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By: Nancy Sutherland May 2001

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1 By: Nancy Sutherland May 2001
Student Portfolio By: Nancy Sutherland May 2001

2 Table of Contents 1. Introduction 7. Assessment Protocols
2. Educational Experiences 8. Technology 3. Educational Philosophy 9. Deaf Education Resources 4. Instructional Strategies 10. Representative Instructional Unit 5. Learning Environment 11. Reflections 6. Instructional Resources 12. Reference List

3 a. Why I want to be a teacher.
“We must view young people not as empty bottles to be filled, but as candles to be lit.” Robert H. Shaffer (Brownlow, 1997, p.16) A. Introduction a. Why I want to be a teacher. I want to make a difference. I want to create a productive and effective learning environment for my students. One where students feel comfortable and encouraged to explore their own personal learning styles. I want to use my gifts and knowledge to provide today’s youth with the best education I can. I want to be an inspiration. I personally had a very difficult time getting through my own primary and secondary classes since I did not fit into the educational expected categories for “normal” learners. For this reason my desire is to help those individuals who are Deaf overcome the constant barriers that are, more often than not, constructed around them. I hope to help my future students by providing them with the tools they need to be successful in their learning environment.

4 Table Of Contents Introduction 7. Assessment Protocols
2. Educational Experiences 8. Technology 3. Educational Philosophy 9. Deaf Education Resources 4. Instructional Strategies 10. Representative Instructional Unit 5. Learning Environment 11. Reflections 6. Instructional Resources 12. Reference List

5 A. Introduction b. When did I decide to become a teacher of d/hh students. My senior year of high school I went to see a counselor, who gave me a battery of tests to help me pick my major when I attended college. The tests told me that I was best suited for farming, fishing, or forestry. When I stopped sobbing the counselor told me about a Special Education class she had taken at Kent State University. In our discussion about the different areas of Special Education the topic of teaching students who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing peaked my interest.

6 A. Introduction c. Why I made the decision to become a teacher.
Deaf Education was something I knew nothing about and for this very reason held my interest more then anything else I had ever heard about. I chose Kent State University without even looking at the campus, or any other college for that matter. I asked where the best college was for Deaf Education and when the answer came back Kent State, I made my decision. At first the thought scared me, because I knew nothing about what I had just chosen to be my future. However, it was not long after I started taking classes that I became completely fascinated and compelled with the teaching of the Deaf. Being an educator in my eyes is a challenge, one that is ongoing, frustrating at times, but in the end extremely gratifying.

7 “Teach your students to use what talents they have; the woods would be silent if no bird sang except those that sing best.” Anonymous (Brownlow, 1997, p.29) B. Educational Experiences a. Characteristics of my best/worst teachers. As I look back at my past educational experiences it is really hard for me to recall any strong teachers. Like everyone in school I had teachers that I liked and those I did not like. The problem was that I never knew there were others ways of teaching until I went to college. I remember going to my first middle school to observe a few classrooms, I was simply amazed! It was at that point that I began to compare the education I received back home to the one students are receiving in the Kent area. The more I thought about it the more I resented my past teachers; because I felt like I was cheated out of an education that I deserved.

8 B. Educational Experiences
b. Teaching characteristics of my “weakest” teachers Uneducated on subject matter as well as new and improved methods of teaching Unable/unwilling to give students clear expectations of desired goals dealing with students educational work and personal growth Lack of motivational attitude toward teaching/classroom No parental involvement- unwilling to collaborate with parents on methods that would benefit the child’s performance Unprepared Insecure/lack of confidence Favors students

9 B. Educational Experiences
c. Teaching characteristics of my “strongest” teachers Creative/focus on getting students to ask questions Flexible Respectful to students, parents, and colleagues opinions on ways to benefits the classroom Fair and consistent Teach to students, do not teach over their heads Aware of own limitation/admit when do not know something, seeking collaboration to improve self as well as classroom Accept students with weaknesses and work with student to improve them

10 “The cost of educating a child today is immense, but the cost of not educating a child is incalculable.” Anonymous (Brownlow, 1997, p.3) B. Educational Experiences d. My resulting insights concerning teaching. Sadly during my educational years , I encountered more weak teachers than strong ones. However, now that I look back on all of my experiences it was the weak as well as the strong that encouraged me to become a master educator. Since I have started to evaluate my educational past I have noticed that I say, “I will never do that when I become a teacher”, instead of stating “I will be sure to do that when I become a teacher”. Either way, the influence from past educator’s is the driving force in my pursuit to becoming a superb educator.

11 “Teaching is painful, continual, and difficult work to be done by kindness, by watching, and by praise, but above all by example.” John Ruskin (Brownlow, 1997, p.57) C. Educational Philosophy Introduction As I begin my journey as an educator I will abide by and take these beliefs with me through my classroom travel. For I believe that without these necessary beliefs, becoming a master teacher would not be achieved. I dedicate this next portion of my portfolio to informing all of my essential beliefs about teaching.

12 C. Educational Philosophy
a. Conflict Management I will include conflict management into the curriculum that will help children improve their conflict resolution concepts and skills. ERS- Educators for social responsibilities (Chauncey, 1999, p.5) b. Student Centered I believe that students should be viewed as team players and teachers viewed as their coach. OCES- Ohio coalition of essential schools (Hoffman, 1999, p.12) c. Teachers Role I believe that my role as teacher is to be a facilitator as well as a collaborator. d. Students Interests I believe that teachers should focus their curriculum to their students interest.

13 C. Educational Philosophy
e. Students Needs I believe as a educator what you teach should be tailor-made to meet the needs of each child in your class. f. Collaborative Classroom I believe a well rounded classroom is one that incorporates the relationship between the teacher, students, and parents. g. Modeling I believe it is essential for teachers to model not only curricular agendas but moral attributes as well. h. ASL as a first language I believe that students who are Deaf need to be versed in their own language of ASL first before moving on to English as a second language.

