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What Does Science Say About Creation? - Part 2 - Dr. Heinz Lycklama

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1 What Does Science Say About Creation? - Part 2 - Dr. Heinz Lycklama

2 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Which Model Best Fits The Facts? Creation and Evolution are the only two models of origins Both models should be considered as equal alternatives and evaluated objectively in terms of their relative abilities to correlate and explain scientific data The model that incorporates the most data and has the smallest number of unresolved issues is the most likely to be true

3 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Basic Predictions of The Models CategoryBasic Predictions of Evolution Model Basic Predictions of Creation Model Galactic universeGalaxies changingGalaxies constant Structure of starsStars changing into other typesStars unchanged Other heavenly bodiesBuilding upBreaking down Types of rock formationsDifferent in different agesSimilar in all ages" Appearance of lifeLife evolving from non-lifeLife only from life Array of organismsContinuum of organismsDistinct kinds of organisms Appearance of kinds of lifeNew kinds appearingNo new kinds appearing

4 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Basic Predictions of The Models - 2 CategoryBasic Predictions of Evolution Model Basic Predictions of Creation Model Mutations in organismsBeneficialHarmful Natural selectionCreative processConservative process Fossil recordInnumerable transitionsSystematic gaps Appearance of manApe-human intermediatesNo ape-human intermediates Nature of manQuantitatively superior to animalsQualitatively distinct from animals Origin of civilizationSlow and gradualContemporaneous with man

5 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Looking At The Scientific Evidence Origin of matter, energy and natural law Origin of the solar system Teleology – study of evidences of design in nature, e.g. Anthropic Principle Classification of biological organisms Natural selection and mutations (vestigal organs)

6 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Scientific Evidence - 2 Origin of man Origin of life – probability The fossil record Geologic ages – Uniformitarianism vs. Catastrophism Age of the earth

7 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Conditions For Increasing Complexity in an Open System Necessary, but not sufficient conditions: 1. Open System 2. Available Energy Additional requirements: 3. Mechanism for storing and converting incoming energy 4. Program (to direct the growth of complexity)

8 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Keeping Score CreationEvolution Laws of Thermodynamics TOTAL =10

9 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Origin of The Solar System Predictions of evolution model: Solar system is one of many Earth, moon and planets should have same composition and structure Predictions of creation model: Solar system is unique Earth, moon and planets each created for a specific purpose, each with a distinctive composition and structure Only the earth would be found to have a hydrosphere capable of supporting life Only the earth would be found to have an atmosphere capable of supporting life Evidence of decay and catastrophism would be found on other planets and moons

10 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama

11 The Solar System Was Created Based on statistical analysis and the evolution model: One might expect to find many solar systems with planets and similar characteristics to our solar system The evolution model also assumes that the moon broke away from the earth What we find: Our solar system is unique Earth and moon have vastly different structure and composition and could not have come from the same celestial ancestor The chemical makeup of the moon rocks is very different from that of rocks on the earth The predictions of the creation model are exactly confirmed by moon landings and space probes

12 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Keeping Score CreationEvolution Laws of Thermodynamics Origin of Solar System TOTAL =20

13 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Teleology Teleology is the s tudy of evidences of design in nature The word is derived from the Greek word for end or purpose. Evolution predicts: Mechanistic self-ordering process in nature Mutations provide random changes Natural selection concentrates the beneficial features Creation predicts: Evidence of design in nature Carefully balanced equations, constants and properties of matter

14 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Anthropic Principle The Anthropic Principle states that the universe appears to be carefully designed for the well-being of mankind Some evidence of this found in nature: Mass of proton Gravitation force Strength of electrical charges Distance of moon from the earth Distance of sun from the earth etc.

15 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Mass of Proton M ass of proton is chosen for stability Mass of free neutron is slightly heavier than that of a proton, and it decays to a proton, electron, and an antineutrino with a half life of 12 minutes. Free neutrons cannot persist in nature. If the mass of a proton were increased by just 0.2 %, it would decay into a neutron, a positron and a neutrino. This decay does not occur - if it did hydrogen could not exist. Hydrogen is the dominant element of the universe. Without it, the universe could not exist Evidence of a precise design!

