Presentation on theme: "What Does Science Say About Creation? - Part 2 -"— Presentation transcript:
1What Does Science Say About Creation? - Part 2 - Dr. Heinz Lycklama
2Which Model Best Fits The Facts? Creation and Evolution are the only two models of originsBoth models should be considered as equal alternatives and evaluated objectively in terms of their relative abilities to correlate and explain scientific dataThe model that incorporates the most data and has the smallest number of unresolved issues is the most likely to be true
3Basic Predictions of The Models CategoryBasic Predictions ofEvolution ModelCreation ModelGalactic universeGalaxies changingGalaxies constantStructure of starsStars changing into other typesStars unchangedOther heavenly bodiesBuilding upBreaking downTypes of rock formationsDifferent in different “ages”Similar in all “ages"Appearance of lifeLife evolving from non-lifeLife only from lifeArray of organismsContinuum of organismsDistinct kinds of organismsAppearance of kinds of lifeNew kinds appearingNo new kinds appearing
4Basic Predictions of The Models - 2 CategoryBasic Predictions ofEvolution ModelCreation ModelMutations in organismsBeneficialHarmfulNatural selectionCreative processConservative processFossil recordInnumerable transitionsSystematic gapsAppearance of manApe-human intermediatesNo ape-human intermediatesNature of manQuantitatively superior to animalsQualitatively distinct from animalsOrigin of civilizationSlow and gradualContemporaneous with man
5Looking At The Scientific Evidence Origin of matter, energy and natural lawOrigin of the solar systemTeleology – study of evidences of design in nature, e.g. Anthropic PrincipleClassification of biological organismsNatural selection and mutations (vestigal organs)
6The Scientific Evidence - 2 Origin of manOrigin of life – probabilityThe fossil recordGeologic ages – Uniformitarianism vs. CatastrophismAge of the earth
7Conditions For Increasing Complexity in an Open System Necessary, but not sufficient conditions:1. Open System2. Available EnergyAdditional requirements:3. Mechanism for storing and converting incoming energy4. Program (to “direct” the growth of complexity)
8Keeping ScoreCreationEvolutionLaws of ThermodynamicsTOTAL =1
9Origin of The Solar System Predictions of evolution model:Solar system is one of manyEarth, moon and planets should have same composition and structurePredictions of creation model:Solar system is uniqueEarth, moon and planets each created for a specific purpose, each with a distinctive composition and structureOnly the earth would be found to have a hydrosphere capable of supporting lifeOnly the earth would be found to have an atmosphere capable of supporting lifeEvidence of decay and catastrophism would be found on other planets and moons
11The Solar System Was Created Based on statistical analysis and the evolution model:One might expect to find many solar systems with planets and similar characteristics to our solar systemThe evolution model also assumes that the moon broke away from the earthWhat we find:Our solar system is uniqueEarth and moon have vastly different structure and composition and could not have come from the same celestial “ancestor”The chemical makeup of the moon rocks is very different from that of rocks on the earthThe predictions of the creation model are exactly confirmed by moon landings and space probes
12Keeping Score Creation Evolution Laws of Thermodynamics Origin of Solar SystemTOTAL =2
13Teleology Teleology is the study of evidences of design in nature The word is derived from the Greek word for end or purpose.Evolution predicts:Mechanistic self-ordering process in natureMutations provide random changesNatural selection concentrates the beneficial featuresCreation predicts:Evidence of design in natureCarefully balanced equations, constants and properties of matter
14The Anthropic Principle The Anthropic Principle states that the universe appears to be carefully designed for the well-being of mankindSome evidence of this found in nature:Mass of protonGravitation forceStrength of electrical chargesDistance of moon from the earthDistance of sun from the earthetc.
15Mass of Proton Mass of proton is chosen for stability Mass of free neutron is slightly heavier than that of a proton, and it decays to a proton, electron, and an antineutrino with a half life of 12 minutes. Free neutrons cannot persist in nature.If the mass of a proton were increased by just 0.2 %, it would decay into a neutron, a positron and a neutrino. This decay does not occur - if it did hydrogen could not exist. Hydrogen is the dominant element of the universe. Without it, the universe could not existEvidence of a precise design!
