. religion arguments @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

24 Year 2000 Dembski publishes Intelligent Design
Major conferences at Baylor, Concordia College in Wisconsin, and Yale Media and scientific community focus even more attention on Kansas @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

25 Year 2000 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

26 Intelligent Design Theory
Living organisms are too complicated to be the result of natural processes working independently Based largely on the theories underlying Information Theory Concerned with measuring the complexity of structures/information contained in structures Generally concerned with two main concepts: Irreducible complexity Specified complexity @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

27 Specific Complexity “fjbn ghtur ieiod ofjkgjbn mfkritj”
The following strings of characters illustrate the concept of Specific Complexity. Consider the following: Complex but unspecified: “fjbn ghtur ieiod ofjkgjbn mfkritj” Complex and specified: “The state of education in America” @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

28 Intelligent Design “Intelligent Design” (ID) takes intelligence to be a separate principle, not reducible to chance and necessity Targets evolution: life exhibits a special kind of order, not like that of a snowflake but like that of a meaningful message Sophisticated anti-evolution No Bible-thumping Philosophical @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

29 ID: A Separate Principle
Chance Design Necessity @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

30 “Irreducible Complexity”
1996: Michael Behe, Lehigh biochemist. Leading ID biologist. Catholic. Common descent OK––against Darwinian mechanism. Can’t get “irreducible complexity.” @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

31 “Specified complexity”
1998-now: William Dembski, mathematician and philosopher. Leading theorist of ID. ID irreducible form of explanation, distinct from chance & necessity. ID is a revolution. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

32 Books, Books, More Books Dembski has 3 books, 4+ edited books on ID
Not just biology but physics, AI, theology, morality, law, … Broad, “information-theoretic” objections to naturalistic evolution @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

33 Dembski’s claims Both designed artifacts and organisms exhibit special order: specified complexity Chance and necessity cannot generate Specified Complexity, or information Intelligence is a separate principle Blind mechanisms (like those of Darwinian evolution) cannot explain life Artificial Intelligence is impossible @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

34 How To Detect Specified Complexity
Contingency: No physical constraint; all sorts of strings can appear on the paper Complexity: Improbable to obtain by pure chance Specification: Can’t read it, but fits properties of a language, priorly known DNA also a code… @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

35 Testing for Design @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

36 William Dembski’s Explanatory Filter
Start William Dembski’s Explanatory Filter Highly probable? Law Yes No Intermediate probability? Yes Chance No Specified/ Small probability? Yes Design No Chance From Mere Creation: Science, Faith and Intelligent Design. William A. Dembski Ed. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, P99. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

37 Is The Pattern Random Or Designed?
Probability: =2-256 =8.6 x 10-78 = @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

38 Is The Pattern Random Or Designed?
Probability: =2-256 =8.6 x 10-78 = @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

39 Arguments for a Designer
Organisms look designed for at least three reasons: Redundancy - A Designer can engineer redundancy into a system, but chance is unlikely to do this. An example of this is the presence of degeneracy in the genetic code and other features that minimize or negate the effects of many point mutations Excess potential - Organisms have potential that may never be used. For example, Wallace, co-discoverer of natural selection, pointed out that primitive people have the capacity to do calculus when trained. Natural selection is unlikely to select for capacity that is not used Complexity - Life exhibits a kind of complexity that it is hard to produce by processes involving chance @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

40 Design and Deductive Reasoning
In general, arguments for a designer are arguments against the alternative. This does not mean these are just arguments against evolutionary theory. All arguments, by definition, are characterized by taking one side while arguing against another side Arguments against a theory are about eliminating possible explanations. There is nothing inferior about this, in fact, it is deductive reasoning which is used by scientists all the time in their quest for truth @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

41 The Likely and the Unlikely
Arguments for a Designer frequently revolve around probability. Meaningful complexity is unlikely to result from random events. Organisms are meaningfully complex. Some claim that natural selection overcomes much of this problem as, while change may be random, selection is not Science is about predicting what is likely and what is unlikely. Everyone is in agreement that the events leading to production of living organisms are unlikely @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

42 In a Long Time and Big Universe
It has been argued that given massive lengths of time and a universe to work in, the unlikely becomes likely: “Given infinite time, or infinite opportunities, anything is possible. The large numbers proverbially furnished by astronomy, and the large time spans characteristic of geology, combine to turn topsy-turvy our everyday estimates of what is expected and what is miraculous.” Richard Dawkins (1989) The Blind Watchmaker: Why the evidence of evolution reveals a universe without design. W. W. Norton and Co. New York. p139. Dawkins says that while life looks designed, the designer was not God, but massive chance coupled with natural selection. Nature was the designer In The Panda’s Thumb, Stephen J. Gould argues that life does not look designed @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