14 “The greatest difficulty in education is to get experience out of ideas.” George Santayana (Brownlow, 1997, p.22) C. Educational Philosophy Summary These beliefs are just a beginning to the plethora of concepts I have gained throughout my years of college and plan to use in my years as a teaching professional. Everyday is a new learning experience, one that if not taken lightly can prove to be an enlightening experience. I will take each and every one of these with me to my future destinations. With these valuable concepts I will succeed in being the best teacher I can be. I will also use my past educational experiences both good and bad as a guide, which will lead me in a positive teaching direction.

15 “There are three things to remember when teaching; know your stuff; know whom you are stuffing; and then stuff them elegantly.” Lola May (Brownlow, 1997, p.49) D. Instructional Strategies Introduction This section of my portfolio is dedicated to the instructional strategies that I have gained throughout the years as an aspiring teacher. Not only is it important to know what strategies one plans to use when teaching, but also how to go about implementing those strategies to become an effective teacher. I plan to use these strategies as a guide to show how I will teach.

16 D. Instructional Strategies
a. Learning through interactions Children learn more effectively when they are engaged in interactions rather than when they participate in receptive or passive activities. Students should be interacting with other peers, materials, and their surroundings in ways which help them make sense of their own experiences and environments. “Interactions that arise in the course of activities provides a context for much social and cognitive learning.” (Katz, 2000, p.1)

17 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
b. Cooperative Learning By incorporating cooperative learning into your curriculum students academic, management, and social skills will increase. There are five characteristics of cooperative learning: 1) put students into groups of three or four, 2) the task that is to be accomplished should be focused on, 3) peer cooperation and interaction is required in the groups, 4) each students has his/her own responsibility to learn, and 5) support division of labor. “Cooperative learning is learning based on a small-group approach to teaching that holds students accountable for both individual and group achievement.” (Orlich, et.al, 2001, p.300)

18 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
c. Teaching Students to use Learning Strategies This approach is known as the Strategies Integration Model (SIM) and can be used to teach basically any strategic intervention to students. There are six steps to the SIM. “The strategy should be clearly linked to (i.e. useful in completing) the tasks that students need to perform and where they need to perform them.” (Sturomski, 1997, p.8)

19 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
d. Authentic Learning In this strategy the learner gains such an understanding of the material that he/she is then capable of restating that information in any form. When the student is able to explain and/or question the material they are learning, they appear to have a better understanding and comprehension of the material. “Authentic learning requires the learner to communicate an in-depth understanding of a problem or issue rather than memorize sets of isolated facts, and it must result in achievements that have relevance beyond school.” (Brown, 2000, p.3)

20 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
e. Establishing Reciprocal Relationships with Parents Parent- Teacher relationships are an important factor in the education of students. They must work as a team to decide pertinent information needed to help the student succeed. This new family-centered approach enables the parent and the teacher to work together to achieve mutual expectations for the child. “Reciprocal relationships between teachers and families require mutual respect, cooperation, shared responsibilities and negotiation of conflict toward achievement of shared goals.” (Bredekamp, Copple, 1997, p.22)

21 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
f. Dramatic Play Dramatic play enables children to learn how to role play. They are allowed to use their imagination and create who ever they want to be. This can be done by going on field trips where the students can develop new roles and situations. Through this form of role playing, which is dramatic play it enables students to develop empathy for others. “Carefree and creative dramatic play promotes cognitive development and helps children learn how to share, communicate, and cooperate with each other.” (Sturm, 1996, p.1)

22 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
g. Learning Centers Learning centers can be used in a variety of ways on a variety of subjects. They can stimulate independent thinking as well as cooperative learning environments. Learning centers can be built into the curriculum along with activities for student enjoyment after their work is completed. “Centers commonly found in primary classrooms include Math, Language, Reading, Writing, computers, blocks, dramatic play, Social Studies, and listening.” (www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/earlycld/ea1lk19.htm)

23 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
h. Assessing Student’s Learning and Development Teachers need to asses each student’s learning progress primarily through written records of observation and evaluation of work samples, portfolios, group work, and experiments collected systematically at regular intervals. Results of these assessments are used to improve and individualize each students instruction needs. Teachers should involve students in evaluating and then revising their own work, this helps them to understand and learn from their mistakes. Parents should also be an active participant in the assessment of their child's learning process. “Teachers solicit parent’s knowledge about children’s learning and development progress and incorporate this information into ongoing assessment and evaluation strategies.” (Bredekamp, Copple, 1997, p.176)

24 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
i. Initiate Question Asking By initiating questions, teachers allow students to focus more on the product instead of the solution. Also by posing situations to students that have no solution teachers can initiate questions from there students. Students need to question if they want to find the answers. It is the job of teachers to create the inquiry and motivation in students to ask the “When, Why, and How” questions. “No man really becomes a fool until he stops asking questions.” (Charles P. Steinmetz) Brownlow, 1997, p.76)

25 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
j. Multisensory Learning The multisensory approach encourages teacher to send additional information through additional channels that are too often ignored. This enables teachers to utilize all the students senses, allowing students to better understand and remember information. Using the senses also proves to heighten the students level of arousal and improve on the level and intensity of the amount of focused attention a student can put forth towards a given target. “The role of the senses is another area that has been slightened because of out tendency to equate thinking with verbal processes.” (Williams, 1986, p.35)

26 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
k. Teachable Moments Teachable moments are a student centered way in which teachers allow students to continue conversing about whatever they choose. These conversations are brought forth by the students. Teachers can use teachable moments to then relate the information back into the curriculum. This gives the students needed pratice in linguistic skills, a sense of acceptance, and provides the teacher with a better understanding of what the students interests are. (Ann Marie Kennedy, Personal communication, November 2, 2000)