16 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Gravitation Force G ravitation force is inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance between the two masses. This fundamental force holds the universe together, controlling the orbits of all members of our planetary system. Why is the number not 1.99 or 2.01? Any value other than 2 would lead to an eventual catastrophic decay of orbits and of the entire universe Evidence of an essential design!

17 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Strength of Electrical Charges T he strength of electrical charges, i.e. the Coulomb force varies as the inverse square of the distance between the charges. Since the electrical force is much stronger than the gravitational force, it has been measured to an accuracy of 16 decimal places to be This reflects Gods purposeful planning! More on the Just Right Universe by Dr. Ray Bohlin of Probe Ministries in next 14 slides …

18 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama A Just Right Universe 29 Fine-tuned Parameters to the Universe Constants in equations for gravity, electromagnetism, strong and weak nuclear forces Ratio of proton to electron mass

19 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama A Just Right Universe 51 Fine-tuned Parameters to our Galaxy, Solar System, and Planet Distance from the sun Size, temperature, & type of sun Size, axial tilt, rotation speed, moon, & composition of earth Stability of Jupiter and Saturn

20 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama A Just Right Universe 10 –53 - Probability of all 80 fine-tuned parameters occurring by chance

21 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama A Just Right Universe Upper limit for number of stars in the universe Assume 1 planet per star Therefore planets in the universe

22 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama A Just Right Universe So how do we determine how many planets may be suitable for life? x = or planets suitable for life

23 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama A Just Right Universe Jupiter acts as a comet and asteroid magnet shielding earth from catastrophic collisions Our sun is located between spiral arms of the Milky Way Galaxy where there are fewer stars (less harmful radiation and disruptive gravity) and less gas and dust (we can see the rest of the galaxy and universe)


25 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama A Just Right Universe Since 1996, over 50 planets outside our solar system have been found Only 5% of stars have planets The planets are either too large, too close to their star, or with too erratic an orbit to harbor life Have the probabilities changed?

26 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama A Just Right Universe There are now 123 parameters with a probability of 1 in When multiplied with a very generous estimate of 1 planet/star or planets, the final number of planets in the universe suitable for life is or planets

27 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama A Just Right Universe CNN (2/5/01) just released an article reporting that some astronomers have hatched a plan to move earths orbit Sun is going to increase in size and heat output over the next few billion years eventually making earth uninhabitable Move the earth farther out (41 million miles) gradually by passing a 62 mile diameter asteroid within 10,000 miles of earth every 6,000 years 1 million fly bys should do it

28 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama But,... If the asteroid comes too close, it might break up or conceivably even slam into Earth. Another possible side effect... would be to increase the planet's rotation. The encounters would have to be planned so that while some would cause the Earth to spin faster, others would slow it down back to normal rotation speed. It's also possible that the moon would be thrown from its orbit around the Earth during these fly-bys.

29 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama What Does Evolution Say? Evolution is unable to deal with such permanent properties of nature Max Planck ( ), a Nobel Prize winner and founder of modern physics, stated: According to everything taught by the exact sciences about the immense realm of nature, a certain order prevails - one independent of the human mind … this order can be formulated in terms of purposeful activity. There is evidence of an intelligent order of the universe to which both man and nature are subservient.

30 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Keeping Score CreationEvolution Laws of Thermodynamics Origin of Solar System Teleology (Design) TOTAL =30

31 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Classification of Biological Organisms The evolution model predicts: A continuum of all forms of life No classification system would work The creation model predicts: An array of clear-but distinct organisms similar structures for similar functions, e.g. eyes different structures for different functions, e.g. gills for fish, lungs for man Science of taxonomy distinct kinds/species

32 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Science of Taxonomy The science of taxonomy is a problem for evolution The classification system introduced by Carolus Linnaeus applies to plants/animals in todays world as well as to extinct plants and animals A continuum of life forms does not exist Intermediates have not been observed and/or identified in the fossils The classification system introduced by Linnaeus still works today

33 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Quoting an Evolutionist The anti-creationist, Niles Eldredge, wrote in 1985: And though a few of these eighteenth- century systematists had vaguely evolutionary notions, nearly all were devoutly and orthodoxly religious. They saw the order in their material, the grand pattern of similarity running through the entire organic realm, as evidence of Gods plan of creation.