43 Little or Big Changes? Not all changes improve fitness, they may:
Improve the fitness of an organism (very unlikely) Be neutral, having no effect on fitness Be detrimental, decreasing an organisms fitness (most likely) The bigger the change the more likely it is to be significantly detrimental Darwin argued that evolution is the accumulation of many small changes that improve fitness, big changes are unlikely to result in improved fitness. “Many large groups of facts are intelligible only on the principle that species have been evolved by very small steps.” The Origin of Species Chapter VII under “Reasons for disbelieving in great and abrupt modifications” @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

44 More Examples Necessity/law/order
Snowflake Crystal Design – irreducible/specified complexity Animal cell Molecular motors Human eye Bombardier beetle @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

45 Molecular Machines Behe showed that the cell, Darwin’s Black Box, is filled with irreducibly complex molecular machines that could not be built by natural selection David Hume criticized Paley’s watchmaker argument because it was not an exact enough analogy @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

46 Molecular Machines (cont’d)
Over 100 molecular motors are now known to exist inside the cell with very specific analogies to human designed motors. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

47 Behe’s Insight Michael Behe contends that when we look at the protein machines that run cells, there is a point at which no parts can be removed and still have a functioning machine. He called these machines “irreducibly complex” (IC) We encounter irreducibly complex devices in everyday life. A simple mouse trap is an example of an irreducibly complex device: Board Spring Staple Hammer Trigger Cheese Bait holder @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

48 Evolution of Complex Organs
The Origin of Species Chapter VI "Difficulties of the Theory" Organs of Extreme Perfection and Complication “To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correcting of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree.” There are at least 10 types of human satellite DNA. Typically they make up % of mammals genomes. It is satelite DNA that is used in one type of DNA finger printing. Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) - These approximately 300 bp units of DNA are found distributed throughout the genome. An example is the human Alu sequence which occurs about 500,000 times making up 5 % of the genome in the human genome. One of the interesting properties of SINEs is that they may move about in the genome. Long Interspersed Elements (LINEs) - are longer than SINEs (up to 7,000 bp). There are approximately 50,000 copies of the most common LINE family, L1, so this group makes up 5 % of the human genome. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

49 Evolution of the Eye To go from nothing to an eye would be a very big jump Darwin proposed a series of what appeared to be relatively small steps (they are still gigantic leaps) that might be able to produce an eye Pseudogenes usually have mutations that would produce stop codons within what would normally be the coding region, thus only fragments of the protein they seem to code for would be produced if they were expressed. It is not known if pseudogenes are expressed in any way. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

50 The Bombardier Beetle An ordinary looking beetle with an extraordinary
defense mechanism Could this system evolve one step at a time? All of it is programmed in the beetle’s DNA. Unless all the parts are present, the whole system is useless. Even if all the parts were present, if any one of them did not work right, the beetle’s ancestors might have exploded! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

51 Intelligent Design (ID)
Uses an “explanatory filter” Necessity – did it have to happen? Chance – did it happen by accident? Design – did an intelligent agent cause it to happen? ID theory focuses on what is designed without answering the questions of who, when, why and how @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

52 Some ID Observations ID confronts naturalistic philosophical underpinnings of evolutionary thinking ID identifies presuppositions of naturalism ID is supported by science ID does not assume young universe ID is not Creationism ID does not mention the Fall @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

53 Issues with Intelligent Design
ID does not attempt to explain all designs Only certain features are designed Does not rule out evolutionary processes ID does not oppose an old age for the earth ID does not acknowledge God as redeemer ID distances itself from the problem of evil ID movement does not identify Designer/Creator ID divorces the Creator from creation @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

54 Closing Thoughts on ID Alternative theory to Darwinian Evolution?
Alternative to Creationism? Should it be taught in public schools? Critical thinking is needed Presuppositions must be stated Church-state issue? Academic freedom is at stake @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

55 The Latest From Kansas The Kansas standards say there is a lack of evidence or natural explanation for the genetic code, charge that fossil records are inconsistent with evolutionary theory, and say certain evolutionary explanations "often reflect ... inferences from indirect or circumstantial evidence." Reuters News Story, August 2, 2006 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