27 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
l. Dialogue Journals Journaling is a way for the teacher and the student to communicate through written expression. If administered correctly this strategy can greatly increase a students reading and writing skills. Dialogue journals are a non- graded written conversation between two people. “Every good teacher dreams of a technique that will increase student’s interest in reading and writing, and will help them learn to think of written language as a natural and important way to communicate thoughts, information, feelings, and ideas.” (Bailes, et al, 1986, p.1)

28 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
m. Variety of deaf role models By exposing Deaf and Hard of Hearing students to Deaf adults can prove to be very beneficial. The students are able to communicate with, while practicing their use of ASL. They are also given the opportunity to see adults who are deaf that have succeeded in life and who function in a hearing world. This could provide students with the opportunity to dream and create goals for a life after high school. “Knowledge of the historical development of ASL will permit an understanding of what the areas are open to change and how the language allows these changes to occur.” (Bornstein, 1990, p.93)

29 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
n. C.O.P.S. This is an emergent learners correction strategy used by my practicum teacher. Each letter stands for; Capitalization, Organization, Punctuation, and Spelling. It is used at the end of the writing process to better assist the students in proofreading their work. The student’s are directed to place each letter at the top of the page after they have successfully located and corrected the topic of each letter. Once they have finished this procedure the teacher in turn will place a number under each letter, this means that there are that many corrections still left to make. This process is continued until the student has corrected all of their mistakes. This strategy is a good one for introducing students to work independently and to find their own mistakes. This strategy can also be increased to include other methods of correction like; Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics. (Wendy Brummitt, Personal Communication, April 11, 2001)

30 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
o. Physical Movement The use of this strategy should be incorporated into all lessons and activities. By utilizing this method students are given the opportunity to get up and move around during the lesson. These short breaks are built into the lesson by the teacher having the students get up to retrieve materials or by having one student pass out papers. This can work for the entire class or for one or two students that have a difficult time staying seated for the entire class. It is a good strategy for teachers to anticipate a students need for physical movement, this in turn will help the lesson reach its’ potential goal. (Debbie Slyh, Personal Communication, February 28, 2001)

31 D. Instructional Strategies Cont.
P. Weekly Parent Journals Through the use of weekly parent journals the teachers and parents are given the opportunity to interact on a consistent basis. All too often the only tome parents are contacted is when a student is acting up in class. By using this method the parents will be informed of good behaviors as well as not so praise worthy behaviors. This strategy also allows the parents to be kept informed of the students school assignments and their child’s current status in the class.

32 “One mark of a great educator is the ability to lead students out to new places where even the educator has never been.” Thomas Groome (Brownlow, 1997, p.83) D. Instructional Strategies Cont. Summary By reading this section of my portfolio one can understand how my beliefs plan to be carried out by my instructional strategies. For instance my belief that a classroom should be student centered will be administered through the use of teachable moments, cooperative learning, and learning centers. Furthermore my belief of incorporating students interests into my classroom will be fulfilled through learning by interactions and authentic learning. In my eyes there will never be a conclusion to this section of my portfolio, for I will never stop learning. Therefore, I will use every new experience as a stepping stone toward completing another page in my life as an educator.

33 “The object of education is to prepare the young to educate themselves throughout their lives.” Robert Maynard Hutchins (Brownlow, 1997, p.67) E. Learning Environment Introduction The environment in which students will learn is a crucial aspect to their education. Often people categorize a good classroom by it’s size and the abundance of materials available in it. Very little attention is focused on the feeling and use of the materials in the room. This section of my portfolio is dedicated to showing how I plan to create a positive learning environment in my future classroom.

34 E. Learning Environment
a. Match Learning Environment to Students Learning Style A teacher’s classroom needs to fit the needs all of the students presented in it. Understanding and knowing the students learning styles enables the teacher to accordingly present the materials in ways that best suite the students. This also allows the students to succeed by providing them with the most appropriate environment. “The expression learning style refers to the students sound preference, light preference, and preference for working alone or in a cooperative group or with a peer, for short burst or long periods of work, for moving around or staying quiet.” (Kirk, et. al, 1997, p.264)

35 E. Learning Environment Cont.
b. Creating a Caring Community of Learners Students need to feel comfortable in their classroom, as well as communicating with their teacher. This can easily be done by a simple heart felt greeting in the morning, to being available at all times for students. Parents must also feel comfortable talking and discussing issues with the teacher, in order for the concept of community to take place. This can be done by meeting with the parent at whatever time is convenient to them instead of making parents rearrange their schedules. When all three elements are able to interact systematically a caring, comfortable, and reliable community is established for all learners and parents. “Developmentally appropriate practices occur within a context that supports the development of relationships between adults and children, among children, among teachers, and between teachers and families” (Bredekamp, Copple, 1997, p.16)

36 E. Learning Environment Cont.
c. Classroom Rules Have no more than five rules, keep the wording simple and positive, make the rules specific (observable and measurable) publicly post the rules, tell students the consequences for following and for breaking the rules, and include a compliance rule.

37 E. Learning Environment Cont.
d. Classroom Schedule A classroom schedule is a posting of how the daily activities will play out. This provides the students with a listing of when they should be engaged in learning, when assignments should be completed, and when other activities will be held. Teachers should seek student input, publicly display the schedule, keep parents informed, alternate difficult and enjoyable activities, avoid revising a schedule, reinforce students for attending to tasks.

38 E. Learning Environment Cont.
e. Physical Arrangement of the Classroom Teachers need to arrange the desks in rows, small groups, semi circles, and partners. Place disruptive students close to the teacher and surround them with good role models. Make sure any materials needed for projects are easily accessible, do not leave students with free time to get into trouble. Place teachers desk in a quiet corner facing the students.