16Gravitation ForceGravitation force is inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance between the two masses. This fundamental force holds the universe together, controlling the orbits of all members of our planetary system.Why is the number not 1.99 or 2.01? Any value other than 2 would lead to an eventual catastrophic decay of orbits and of the entire universeEvidence of an essential design!
17Strength of Electrical Charges The strength of electrical charges, i.e. the Coulomb force varies as the inverse square of the distance between the charges. Since the electrical force is much stronger than the gravitational force, it has been measured to an accuracy of 16 decimal places to beThis reflects God’s purposeful planning!More on the “Just Right” Universe by Dr. Ray Bohlin of Probe Ministries in next 14 slides …
18A “Just Right” Universe 29 Fine-tuned Parameters to the UniverseConstants in equations for gravity, electromagnetism, strong and weak nuclear forcesRatio of proton to electron mass
19A “Just Right” Universe 51 Fine-tuned Parameters to our Galaxy, Solar System, and PlanetDistance from the sunSize, temperature, & type of sunSize, axial tilt, rotation speed, moon, & composition of earthStability of Jupiter and Saturn
20A “Just Right” Universe 10–53 - Probability of all 80 fine-tuned parameters occurring by chance
21A “Just Right” Universe Upper limit for number of stars in the universeAssume 1 planet per starTherefore 1022 planets in the universe
22A “Just Right” Universe So how do we determine how many planets may be suitable for life?x = orplanets suitable for life
23A “Just Right” Universe Jupiter acts as a comet and asteroid magnet shielding earth from catastrophic collisionsOur sun is located between spiral arms of the Milky Way Galaxy where there are fewer stars (less harmful radiation and disruptive gravity) and less gas and dust (we can see the rest of the galaxy and universe)
25A “Just Right” Universe Since 1996, over 50 planets outside our solar system have been foundOnly 5% of stars have planetsThe planets are either too large, too close to their star, or with too erratic an orbit to harbor lifeHave the probabilities changed?
26A “Just Right” Universe There are now 123 parameters with a probability of 1 in When multiplied with a very generous estimate of 1 planet/star or 1022 planets, the final number of planets in the universe suitable for life is orplanets
27A “Just Right” Universe CNN (2/5/01) just released an article reporting that some astronomers have hatched a plan to move earth’s orbitSun is going to increase in size and heat output over the next few billion years eventually making earth uninhabitableMove the earth farther out (41 million miles) gradually by passing a 62 mile diameter asteroid within 10,000 miles of earth every 6,000 years1 million fly bys should do it
28But, . . .“If the asteroid comes too close, it might break up or conceivably even slam into Earth.”“Another possible side effect would be to increase the planet's rotation. The encounters would have to be planned so that while some would cause the Earth to spin faster, others would slow it down back to normal rotation speed.”“It's also possible that the moon would be thrown from its orbit around the Earth during these fly-bys.”
29What Does Evolution Say? Evolution is unable to deal with such permanent properties of natureMax Planck ( ), a Nobel Prize winner and founder of modern physics, stated:“According to everything taught by the exact sciences about the immense realm of nature, a certain order prevails - one independent of the human mind … this order can be formulated in terms of purposeful activity. There is evidence of an intelligent order of the universe to which both man and nature are subservient.”
30Keeping Score Creation Evolution Laws of Thermodynamics Origin of Solar SystemTeleology (Design)TOTAL =3
31Classification of Biological Organisms The evolution model predicts:A continuum of all forms of lifeNo classification system would workThe creation model predicts:An array of clear-but distinct organismssimilar structures for similar functions, e.g. eyesdifferent structures for different functions, e.g. gills for fish, lungs for manScience of taxonomydistinct kinds/species
32The Science of Taxonomy The science of taxonomy is a problem for evolutionThe classification system introduced by Carolus Linnaeus applies to plants/animals in today’s world as well as to extinct plants and animalsA continuum of life forms does not existIntermediates have not been observed and/or identified in the fossilsThe classification system introduced by Linnaeus still works today
33Quoting an Evolutionist The anti-creationist, Niles Eldredge, wrote in 1985:“And though a few of these eighteenth-century systematists had vaguely evolutionary notions, nearly all were devoutly and orthodoxly religious. They saw the order in their material, the grand pattern of similarity running through the entire organic realm, as evidence of God’s plan of creation.”