56 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

57 Thank you for your attention!
Dr. Heinz Lycklama @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

58 Creation Organizations
ICR – Institute for Creation Research Books by Henry Morris (founder), e.g. The Genesis Flood The Genesis Record The Modern Creation Trilogy Acts and Facts articles on Creation Answers in Genesis Founded by Ken Ham Books, seminars, articles on Creation @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

59 Creation Organizations - 2
Creation Evidence Museum Dinosaurs and human tracks Creation Moments Radio spots Creation Research Society Publication of peer-reviewed creation articles @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

60 Creation Organizations - 3
Center For Scientific Creation “In The Beginning” Book by Walt Brown, Ph.D. Creation Science Evangelism Videos, seminars Discovery Institute Intelligent Design “Think Tank” @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

61 Important Books The Genesis Record, Dr. Henry Morris
The Genesis Flood, Dr. John Whitcomb & Dr. Henry Morris The Collapse of Evolution, Scott Huse The Lie: Evolution, Ken Ham Refuting Evolution, Dr. Jonathan Sarfati Evolution: The Fossils Still Say No!, Dr. Duane Gish Scientific Creationism, Dr. Henry Morris Dinosaurs by Design, Dr. Duane Gish Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome, Dr. J.C. Sanford @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

62 More Important Books The Young Earth, Dr. John Morris
Science and the Bible, Dr. Henry Morris Tornado in a Junkyard, James Perloff In The Beginning, Dr. Walt Brown Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, Michael Denton Darwin on Trial, Dr. Phillip Johnson Darwin’s Black Box, Dr. Michael Behe Design Inference, Dr. William Dembski Icons of Evolution, Dr. Jonathan Wells @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

63 Yet More Important Books
The Battle for the Beginning, Dr. John MacArthur Total Truth, Nancy Pearcey The Design Revolution, Dr. William Demski The Origin of Species Revisited, W. R. Bird It Matters What We Believe, Mike Riddle The Evolution of a Creationist, Jobe Martin Grand Canyon (a different view), Tom Vail In Six Days, Dr. John Ashton Starlight and Time, Dr. Russell Humphreys Starlight, Time and the New Physics, De. John Hartnett @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

64 Backup Slides @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

65 Bacterial Motors Certain bacteria swim by means of rotary flagella. These are driven by reversible electric motors! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

66 Bacterial Motors - 2 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

67 IC Protein Machines Cells are full of irreducibly complex (IC) devices - little protein machines that work only if all the parts (proteins) are present and arranged correctly Natural selection does not provide a plausible mechanism to get from nothing to the collection of parts necessary to run a number of irreducibly complex protein machines vital to living cells Evolution of these protein machines must occur in single big steps, not gradually, as to be selected a protein must be functional in some way. Each protein machine is fairly complex, thus evolution in a single step seems unlikely @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

68 Cilia and Flagella Cilia and Flagella are examples of irreducibly complex protein machines Both cilia and flagella are found in the simplest eukaryotic organisms, single celled protists, as well as much more complex animals. Some members of the plant kingdom also have flagella As complicated structures are thought to have evolved only once, evolutionary theory suggests flagella evolved in a very ancient common ancestor of modern plant and animal cells @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

69 Components of Flagella and Cilia
Flagella and cilia are made of a number of different protein components: Three types of microtubuals - singlet, doublet, and triplet - composed of a and b tubulin Nexin to separate the tubuals Protein spokes connecting tubuals to maintain a constant diameter Spoke heads Dynein arms that interact with adjacent microtubuals A basal plate Each of these components must be present if the flagella or cilia is to work. @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

70 Flagella Parts Radial spokes Dynein arms Microtubual doublet
Central microtubuals Plasma membrane @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

71 Are Little Jumps Possible?
Cilia or flagella, missing any single part will not bend, they are thus irreducibly complex Parts having functions enhancing fitness independent of a role in locomotion, after developing some functionality, could evolve via random change and natural selection Microtubuals are an important part of the cytoskeleton of all eukaryotic cells, thus they could evolve independently No other protein components of cilia and flagella have known functions independent of their role in movement Thus, all proteins, other than tubulin in microtubuals, would have to spontaneously come into existence simultaneously if they were to increase fitness and be selected. That seems like a big jump! @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

72 There Is More Cilia and flagella represent the tip of the iceberg of our current understanding of the little machines that make up cells. Our current understanding of how cells function is still fragmentary, but even in this limited set of knowledge, numerous examples of irreducible complexity exist Irreducible complexity at the biochemical level represents a powerful challenge to the theory that natural selection can account for the origin of modern living organisms @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

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