39 E. Learning Environment Cont.
f. Learning Centers Learning centers can be a group of desks put together to form a table, a space on the floor covered with carpet, or a quiet place in the room where students can go. Create learning centers away from students working independently, so that students will not be disturbed by the group discussions. Allow centers to be highly accessible, inviting, and comfortable for students.

40 E. Learning Environment Cont.
g. Reading Area A sufficient reading area is part of the room that is filled with books, has a T.V., VCR, and head phones. This area is carpeted with a table, chairs, pillows, beanbag chairs, etc. A reading area is where children can come to read, research assignments, or watch educational tapes on T.V. This area can also be used as a place for students to regroup if they are having a bad day and need time to themselves.

41 E. Learning Environment Cont.
h. Provide a Structured, Predicable Classroom The environment should be structured to the sense that it provides consistency and clarity. Students should know where things belong. They should know what is expected of them in a specific situation and can anticipate what comes next. By doing this teachers can eliminate unnecessary disruptions in the classroom.

42 E. Learning Environment Cont.
i. Consider Sensory Factors Creating a classroom that utilized and avoids those senses that either hinder or help their students creates a comfortable learning environment. Visual- Are there distractions such as light, movement, reflection, or background patterns? Consider the eye level of the students and the positioning of the teacher in relation to the students. Also consider the time required to shift attention. Auditory- What is the general sound level and the predictability and receptiveness of sound? Consider the students individual comprehension of verbal information and the time typically required to process auditory information and to shift attention. Tactile- Is the temperature of the room appropriate? Does the student demonstrate a need to explore through touch? Vestibular- Consider each students need to move and explore.

43 E. Learning Environment Cont.
j. Print Rich Environment Decorate the walls with students own work and with activities they are working on. Make the outside of the classroom as inviting as possible. Have the students interest in mind when creating the themes inside the classroom. Use bright colors, different shapes, contrasting patterns, and different textures when making decorations.

44 E. Learning Environment Cont.
k. Create an open and honest relationship with students Due to the fact that many of our Deaf students have no communication system at home, there only time to vent, communicate, or to ask questions will be in your classroom. As a teacher one must be aware of your students actions and attitudes. When something happy or sad happens at home/school the student’s only time to react to that event and get a response is at school; teachers need to be aware of that.

45 E. Learning Environment Cont.
l. Labeling the room and creating a word wall Younger students need consistent reinforcement of what words look like both written and fingerspelled. By labeling everything in your classroom children will come in contact with new and old words everyday. By creating a word wall students are given a guide to the words they know and need to know. By doing this student’s become familiar with all words written and fingerspelled. This provides students with the opportunity to see and work with language words on a daily basis.

46 “School is a building that has four walls with tomorrow inside
“School is a building that has four walls with tomorrow inside.” Lon Watters (Brownlow, 1997, p.87) E. Learning Environment Cont. Summary An effective learning environment is a crucial aspect in creating a working chemistry between the teachers and students. This aspect is often overlooked because teachers assume that a working learning environment is automatically created when one starts teaching. Without this fusion between the environment and the students, the teachers classroom and the students education is already in danger of being less than it’s full potential. By considering all of the sensory factors in my classroom I will be better prepared to facilitate a multisensory learning environment by using hands on materials and methods of teaching that enhance all of my students learning needs. Also by creating a caring community of learners in my classroom, I will be able to establish a reciprocal relationship with my students parents. Along with my weekly parent journals the relationship with my students parents will increase due to the open line of communication. These are just a few of the ways I plan to promote a positive learning environment in my classroom.

47 F. Instructional Resources
Introduction This next section of my portfolio is a collection of work researched by my fellow peers. The websites that I have chosen are just a few of what were collected in a more in-depth project. I chose these websites because I find them to be the most beneficial. If more research and information is required I suggest going to the individual project and looking more in-depth. These websites can be used to locate national organizations and national standards on a specific subject, or to direct students to the use of technology in your classroom.

48 National Organizations
“I am not a teacher, but an awakener.” Robert Frost (Brownlow, 1997, p.32) F. Instructional Resources Math National Organizations National Council of teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (Jennifer Fabian & Robyn Kwiatkowski, KSU, 2001) The Mathematical Association of America American Mathematical Association

49 F. Instructional Resources Cont.
Math Cont. National Standards NCTM Standards (Jennifer Fabian & Robyn Kwiatkowski, KSU, 2001) National Math Standards Grades K-4

50 F. Instructional Resources Cont.
Math Cont. Curricular Resources Fractions (Jennifer Fabian & Robyn Kwiatkowski, KSU, 2001) How Parents Can Help

51 F. Instructional Resources Cont.
Math Cont. Instructional Resources Math 4 Kids (Jennifer Fabian & Robyn Kwiatkowski, KSU, 2001) Funbrains Math Stories

52 F. Instructional Resources Cont.
Science National Organizations American Association for the Advancement of Science (Meg Coyne & Nancy Sutherland, KSU, 2001) The Eisenhower National Clearinghouse National Science Teachers’ Association

53 F. Instructional Resources Cont.
Science Cont. National Standards National Science Education Standards (Meg Coyne & Nancy Sutherland, KSU, 2001)

54 F. Instructional Resources Cont.
Science Cont. Curricular Resources Education World (Meg Coyne & Nancy Sutherland The School Page (Meg Coyne & Nancy Sutherland, KSU, 2001) Teachers Network By Teachers For Teachers

55 F. Instructional Resources Cont.
Science Cont. Instructional Resources Whyville (Meg Coyne & Nancy Sutherland, KSU, 2001) The Virtual Field-Trip Site School

56 F. Instructional Resources Cont.
Deaf Studies National Organizations National Association of the Deaf (Ashley Ayers & Holly Maines, KSU, 2001) Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing American Society for Deaf Children

57 F.Instructional Resources Cont.
Deaf Studies Cont. National Standards Bill of Rights for D/HH Students (Ashley Ayers & Holly Maines, KSU, 2001)