34Classification Observations What we do see is:Variations within species, e.g. varieties of cats, dogs, cows, horses, mankindNo new kinds producedSome kinds become extinctLike begets likeChalk up another one for the Creation Model!
35Keeping Score Creation Evolution Laws of Thermodynamics Origin of Solar SystemTeleology (Design)Classification/OrganismTOTAL =4
36Natural Selection and Mutations Evolution model predicts:Small variations between members of a species would confer differing degrees of advantage or disadvantage in the struggle for existenceThose with significant advantages would be favoredNew and higher types of organisms would emergeA mutation (structural change in a gene) is the source of genetic variationMutations are primarily beneficial
37Natural Selection and Mutations - 2 Creation model predicts:Variation and natural selection work to assure genetic integrity and to enable the organism to survive in natureCharacteristics can be adjusted, within limits, to changes in the environmentMutations are primarily harmful
38What We See Happening Today Variations within a kind, e.g. peppered moth “evolving” to darker color as tree trunks grew darker with pollutants during industrial revolutionAdaptation to the environment for survivalMutations are harmful to the organismMutations are random and not directedMutations are rare in occurrenceMutations almost always generate misfits which soon die out
39“Origin of Species” Never Observed All of Darwin’s evidences turn out to be descriptions of creative adaptation, not originAccording to Niles Eldridge (1986):“Darwin, it is now become commonplace to acknowledge, never really addressed the ‘origin of species’ in his book of that title.”Darwin never really cited the origin of a new species by natural selectionThe British evolutionist Colin Patterson noted:“No one has ever produced a species by mechanisms of natural selection. No one has ever gotten near it and most of the current argument in neo-Darwinism is about this question.”
40On Mutations and Natural Selection The philosopher Janus Koestler noted that:“The public continues to believe that Darwin provided all the relevant answers by the magic formula of random mutations plus natural selection - quite unaware of the fact that random mutations turned out to be irrelevant and natural selections a tautology.”Mutations turn out to be rare events, and most of those are badThey do not lead to improvements in the species, as evolution predicts
41Vestigal OrgansAt one time there were claimed to be 180 such organs in man - appendix, tonsils, thymus gland, pituitary gland, etc.No useless vestiges of structures which were useful in a former evolutionary stageAll “vestigial” organs in man now appear to have a useThe argument that vestigial organs prove evolution is no longer regarded as valid
43The Origin of Man Evolution model predicts: Creation model predicts: Molecules -> manMan evolved from an apeCreation model predicts:Man’s appearance has remained largely the same
44Ape To Man?In a Science Digest article written by Lyall Watson, he states that:“The fossils that decorate our family tree are so scarce that there are still more scientists than specimens. The remarkable fact is that all the physical evidence we have for human evolution can still be placed, with room to spare, inside a single coffin.”David Pilbeam and Steven Gould (two evolutionists) report that:“Unfortunately, the fossil record of pongids (apes) is nonexistent, making a glaring deficiency in the whole story.”