34 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Classification Observations What we do see is: Variations within species, e.g. varieties of cats, dogs, cows, horses, mankind No new kinds produced Some kinds become extinct Like begets like Chalk up another one for the Creation Model!

35 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Keeping Score CreationEvolution Laws of Thermodynamics Origin of Solar System Teleology (Design) Classification/Organism TOTAL =40

36 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Natural Selection and Mutations Evolution model predicts: Small variations between members of a species would confer differing degrees of advantage or disadvantage in the struggle for existence Those with significant advantages would be favored New and higher types of organisms would emerge A mutation (structural change in a gene) is the source of genetic variation Mutations are primarily beneficial

37 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Natural Selection and Mutations - 2 Creation model predicts: Variation and natural selection work to assure genetic integrity and to enable the organism to survive in nature Characteristics can be adjusted, within limits, to changes in the environment Mutations are primarily harmful

38 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama What We See Happening Today V ariations within a kind, e.g. peppered moth evolving to darker color as tree trunks grew darker with pollutants during industrial revolution Adaptation to the environment for survival Mutations are harmful to the organism Mutations are random and not directed Mutations are rare in occurrence Mutations almost always generate misfits which soon die out

39 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Origin of Species Never Observed All of Darwins evidences turn out to be descriptions of creative adaptation, not origin According to Niles Eldridge (1986): Darwin, it is now become commonplace to acknowledge, never really addressed the origin of species in his book of that title. Darwin never really cited the origin of a new species by natural selection The British evolutionist Colin Patterson noted: No one has ever produced a species by mechanisms of natural selection. No one has ever gotten near it and most of the current argument in neo-Darwinism is about this question.

40 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama On Mutations and Natural Selection The philosopher Janus Koestler noted that: The public continues to believe that Darwin provided all the relevant answers by the magic formula of random mutations plus natural selection - quite unaware of the fact that random mutations turned out to be irrelevant and natural selections a tautology. Mutations turn out to be rare events, and most of those are bad They do not lead to improvements in the species, as evolution predicts

41 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Vestigal Organs At one time there were claimed to be 180 such organs in man - appendix, tonsils, thymus gland, pituitary gland, etc. No useless vestiges of structures which were useful in a former evolutionary stage All vestigial organs in man now appear to have a use The argument that vestigial organs prove evolution is no longer regarded as valid

42 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Keeping Score CreationEvolution Previous score =2 Teleology (Design) Classification/Organism Mutations/Selection TOTAL =50

43 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Origin of Man Evolution model predicts: Molecules -> man Man evolved from an ape Creation model predicts: Mans appearance has remained largely the same

44 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Ape To Man? In a Science Digest article written by Lyall Watson, he states that: The fossils that decorate our family tree are so scarce that there are still more scientists than specimens. The remarkable fact is that all the physical evidence we have for human evolution can still be placed, with room to spare, inside a single coffin. David Pilbeam and Steven Gould (two evolutionists) report that: Unfortunately, the fossil record of pongids (apes) is nonexistent, making a glaring deficiency in the whole story.