58 F. Instructional Resources Cont.
Deaf Studies Cont. Curricular Resources Identity and Deafness: Who am I (Ashley Ayers & Holly Maines, KSU, 2001) Deaf Kids and Youth Deaf views

59 F. Instructional Resources Cont.
Deaf Studies Cont. Instructional Resources “Dummy” Hoy (Ashley Ayers & Holly Maines, KSU, 2001) Silent Web VSDC- Service for Deaf Children (Ashley Ayers & Holy Maines, KSU, 2001)

60 Introduction Formal Assessment
“A man should never be ashamed to say he has been wrong, which is but saying in other words that he is wiser today then he was yesterday.” Alexander Pope (Brownlow, 1997, p.95) G. Assessment Protocols Introduction Formal Assessment Formal assessment covers a wide range of evaluations, from standard achievement tests to norm-referenced tests. Each of these different forms of assessment evaluate the students’ individual achievement towards a specific subject, as well as how they relate to other students. The downfall of these tests is that they are not normed for all individuals. Students are presented with a handicap when they are from a minority, different cultural or ecological backgrounds, not to mention if they have a disability of some form. These tests measure the students’ abilities as a whole assuming that all students think and act alike.

61 G. Assessment Protocols
Formal Assessment Stanford Achievement Test-9th Edition This is an achievement test that measures the abilities and skills of student’s in the areas of; reading, language, spelling, mathematics, science, and social studies. This test is administered to students from grades 1-9. This test provides eight different difficulty levels which should be matched to the student’s specific grade level. In order to determine which of these subtests to administer to a Deaf student it is suggested to reference a booklet called Stanford Achievement Test, 9th Edition: Administration Procedures for Deaf and Hard of Hearing. This booklet is available from the Gallaudet Research Institute. “Thus, what the Deaf child can do does not determine the test outcome; rather the test outcome determines what the Deaf child can do.” (Lane, et. al, 1996, p.319)

62 G. Assessment Protocol Formal Assessment
Test of Early Reading Ability- Deaf or Hard of Hearing The TERA-D/HH is a readiness test that is designed to test children with moderate to profound sensory hearing loss in the subject of reading. The normal age range for this test is from age three to thirteen years old. This test is constructed to find the child’s ability to construct meaning, knowledge of the alphabet and it’s functions, and the students’ awareness of printed material.

63 G. Assessment Protocol Formal Assessment
Test of Relational Concepts: Norms for Deaf Children “The test is described as a quick, individually administered test for identifying children needing remediation in the comprehension of relational concepts. The 56 concepts are are presented one to a page and include dimensional adjectives (e.g., Long/short), spatial concepts (e.g., infront of/behind) temporal concepts (e.g., before/after), quantitative concepts (e.g., more/less), and right/left; same/different. Deaf norms are presented for each of the four age levels included in the standardization.” (www.gri.gallaudet.edu/~catraxle/reviews.html)

64 G. Assessment Protocols
Summary Formal Assessment There are many different types of formal assessment. Schools and teachers must keep in mind how each test is administered. Making sure that each test they give is adapted or is adaptable to the individual needs of their students. If this aspect is taken for granted then the students’ self esteem and educational reputation is at stake. As a teacher I will make sure that my students’ needs are met when taking formal tests. By doing this I will be ensuring that my goals of a structured, predictable, and caring community of learners will be met in my classroom environment.

65 G. Assessment Protocols
Introduction Informal Assessment Informal assessment is a non standardized way of evaluating students. There are many methods that can be used to implement these techniques. Teachers can address the students’ work through curriculum-based assessment, criterion-related assessment, error analysis, checklists, and portfolios. Informal assessment methods can be teacher-made tests, reviews, worksheets, or checklists. The idea behind informal assessment is to present the students with work or evaluations that you as the teacher create as a form of your own personal assessment technique.

66 G. Assessment Protocol Informal Assessment Portfolio Assessment
A portfolio is a well planed and organized collection of artifacts or selected pages of student work. Portfolio’s can be used to monitor and measure a students skill, attitude, knowledge, and growth in a specific subject area. Samples of student work should be included into the portfolio. For example, homework tasks, learning logs, quizzes and tests, self assessment tools, written work, cooperative learning projects as well as independent work, rough drafts of tasks, and then the final draft in individualized and/or group work assignments. “Most pieces of work in the portfolio should be assessed throughout the duration of the class or course.” (Forte, Schurr, 1995, p.125)

67 G. Assessment Protocol Informal Assessment Performance Assessment
Performance assessment is a form of evaluation where the students are engaged in a high order task, usually this involves the creation of a product. The students performance is rated according to the way the students engage in the task and/or the actual resulting product. This particular evaluation can be indivualized or group work oriented. The idea behind the assessment is to allow students to show how they thought out the process to get the final result. Many students think and work differently from one another, with this form of assessment one can begin to evaluate each child’s strengths instead of their weaknesses. “Many performance assessments emulate actual workplace activities or real life skill applications that require higher order processing skills.” (Dietel, et.al, 1991, p.16)

68 G. Assessment Protocols
Summary Informal Assessment I believe that informal assessment is the best method in addressing a student’s individual learning needs and patterns. By comparing a student’s achievements to their own attainable goals provides substantial personal feedback for the child. Instead of relating their goals to other students of different backgrounds, this allows teachers to get to know their students learning habits. By doing this one is able to match the learning environment to student’s learning styles. By correlating the student’s learning environment to their learning style, I will help to promote a more student centered classroom as well as to promote my philosophy of capturing students’ interests.

69 “A good teacher is one who drives the students to think
“A good teacher is one who drives the students to think.” Anonymous (Brownlow, 1997, p.59) H. Technology Introduction Technology is a vital aspect in enhancing my teaching and, in turn, student’s learning. By utilizing technology in my classroom I will then be able to make an ordinary presentation into a display of multisensory factors that apply to any students’ learning needs. Additionally, technology can also be used to create an experience in the classroom that otherwise would not be possible.