45Famous “Hominid” Fossils Neanderthal Man – 1856Java Man – 1891Piltdown Man – 1908Nebraska Man – 1922Ramapithecus – 1930Lucy
46Neanderthal Man Fossil fragments first found in France – 1856 Skull cap and some limb bonesDiagnosed as human with deformed vertebraeNeanderthal Man’s Site in Krapina,Another almost complete skeleton found in 1908Reconstructed by Marcelle Boule to look ape-likeBased on pre-conceived evolutionary notionsFaulty reconstruction recognized in 1957Neanderthal is now known to be fully human with a bone deformitySchool textbooks still portray as man’s ancestor
47Java Man Discovered by Eugene Dubois in 1891 In 1940 Dubois admitted Ape-like skull capHuman-like thigh bone found 50 feet away one year laterAssumed they went togetherFossils dated at 500,000 years (guesswork based on assumed evolutionary model)In 1940 Dubois admittedHe found two human skulls in same area as the human thigh boneJava Man now regarded as a hoaxStill included in textbooks as support for evolution
48Piltdown Man Fossil fragments found in 1908 Part of a human skull and part of a lower ape-like jawEstimated to be 500,000 years oldDiscovered to be a fraud in 1953Lower jaw and tooth were from orangutanTooth had been filedParts of lower jaw broken to hide the fact that it did not fit with the skullSkull was dated at ~620 years old and dyed to appear old
49Nebraska Man Discovered in 1922 Dated to be one million years old Fossil was only a single toothComplete model of Nebraska Man, his family and environment was constructedTooth discovered to be pig’s tooth in 1928Still cited as evidence for evolution in the 1940’s
50Ramapithecus Found in India in 1930’s Considered a human ancestorBased on some jaw fragments and a few teethMore fossil evidence found in 1970’sBaboons in Ethiopia have same teeth structure as RamapithecusNow discarded as a possible “missing link”Had been published as factual evidence of human evolution worldwide
51Lucy Discovered in 1974 by Donald Johanson Evidence: 40% complete skeletonDated at 3.5 million years oldEvidence:Arm/leg ratio of 83.9 %Hip/pelvis – walked uprightKnee joint – walked upright
52Lucy - 2 Digging deeper, we find that: Leg bone broken in two places and one end was crushed -> this invalidates the ratioHip/pelvis was incomplete, and thus reshaped to make it look as if it walked uprightKnee joint was found over one mile away and 200 feet deeper in strata from rest of bonesFossil remains of two different creatures fitted to form a make-believe creature
53Summary of “Hominid” Fossils Neanderthal Man – accepted as homo sapiensJava Man – artificial constructPiltdown Man – proven to be a hoaxNebraska Man – an extinct pigRamapithecus – an orangutanLucy – make-believe creatureAnother one for the Creation Model!
54Lord Zuckerman Chimes In “For example, no scientist could logically dispute the proposition that man, without having been involved in any act of divine creation, evolved from some ape-like creature in a very short space of time – speaking in geological terms – without leaving any fossil traces of the steps of the transformation.”Zuckerman, Solly Beyond the ivory tower: The frontiers of public and private science. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company. p. 64.
56Origin of Life - Probability What is the probability that an explosion in a junk yard would “create” a car?What is the probability of creating a Boeing airplane from such an explosion?What is the probability of 200 monkeys pawing away at a typewriter could “write” a Shakespeare play?
57Origin of Life – Probability - 2 Take 200 parts and line them up in a specific order200! ways of aligning these parts = 10**375Try a new alignment 1 billion times a secondAssuming 20 billion years of time, we have 20 * 10**18 secondsThe probability of finding the right alignment is practically zeroLiving organisms contain many more than 200 partsHuman being contains 100 million cellsOnly 10**80 “infinestimal” particles in the whole universe
58Probability of Synthesis Of DNA Molecule:Medium protein includes about 300 amino acidsToo complex to arise by chance [no matter how long the time or how big the universe]By gradual accretionSystem might advance from one part to a two-part system, then to three parts, etc.Requires each step to be immediately beneficialProbability of success would be incalculably small
59Keeping Score Creation Evolution Previous score = 4 Mutations/SelectionOrigin of ManOrigin of Life (Prob.)TOTAL =7
60The Fossil RecordThe theory of evolution is based on two major suppositions:Mutations and natural selection supposedly provided the mechanismThe fossil record allegedly proved the “fact” of evolutionFossils should “prove” evolution since the fossil record has long been considered as the main evidence for evolutionThe creation model predicts that organisms preserved as fossils will correspond to the same classification system as applicable to present-day plants and animals
61The Fossil Record - 2 Evolution model predicts: Many preliminary formsMany transitional formsRandomly distributed gaps between present kinds and transitional formsBasic taxonomic categories should have been evolvingCreation model predicts:No preliminary formsNo transitional formsClear gaps between typesSame taxonomic categories as at present
62The Fossil Record - 3“Creation and evolution, between them, exhaust the possible explanations for the origin of living things. Organisms either appeared on the earth fully developed or they did not. If they did not they must have developed from preexisting species by some process of modification. If they did appear in fully formed state, they must have been created by some omnipotent intelligence.”D. J. Futuyma, Science on Trial, 1983
63The Fossil Record - 4 Darwin admitted in 1859: “Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain.”Paul Moody wrote in a standard textbook:“So far as we can judge from the geologic record, large changes seem usually to have arisen suddenly. ... fossil forms, intermediate between large subdivisions of classification, such as orders and classes, are seldom [read never] found.”