45 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Famous Hominid Fossils Neanderthal Man – 1856 Java Man – 1891 Piltdown Man – 1908 Nebraska Man – 1922 Ramapithecus – 1930 Lucy

46 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Neanderthal Man Fossil fragments first found in France – 1856 Skull cap and some limb bones Diagnosed as human with deformed vertebrae Neanderthal Mans Site in Krapina, Another almost complete skeleton found in 1908 Reconstructed by Marcelle Boule to look ape-like Based on pre-conceived evolutionary notions Faulty reconstruction recognized in 1957 Neanderthal is now known to be fully human with a bone deformity School textbooks still portray as mans ancestor

47 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Java Man Discovered by Eugene Dubois in 1891 Ape-like skull cap Human-like thigh bone found 50 feet away one year later Assumed they went together Fossils dated at 500,000 years (guesswork based on assumed evolutionary model) In 1940 Dubois admitted He found two human skulls in same area as the human thigh bone Java Man now regarded as a hoax Still included in textbooks as support for evolution

48 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Piltdown Man Fossil fragments found in 1908 Part of a human skull and part of a lower ape-like jaw Estimated to be 500,000 years old Discovered to be a fraud in 1953 Lower jaw and tooth were from orangutan Tooth had been filed Parts of lower jaw broken to hide the fact that it did not fit with the skull Skull was dated at ~620 years old and dyed to appear old

49 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Nebraska Man Discovered in 1922 Dated to be one million years old Fossil was only a single tooth Complete model of Nebraska Man, his family and environment was constructed Tooth discovered to be pigs tooth in 1928 Still cited as evidence for evolution in the 1940s

50 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Ramapithecus Found in India in 1930s Considered a human ancestor Based on some jaw fragments and a few teeth More fossil evidence found in 1970s Baboons in Ethiopia have same teeth structure as Ramapithecus Now discarded as a possible missing link Had been published as factual evidence of human evolution worldwide

51 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Lucy Discovered in 1974 by Donald Johanson 40% complete skeleton Dated at 3.5 million years old Evidence: Arm/leg ratio of 83.9 % Hip/pelvis – walked upright Knee joint – walked upright

52 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Lucy - 2 Digging deeper, we find that: Leg bone broken in two places and one end was crushed -> this invalidates the ratio Hip/pelvis was incomplete, and thus reshaped to make it look as if it walked upright Knee joint was found over one mile away and 200 feet deeper in strata from rest of bones Fossil remains of two different creatures fitted to form a make-believe creature

53 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Summary of Hominid Fossils Neanderthal Man – accepted as homo sapiens Java Man – artificial construct Piltdown Man – proven to be a hoax Nebraska Man – an extinct pig Ramapithecus – an orangutan Lucy – make-believe creature Another one for the Creation Model!

54 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama For example, no scientist could logically dispute the proposition that man, without having been involved in any act of divine creation, evolved from some ape-like creature in a very short space of time – speaking in geological terms – without leaving any fossil traces of the steps of the transformation. Zuckerman, Solly Beyond the ivory tower: The frontiers of public and private science. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company. p. 64. Lord Zuckerman Chimes In

55 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Keeping Score CreationEvolution Previous score =3 Classification/Organism Mutations/Selection Origin of Man TOTAL =60

56 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Origin of Life - Probability W hat is the probability that an explosion in a junk yard would create a car? What is the probability of creating a Boeing airplane from such an explosion? What is the probability of 200 monkeys pawing away at a typewriter could write a Shakespeare play?

57 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Origin of Life – Probability - 2 T ake 200 parts and line them up in a specific order 200! ways of aligning these parts = 10**375 Try a new alignment 1 billion times a second Assuming 20 billion years of time, we have 20 * 10**18 seconds The probability of finding the right alignment is practically zero Living organisms contain many more than 200 parts Human being contains 100 million cells Only 10**80 infinestimal particles in the whole universe

58 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Probability of Synthesis Of DNA Molecule: Medium protein includes about 300 amino acids Too complex to arise by chance [no matter how long the time or how big the universe] By gradual accretion System might advance from one part to a two-part system, then to three parts, etc. Requires each step to be immediately beneficial Probability of success would be incalculably small

59 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Keeping Score CreationEvolution Previous score =4 Mutations/Selection Origin of Man Origin of Life (Prob.) TOTAL =70

60 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Fossil Record The theory of evolution is based on two major suppositions: Mutations and natural selection supposedly provided the mechanism The fossil record allegedly proved the fact of evolution Fossils should prove evolution since the fossil record has long been considered as the main evidence for evolution The creation model predicts that organisms preserved as fossils will correspond to the same classification system as applicable to present-day plants and animals