70 H. Technology a. Virtual Field Trips
By utilizing the internet and accessing this website students are given the opportunity to see first hand the topics they are learning about. By connecting virtually, teachers can better relate their subject matter by providing visual experiences for their students. This website enables teachers to provide their students with “field trips” that would otherwise not be accessible. Students are able to take field trips all over the world without ever leaving the classroom. The Virtual Field-Trip Site (www.field-guides.com)

71 H. Technology b. Career Job Shadowing
By using this technology as a tool in your classroom one is able to create a job preparation environment. This allows students to actively engage in the process of narrowing down a job field, researching the requirements and qualifications, and actually observing a workday. This process can be used as a motivational technique to get students excited and give them goals for the future. “Career job shadowing is an activity that enables young people to observe adults in work settings, learn the requirements of various jobs, and experience the flow of a typical workday.” (www.flstw.fsu.edu/Online64/lrnteach.htm)

72 H. Technology c. WebWacker
Using this software teachers can download entire websites (and links if desired) onto the computers hard drive or zip disk. Not only does this allow the website to be viewed without server complications (as the viewed program does not necessitate being online), but it also eliminates the possibility of students activating inappropriate websites.

73 H. Technology d. Accessing libraries through the internet
This allows your students to research books that otherwise might be unavailable to them. It also allows students to browse for books on topics of interest as well as undiscovered interests. By utilizing other networked libraries students will expand their resources.

74 H. Technology e. Digital Camera The digital camera enhances visual aids in depicting objects. This technology can be used to improve and increase a students growing vocabulary. With the helpful use of the digital camera photographic poems, illustrated poetry, are more effective at motivating creative and descriptive writing habits.

75 H. Technology f. Power Point
Through the use of power point teachers can create complex lesson plans more efficiently. Students also benefit in gaining presentation experience. Students can create a pictorial portfolio of themselves, which can be used as a lesson in diversity and a tool for assessment by the teacher.

76 H. Technology g. T.V., V.C.R., and D.V.D. TV’s alone can be used to transmit incoming educational programs. The recording and playback advantages of the VCR convenience transmitting programs at a controlled time. DVD players increase the quality and capability of VCR benefits. Combining the three in the classroom can create an attractive educational leisure time.

77 H. Technology h. TTY, Closed Caption
The TTY is an important tool for continuing education outside of the classroom. This allows students to communicate with one another while they are outside the classroom. Closed Caption is also a TV enhancement steadily increasing reading skills for D/HH as well as hearing students. Although the technology is relatively new, it has overwhelmingly increased the amount of educational programming that can be viewed in D/HH classrooms.

78 H. Technology i. Real Ear Measurement
This piece of equipment is used to adjust a child's hearing aid so that the sound hitting the ear drum is at the right level for that particular child. Being able to do this provides the student with the best level of sound needed to benefit from a hearing aid. This technology is also capable of providing an electroacoustic analysis of the child’s hearing aid. This helps to determine how well the aid is working for that child. By using this technology as a teacher I will be able to have an audiologist customize each child’s hearing aid to better suit them in my learning environment.

79 H. Technology Summary The use of technology in the classroom is an example of teacher creativity. With the world changing so rapidly students need to feel comfortable around modern technology. They also need to learn how to use, respect, and understand the changing demands in today’s technology-based society. Through the use of the Virtual Field Trip website and digital camera’s I will be able to incorporate my concepts of enhancing students sensory factors into my learning environment. This will also reinforce my use of promoting students learning through interactions, which in turn creates a student-centered teaching philosophy.

80 I. Deaf Ed. Resources Introduction
This section of my portfolio is a collection of vital resources I found and have gathered throughout the past semesters. A variety of websites are available to help the most experienced educator or an aspiring novice. I chose to make these resources available because I feel that they have proven to be the most beneficial to myself and can hopefully help others as they venture through the world of education.

81 I. Deaf Ed. Resources A. Frequently Asked Questions About the Stanford Achievement Test with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students Provides questions to answers as well as links to finding out any other information about other Deaf normed tests. B. ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education This website is funded by the Council for Exceptional Children. It was a good data research center for questions and research on Special Education. C. Disability Etiquette Handbook This site hopes to enhance the availability and opportunity of disabled individuals finding independent employment.

82 I. Deaf Ed. Resources D. People First Language
This website is dedicated to educating all who will listen on people first language when discussing individuals with disabilities. E. Deaf Education Website: Educational Enhancements for the field of Deaf Education The purpose of this website is to provide all who work in or around the field of educating the Deaf support, resources and opportunities. F. Hard of Hearing and Deaf Students: A resource guide to support classroom teacher This site provides teachers with information concerning a students hearing loss, tips on how to accommodate and communicate with the D/HH child. It also has a section on preparing how to teach children who are D/HH.

83 I. Deaf Ed. Resources G. Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing An organization centered on providing support and advocacy for the parents and professors of student’s with some form of a hearing loss. H. Language & Literacy Development in Children Who Are Deaf. This book provides theories, models, and strategies that educators can use to best educate students who are Deaf. (Shirmer, R. B., (2000). Language and literacy development in children who are deaf. Massachusetts: A Pearson Education Company.)

84 I. Deaf Ed. Resources I. Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings This book explains who to meet the needs of every child in you class according to their special needs not the needs of the classroom. (Dowdy, A. C., Patton, R. J., Polloway, A. E., & Smith, C. E. T., (2001). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings. Massachusetts: A Pearson Education Company.) J. Starting With Assessment: A Developmental Approach to Deaf Children Literacy This book describes the different assessment methods that can be used to find a students individual learning needs. (French, M. M., (1999). Starting with assessment: A developmental approach to deaf children literacy. Washington D.C.: Pre-College National Missions Programs Gallaudet University.) K. Building a Writing Community: A Practical Guide This book is dedicated to showing educators how they can make their classroom one that supports, nurtures, and promotes a positive learning environment for their student’s to write. (Freeman, S. M., (1999). Building a writing community: A practical guide. Florida: Maupin House Publishing.)