64The Fossil Record - 5Evolutionists say we should find transitional forms:Single cell to multi-cell creaturesInvertebrate to vertebrateFish to reptileReptile to birdApe to manTo date no true transitional fossil forms have been discovered
65The Fossil Record - 6“I fully agree with your comments on the lack of direct illustration of evolutionary transitions in my book. If I knew of any, fossil or living, I would certainly have included them. . .I will lay it on the line, There is not one such fossil for which one might make a watertight argument.”-- Dr. Colin Patterson, senior paleontologist at the British Museum of Natural History140 years after Darwin, and still no credible transition form!
66Coelacanth – A “Living Fossil” Coelacanth fishKnown by paleontologists of 19th and 20th centuries from the fossil record“Extinct” about 70 million years agoCandidate forerunner to first land animalsLiving specimensFound off west coast of Madagascar in 1938More found laterNo longer considered a link in evolutionary chainAnother evolution “theory” debunked!
67Fully Formed“It is considered likely that all the animal phyla became distinct before or during the Cambrian, for they all appear fully formed, without intermediates connecting one phylum to another.”Futuyma, Douglas J Evolutionary biology.2d ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. p. 325.
68The Fossil Record Summarized Missing links are still missingDifferent types of “living fossils” foundSudden appearance of fully formed fossils in the “Cambrian Explosion”The same “kinds” still appear todaySome species are now extinctNo new kinds evolvedSupports the Creation Model!
70Keeping Score Creation Evolution Previous score = 5 Origin of Man Origin of Life (Prob.)The Fossil RecordTOTAL =8
71Geologic Record Evolution model predicts: Creation model predicts: UniformitarianismSediment layers deposited graduallyMore complex fossils in higher layersCreation model predicts:CatastrophismEvidence for global floodSudden appearance of fully formed fossils
72Conventional History Of The Earth 4,0005001,0001,5002,0002,5003,0004,5003,500Millions of Years BPCenozoicHuman fossilsMesozoicLast dinosaur fossilsFirst reptile fossilsPaleozoicFirst land plant fossilsPrecambrian-First multicellular animal fossils-First eukaryotic fossils-Atmospheric Oxygen accumulation(from cyanobacteria)There are about 1050 atoms in the earth, and about 1080 atoms in the universe.-First fossil prokaryotesOrigin of life-Crust forms-Formation of the earth
73The Geological Column Cenozoic 100 - Mesozoic Phanerozoic PrecambrianCenozoicPaleozoicMesozoicTertiaryPaleoceneOligoceneEoceneMioceneExtinction of dinosaurs and many familiesMillions of Years Before Present300 -100 -400 -500 -200 -JurassicCretaceousTriassicDinosaursMammals, cycads, conifers, angiospermsConifers, more reptiles and amphibiansDevonianCambrianPermianCarboniferousSilurianOrdovician“The age of fish” small land plantsMany fossils, all modern phyla ex. bryozoaMany crinoids, amphibia and reptilesCoal “forests” many primitive land plantsJawless fish, strange land plantsMany marine organisms including bryozoaProterozoicArcheanFew fossilsEdiacarian fauna (odd marine organisms)Very few fossils, maybe noneMany pseudo fossils
77Geologic Column Theory Cambrian rocks began to form ~ 600My ago[now believed to be My ago]Cambrian period estimated to be ~ 80My[now believed to be 5-10My]Precambrian rocks laid down during the prior hundreds of millions of yearsShould contain fossils of evolutionary ancestors of the complex vertebratesShould contain fossils of transitional forms linking the complex vertebrates to common ancestors
