3Third Generation Biotech= Functional Genomics and Proteomics Biotechnology, in wider sense, in Indonesia can be said having meaning both of old biotechnology (such as tempe-fermented soybean, tape-fermented cassava/glutinous rice) and new biotechnology (such as protein structure, third generation biotechnology)Biotechnology consists of Traditional and Modern Biotech: Medical, Agro, Environmental, Chemical, and Food BiotechnologyThird Generation Biotech= Functional Genomics and ProteomicsTargeted Medicine, Tissue Engineering and Stem cells, should be the Focus for AsiaBINASIA should become the Information Hub for Biotech AsiaGovernments must stimulate Innovation in R&D through various Incentives
12Targeted medicine, Tissue engineering and Stem cells Because people have a different genetic make up, the effect of drugs will also differ. This new branch of medicine is now called pharmacogenetics, which study the effect of drugs on genetically different populations. It is now known that treatment of hypertension, cancers, and other diseases will result in a negative response in certain groups of patients, resulting in waste of money as well as exposing unnecessary adverse reactions to patients.
13TARGETED THERAPYTargeted therapy addresses the needs of specific patient populations. Patients want to know whether they are likely to benefit from a drug, while minimizing their risk of negative side effects.Targeted medicine may improve drug efficacy by better understanding the genetic associations to disease.Identifying patients most likely respond to a specific drug will improve patient compliance with a therapy. This is especially true in patients with oncology therapy, where the side effect are severe. Herceptin, a drug for breast cancer patients is the prototype drug.
14TISSUE ENGINEERINGTissue engineering, is also a new field and hold many promises and potentials for future therapy.From the internet, the topic of “tissue engineering” generates a response of 593,000 hits. So, enough literature to search and read.
15STEM CELLSStem cell or Regenerative Medicine is very much related with tissue engineering. It is basically a new science which is developed from embryology and cloning research.When an oocyte is fertilized by sperm to become a zygote, at the blastocyst stage, an inner mass is formed, which is pluripotent, meaning that these cells can differentiate into all 210 tissue in the body.Presently, much research is done to direct the development of these embryonic stem cells, to cardiomyocytes, dopaminergic nerve cells, beta-cells of Langerhans, and neurons.In mice, good results have been achieved to replace infarcted tissue by new cardiomyocytes, pancreatic cells, neurons and other tissues.
18Nucleus of patient transferred to enucleated human oocyte Nucleus of patient transferred to enucleated human oocyte. Inner cell mass from blastocyst cultured and stimulated to form specific cell types required for THERAPY----Diabetes, Parkinson, Cancer, Stroke etc,
19The Chemo-attractive homing hypothesis of circulating STEM CELLS, attracted to injury, in the infarcted area
21Development of Biotechnology in Indonesia is started in the mid 1980’sUnder the coordination ofMinistry of EducationMinistry of Research and TechnologyMinistry of AgricultureMinistry of Health
22INDONESIA BIOTECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM (Konsorsium Bioteknologi Indonesia) Established on October 14, 199434 Institutions: 11 (RC); 10 (University), 3 (BPPT), 5 Industries, 2 HospitalsFounding members: 3 IUC Biotechnology (ITB, IPB, UGM)Members :RC from Universities (Public and Private)RC from Department and non-DepartmentInstitutions from private sectors/industries
23Universitas Diponegoro Universitas Indonesia Universitas Soedirman MEMBERS OF KBI (1) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTERS Universities (Public - Private)Universitas DiponegoroUniversitas IndonesiaUniversitas SoedirmanUniversitas BrawijayaUniversitas UdayanaInst Teknologi IndonesiaUniv Muhamadiyah MalangUniversitas LampungUniversitas SurabayaUniversitas Negeri Malang
24MEMBERS OF KBI (2) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER ON BIOTECHNOLOGY Mininistry of Research and TechnologyCenter for the assessment biotech (BPPT)Center for the assessment and application bioindustry technology (BPPT)Starch Technology Center (BPPT)LIPIResearch Center for BiotechnologyResearch Center for ChemistryDepartment of AgricultureResearch Center of Agriculture & Genetics ResourcesResearch Center for HorticulutureBiotech Research Unit for Crops Estate
25MEMBERS OF KBI (3) INSTITUTIONS FROM PRIVATE SECTORS/ INDUSTRIES PT. ESA MEDIKA MANDIRIPT SENTRA BIOSAINS DINAMIKAPT MONAGRO KIMIAPT FAJAR MAS MURNIPT EAST WEST SEED INDONESIAHOSPITALS :Rajawali HospitalTegalrejo Hospital
26ROLE OF INDONESIA BIOTECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM GOVERNMENT: POLICY IN BIOTECHNOLOGY SECTORMEMBERS:SHARING INFORMATION AND RESOURCESJOINT ACTIVITIESINDONESIA BIOTECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE
27Strategic Plan of the Development of Biotechnology in Indonesia KBI involves in preparing a concept of Strategic Plan of the Development of Biotechnology in Indonesia (“SPDBI”), fromThis effort was under the coordination of the Ministry of Research and Technology
28Biotechnology applications in three main fields have been elaborated in “SPDBI”: Medicine and human health;Agriculture, food production, and fisheries;Industries, environment protection and remediation
29Biotechnology Research Priorities in the field Medicine and human health Genetics disorders,Infectious diseases,Degenerative and malignancy diseases
30Biotechnology Research Priorities in the field Agriculture, and marine Isolation and identification of abiotic stress resistance gene(s) markersField tests for efficacy and food safety,Development of diagnostic kit for marine pollutant and pathogens
31Biotechnology Research Priorities in the field of industries, environments protection and remediationDevelopment of recombinant vaccine productionDevelopment of novel antibiotics from local microbesEnvironment protection and bioremediation
32The critical success factors for the development of biotechnology: Infrastructure development,Regulatory/cultural environment,Policy development,Human resource development,Finance and resource mobilization
33Must pay attention & consider Socio-cultural and estheticalReligious and ethical norm
46RecommendationsConsidering the limited financial and human resources Indonesia, therefore, focus of the focus of all Biotechnology field must be takenThe Government must STIMULATE INNOVATION by giving TAX INCENTIVES to industries doing R&DEfforts must be made to Facilitate Government-University-Industry cooperationApplied Research in Universities and Government institutions should be done in close cooperation with industriesBINASIA should become the communication hub for International Cooperation and Technology Transfer
47Recommendations (cont. ……………..) In order to understand better on BINASIA, IBC –particularly IBC member’s institutions- are encouraged to open the website and to fill their specific activities accordingly.IBC periodical meeting should cover report on the progress of IBC member institutions to engage with the respective institution(s) from other BINASIA member countries.