85 I. Deaf Ed. Resources L. Creating Inclusive Classrooms: Effective and Reflective Practices This book discusses each possible varying disability, how to accommodate each into your class, according to those how to teach to those students learning needs. (Saland, J. S., (2001). Creating inclusive classrooms: Effective and reflective practices. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc..) M. It’s Your Turn Now: Using Dialogue Journals With Deaf Students This book through examples and description explain how to effectively and successfully carry out the journal writing process in your classroom. (Bailes, C., Searls, S., Slobodzian, J., & Straton, J., Ph.D., (1986). It’s your turn now: Using dialogue journals with deaf students. Washington D.C.: Pre-College Programs Gallaudet University.) N. Manual Communication: Implications for Education This book serves as a guide to better inform someone of the many different ways the Deaf can communicate manually. (Bornstein, H., (1990). Manual communication: Implications for education. Washington D.C.: Gallaudet University Press.)

86 I. Deaf Ed. Resources O. Choices in Deafness: A Parent’s Guide to Communication Options This book through description and personal real life stories gives an unbiased approach to helping individuals choose what methodology is best for their child. (Schwartz, S., Ph. D., (1996). Choices in deafness: A parent’s guide to communication options. Maryland: Woodbine House.) P. Student’s With Mild Disabilities in General Education Settings: A Guide for Special Educators This book helps to explain how to teach students with a mild disability in a regular education setting effectively. (deBettencourt, U. L., Vallecorsa, L. A., & Zigmond, N., (2000). Students with mild disabilities in general education settings: A guide for special educators. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc..)

87 I. Deaf Ed. Resources Summary
In conclusion this part of my portfolio will never be officially closed. For I am consistently coming into contact with vital information and resources to add to this section. These resources like the “Frequently Asked Questions” website, can be used as a valuable instruction in the classroom. It relates to assessment tests that most students have to take in some form. By having the students go to this site they will be able to read about and explore the test they are about to take. They can look at questions or ask their own, this may begin to help them feel a little better and more comfortable about taking the test.

88 J. Representative Instructional Unit
Introduction With the help and guidance from my practicum teacher together we decided on the topic of “The Heart”. It was an organ in the body that we both felt was important for the students to learn. In correction with the regular education curriculum of learning the five major organs of the body, we decided that the heart would be the most beneficial for the instructional level of the students. The purpose of this unit is to introduce the heart, where it is located in the body, and what it does. By creating these lessons in a hands on manner I will be addressing the students best means of learning. These lessons will be very student centered as well as discovery based. The students will be given the opportunity to learn through interactions and cooperative learning will also be incorporated. The room will display many pictures and model of the heart and of the students work, to reinforce my beliefs of a print rich learning environment. * Due to the length of the Instructional Unit the rest of the lessons including the Summary will be presented following the Reference List of this portfolio

89 “I will never forget that while I cannot teach my students everything that they need to know, I can teach them how to be better learners.” Dr. Harold Johnson (Dr. Harold Johnson, Personal Communication, September, ) K. Reflections From working on this project as well as others this semester I now understand how important it is to teach students how to become better learners. I know that as a teacher one is always judged on how much information their students retain. By resorting to the idea that it is impossible to teach students everything they need to know, I will be able to focus my teaching on providing my students with the skills needed to become independent learners. I believe that a successful teacher is one that is capable of teaching their students to adapt the curriculum to fit their own personal needs.

90 K. Reflections I have learned that there are countless attributes that a teacher must possess in order to be an effective educator. One of which is patience, without it teachers will never see the true potential of children. Patience is not something that comes naturally, but with time can be a distinguishing characteristic of a master educator.

91 K. Reflections Acceptance in another characteristic of a master educator. I feel that that without the willingness to accept children, teachers are incapable of truly assessing there students abilities. As a teacher another important factor in education is the ability to accept what one does not know. By doing this teachers provide themselves with the opportunity to learn from their students. Accepting the role as a collaborator in education is one of the first steps towards becoming a master teacher.

92 K. Reflections From doing this project I now understand that researching your own beliefs and goals are required in becoming an effective teacher. Before this project I knew a lot of information pertaining to education. This project made me sit down and generate my own beliefs and then produce substantial information to back them up. From doing that I realized that I really did not know what I believed in. As a result of this project I am now able to project what I believe to be the attributes that will make me a master educator.

93 K. Reflections Throughout this course one theme has evolved “Their topic, your task.” (Dr. Harold Johnson, Personal Communication, 2000, September 9) As a result of this underlying theme I have gained a better understanding into how I want to teach. Allowing my students to present information they are interested in will insure that I will be addressing their linguistic, social, and cognitive needs. Before this project I was unaware of how crucial it is to make your students feels as if they are apart of the classroom. By incorporating the concept of the students topics being my task presents me with the challenge. This challenge of creating a student centered environment ensures that both my students and myself will prosper.