61 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Fossil Record - 2 Evolution model predicts: Many preliminary forms Many transitional forms Randomly distributed gaps between present kinds and transitional forms Basic taxonomic categories should have been evolving Creation model predicts: N o preliminary forms No transitional forms Clear gaps between types Same taxonomic categories as at present

62 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Fossil Record - 3 Creation and evolution, between them, exhaust the possible explanations for the origin of living things. Organisms either appeared on the earth fully developed or they did not. If they did not they must have developed from preexisting species by some process of modification. If they did appear in fully formed state, they must have been created by some omnipotent intelligence. D. J. Futuyma, Science on Trial, 1983

63 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Fossil Record - 4 Darwin admitted in 1859: Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain. Paul Moody wrote in a standard textbook: So far as we can judge from the geologic record, large changes seem usually to have arisen suddenly.... fossil forms, intermediate between large subdivisions of classification, such as orders and classes, are seldom [read never] found.

64 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Fossil Record - 5 Evolutionists say we should find transitional forms: Single cell to multi-cell creatures Invertebrate to vertebrate Fish to reptile Reptile to bird Ape to man To date no true transitional fossil forms have been discovered

65 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Fossil Record - 6 I fully agree with your comments on the lack of direct illustration of evolutionary transitions in my book. If I knew of any, fossil or living, I would certainly have included them...I will lay it on the line, There is not one such fossil for which one might make a watertight argument. 140 years after Darwin, and still no credible transition form! -- Dr. Colin Patterson, senior paleontologist at the British Museum of Natural History

66 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Coelacanth – A Living Fossil Coelacanth fish Known by paleontologists of 19 th and 20 th centuries from the fossil record Extinct about 70 million years ago Candidate forerunner to first land animals Living specimens Found off west coast of Madagascar in 1938 More found later No longer considered a link in evolutionary chain Another evolution theory debunked!

67 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Fully Formed It is considered likely that all the animal phyla became distinct before or during the Cambrian, for they all appear fully formed, without intermediates connecting one phylum to another. Futuyma, Douglas J Evolutionary biology. 2d ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. p. 325.

68 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Fossil Record Summarized Missing links are still missing Different types of living fossils found Sudden appearance of fully formed fossils in the Cambrian Explosion The same kinds still appear today Some species are now extinct No new kinds evolved Supports the Creation Model!

69 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Source: Dr. Duane Gish, ICR

70 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Keeping Score CreationEvolution Previous score =5 Origin of Man Origin of Life (Prob.) The Fossil Record TOTAL =80

71 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Geologic Record Evolution model predicts: Uniformitarianism Sediment layers deposited gradually More complex fossils in higher layers Creation model predicts: Catastrophism Evidence for global flood Sudden appearance of fully formed fossils

72 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Conventional History Of The Earth Cenozoic 4, ,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 4,500 3,500 Millions of Years BP Precambrian Paleozoic Mesozoic -Formation of the earth -Crust forms -First fossil prokaryotes -Atmospheric Oxygen accumulation (from cyanobacteria) -First eukaryotic fossils -First multicellular animal fossils Origin of life Human fossils Last dinosaur fossils First reptile fossils First land plant fossils

73 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Geological Column Phanerozoic Precambrian Cenozoic Paleozoic Mesozoic Few fossils Ediacarian fauna (odd marine organisms) Very few fossils, maybe none Many pseudo fossils Dinosaurs Mammals, cycads, conifers, angiosperms Conifers, more reptiles and amphibians The age of fish small land plants Many fossils, all modern phyla ex. bryozoa Many crinoids, amphibia and reptiles Coal forests many primitive land plants Jawless fish, strange land plants Many marine organisms including bryozoa Extinction of dinosaurs and many families Jurassic Cretaceous Triassic Devonian Cambrian Permian Carboniferous Silurian Ordovician Tertiary Paleocene Oligocene Eocene Miocene Proterozoic Archean Millions of Years Before Present