78What Do We Find?Fossils of microscopic, soft-bodied, single-celled organisms, such as bacteria and algae in Precambrian rocksNo fossilized ancestors for any Cambrian invertebrateNo trace of transitional forms between the various kinds of invertebrates, e.g.No linking sponges with jellyfishNo linking snails with trilobitesFossils of a vast array of complex invertebrates abruptly appear fully formed in the Cambrian rocks
79The Geologic ColumnThe “column” is not the column that textbooks describe:It rarely exists in its entirety in one locationAll types of rocks, minerals, metals are found in all ages and strataA progression of fossils through the ages “documents” evolution:That’s errant, “circular reasoning”: i.e. fossils date rocks, yet the rocks date the fossils (evolution is assumed)
80The Geologic ColumnThe creation / abrupt appearance column is the result of a world flood:Sorting action of water (smaller fossils end up going to bottom)Ordered destruction of different habitatsThe geologic column illustrates a superficially valid “successional tendency”, but it represents a very fast time sequence, not slowMt. St. Helens created a “mini Grand Canyon” in days, and petrified wood in less than ten years!
81What Does Richard Dawkins Say? “The Cambrian strata of rocks, vintage about 600 million years, are the oldest in which we find most of the major invertebrate groups. And we find many of them already in an advanced state of evolution, the very first time they appear. It is as though they were just planted there, without any evolutionary history. Needless to say, this appearance of sudden planting has delighted creationists.”Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker
82What Does Douglas Futuyma Say? “It is considered likely that all the animal phyla became distinct before or during the Cambrian, for they all appear fully formed, without intermediates connecting one form to another.”Douglas Futuyma, Evolutionary Biology, 2nd Ed. 1986
83What We Find In The Fossils Same gaps in fossils records as in the organisms found todayAll kingdoms and subkingdoms are represented in the geologic record from the Cambrian onwardAll phyla of the animal kingdom are represented from the Cambrian onwardAll orders and families (as well as kingdoms, phyla, and classes) appear suddenly in the fossil record, with no indication of transitional forms from earlier types
84Animal and Plant Kingdom Fossils All classes of the animal kingdom are represented from the Cambrian onward, except:Moss-coral (Ordovician onward)Insects (Devonian onward)Graptolites (Cambrian to Carboniferous)Trilobites (Cambrian to Permian)All phyla of the plant kingdom are represented from the Triassic onward, except:Bacteria, algae, fungi (Precambrian onward)Bryophytes, pteridophytes (Silurian onward)Spermophytes (Carboniferous onward)Diatoms (Jurassic onward)
85The Origin of Vertebrates Fish believed to be the first vertebrateOrigin appears sudden and dramaticAll three subdivisions of the bony fishes appear in the fossil record at about the same timeErrol White, an evolutionist and expert on fishes, stated:“But whatever ideas authorities may have on the subject, the lungfishes, like very other major group of fishes that I know, have their origins firmly based in nothing.”E. White, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London
86Keeping Score Creation Evolution Previous score = 6 Origin of Life (Prob.)The Fossil RecordGeologic AgesTOTAL =9
87Conclusions Laws of science consistent with Creationism Signs of intelligence in the universeThe probability of life from non-life is zeroAbrupt appearance of fully-formed animalsThe missing links are still missingMan did not evolve from apesCatastrophism explains the “geologic column”There is no credible evidence for evolution!Science supports Creationism
88Which Model Fits The Evidence Best? So far …Creation 9Evolution 0Next …Age of the earth?