74 Geologic Time Scale [with fossils]

75 Geologic Column Chart

76 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Geologic Column [some more details]

77 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Geologic Column Theory Cambrian rocks began to form ~ 600My ago [now believed to be My ago] Cambrian period estimated to be ~ 80My [now believed to be 5-10My] Precambrian rocks laid down during the prior hundreds of millions of years Should contain fossils of evolutionary ancestors of the complex vertebrates Should contain fossils of transitional forms linking the complex vertebrates to common ancestors

78 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama What Do We Find? Fossils of microscopic, soft-bodied, single-celled organisms, such as bacteria and algae in Precambrian rocks No fossilized ancestors for any Cambrian invertebrate No trace of transitional forms between the various kinds of invertebrates, e.g. No linking sponges with jellyfish No linking snails with trilobites Fossils of a vast array of complex invertebrates abruptly appear fully formed in the Cambrian rocks

79 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Geologic Column The column is not the column that textbooks describe: It rarely exists in its entirety in one location All types of rocks, minerals, metals are found in all ages and strata A progression of fossils through the ages documents evolution: Thats errant, circular reasoning: i.e. fossils date rocks, yet the rocks date the fossils (evolution is assumed)

80 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Geologic Column The creation / abrupt appearance column is the result of a world flood: Sorting action of water (smaller fossils end up going to bottom) Ordered destruction of different habitats The geologic column illustrates a superficially valid successional tendency, but it represents a very fast time sequence, not slow Mt. St. Helens created a mini Grand Canyon in days, and petrified wood in less than ten years!

81 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama What Does Richard Dawkins Say? The Cambrian strata of rocks, vintage about 600 million years, are the oldest in which we find most of the major invertebrate groups. And we find many of them already in an advanced state of evolution, the very first time they appear. It is as though they were just planted there, without any evolutionary history. Needless to say, this appearance of sudden planting has delighted creationists. Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker

82 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama What Does Douglas Futuyma Say? It is considered likely that all the animal phyla became distinct before or during the Cambrian, for they all appear fully formed, without intermediates connecting one form to another. Douglas Futuyma, Evolutionary Biology, 2 nd Ed. 1986

83 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama What We Find In The Fossils Same gaps in fossils records as in the organisms found today All kingdoms and subkingdoms are represented in the geologic record from the Cambrian onward All phyla of the animal kingdom are represented from the Cambrian onward All orders and families (as well as kingdoms, phyla, and classes) appear suddenly in the fossil record, with no indication of transitional forms from earlier types

84 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Animal and Plant Kingdom Fossils All classes of the animal kingdom are represented from the Cambrian onward, except: Moss-coral (Ordovician onward) Insects (Devonian onward) Graptolites (Cambrian to Carboniferous) Trilobites (Cambrian to Permian) All phyla of the plant kingdom are represented from the Triassic onward, except: Bacteria, algae, fungi (Precambrian onward) Bryophytes, pteridophytes (Silurian onward) Spermophytes (Carboniferous onward) Diatoms (Jurassic onward)

85 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama The Origin of Vertebrates Fish believed to be the first vertebrate Origin appears sudden and dramatic All three subdivisions of the bony fishes appear in the fossil record at about the same time Errol White, an evolutionist and expert on fishes, stated: But whatever ideas authorities may have on the subject, the lungfishes, like very other major group of fishes that I know, have their origins firmly based in nothing. E. White, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London

86 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Keeping Score CreationEvolution Previous score =6 Origin of Life (Prob.) The Fossil Record Geologic Ages TOTAL =90

87 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Conclusions Laws of science consistent with Creationism Signs of intelligence in the universe The probability of life from non-life is zero Abrupt appearance of fully-formed animals The missing links are still missing Man did not evolve from apes Catastrophism explains the geologic column There is no credible evidence for evolution! Science supports Creationism

88 @ Dr. Heinz Lycklama Which Model Fits The Evidence Best? So far … Creation9 Evolution0 Next … Age of the earth?

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