94 “Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty
“Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning stays young. The greatest thing in life is to keep your mind young.” Henry Ford (Brownlow, 1995, p.19) L. Reference List Bailes, C., Searls, S., Slobodzian, J., & Straton, J., Ph.D., (1986). It’s your turn now: Using dialogue journals with deaf students. Washington D.C.: Pre-College Programs Gallaudet University. education. Washington D.C.:Gallaudet University Press. Bredekamp, S. & Copple, C. (Ed.). (1997). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs. (Revised ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Brown, B. L. (1997). New learning strategies for generation x. ERIC Digest [Online], 184, 1-5. Available: ED [2000, November 10]. Brownlow Publishing Company. (1997). Dear teacher: 101 words of encouragement. Texas: Author. Brummitt, Wendy., Personal Communication, April 11,2001

95 L. Reference List Chauncey, C. T. (1999). Creating a peaceful program with school-age adventures in peacemaking. (Fall). Massachusetts: Educators for Social Responsibility. Dietel, R. J., Herman, J. L., & Knuth, R. A. (1991). What does research say about assessment [Online]. Available: NCREL, Oak Brook. [2000, December 12]. Florida School-to-work. Learning and teaching: The unique perspective of applied technology strands [Online]. Available: Forte, I., & Schurr, S. (1995). Portfolios, products, and performances. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. Hoffman, D. (1999). Coalition news for Ohio schools (Autumn). Ohio: Ohio Coalition of Essential Schools.

96 L. Reference List Johnson, H. Dr. Personal Communication, 2000, September 9. Katz, L. G. (2000). What should young children be learning. ERIC Digest, Available: ED [2000, November 10]. Kennedy, A. M. Personal Communication, 2000, November 2. Kirk, S. A., Gallagher, J. J., & Anastasiow, N. J. (1997). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

97 L. Reference List Lane, H., Hoffmeister, R., & Bahan, B. (1996). A journey into the deaf-world. San Diego, CA: Dawn Sign Press. McGarry, Melissa (2000, November 30). Cyber Mentor. to Nancy Sutherland North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. (no date). Learning areas or centers [Online]. Available: [2000, November 10]. Orlich, D. C., Harder, R. J., Callahan, R. C., & Gibson, H. W. (2001). Teaching strategies: A guide to better instruction (6th ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. Review of Four Types of Assessment Instruments Used With D/HH Students: Academic/Readiness Assessment. (no date). [Online]. Available: [April 23, 2001]. Slyh, Debbie,. Personal Communication, February 28, 2001

98 L. Reference List Strum, B. (no date). Let’s pretend….The importance of dramatic play: Child and family canada [Online]. Available: [2000, November 10]. Sturomski, N. (1997). Teaching children with learning disabilities to use learning strategies. NICHCY News Digest, V 25, Available: August 1997/ Interventions for students with leaning disabilities. [2000, November 2]. Williams, L. V. (1986). Teaching for the two-sided mind: A guide to right brain/left brain education. New York: A Touchstone Book. The Virtual Field-trip Site. [Online]. Available: [2000, November 2].

99 J. Representative Instructional Unit Cont.
Unit Organization a) Academic Subject- Science b) Unit Objectives- Students will correctly name and locate the heart in a human body- Students will correctly identify at least two activities that make their heart beat fast and slow c) Curriculum Materials- Practicum teacher, Houghlin Millflin Unit organizers on the body, Cow’s heart, encyclopedia’s online (Encarta and Britannica), “How will they get that heart down your throat: A child’s view of transplants”, “The Heart: Our Circulatory System”, “Hear Your Heart (Let’s Read and Find Out Science)”, “The magic School Bus: Inside the Human Body”, Sports Illustrated magazines, Teen Sports Illustrated magazines, The Human Body Online Tour-

100 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
 d) # of classes, length of classes and number of students in the classes- Everyday for 8-9 days, each class lasting minutes, with six students in the class e)Language and Cognitive goals- -The student will spontaneously mature from using gestures or home signs to formal signs that are understood by the teacher and peers, on or about one to three names, activities, or experiences that are centered around her school work (these signs are evaluated and judged as being formal signs by the teachers) -When the student asks the teacher a question and the teacher does not have time to respond, the student will try one of the following choices to help her become a more independent thinker and learner (Deaf Aid, Preserves teacher, Print material)

101 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
Lesson #1 Unit segment- Introduction Academic Objectives- -Students will spontaneously ask questions concerning the object in front of them -Students will use past experiences as well as other peers experiences to help identify the object and it’s location in the body -Students will use other peer’s experiences to help relate to their own ideas on what the object is -At the end of the lesson students will identify the object as being a heart and will be able to give it’s location in the human body Curricular materials- Practicum teacher, Cow’s Heart, Books on the heart

102 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
Student’s Activities- Begin by placing the cow’s heart in the middle of the table before the students arrive. When the students walk in act as if you are busy, paying no attention to the students or the object on the table. Allow the student’s to talk to each other, as they try to figure our what the object is and why it is on the table. Stay active until the students acknowledge that they need your help in figuring out what the object is. Allow students to ask you questions concerning the object. Try to prompt them to answer their own questions or see if others can help. If the students start to have problems ask them what they think the object is? Write down their ideas on the board. Ask them where they think it is from? What do they think it does? See if they can realize what it is not. Is it alive? Is it an animal? Can you eat it? Ask them if they have ever seen one before? Using their stories and experiences to help prompt the class to say what the object is.

103 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
Student Activities Cont Once at least one student has identified that he object is a heart, have them explain where they have seen one or how they figured out it was a heart. Encourage other students to explain their stories. If a student has never seen or heard of a heart before encourage them to self-advocate for themselves. Allow other students to help them. Encourage the students to work together to help each other understand that the object lying on the table is a heart. For students who are having trouble give them a number of printed materials with pictures of hearts in them. See if the students can find the pictures that are similar to the object on the table. Once they have come to a conclusion on what the object is, write the word on the board. Fingerspell the word together as a class. Then ask the class what they think the sigh should be? Discuss the student’s reasons behind their guesses. Explain that all of their ideas are right, but there are a couple ways to sign heart. Have the class pick which sign they prefer. Repeat going over the sign and the fingerspelling of the word. Once they have agreed on a name of the object go through the same procedure to identify where they would predict the object to be located (in a tree, in a car, in a human?).

104 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
Students Evaluation- Were the students able to make a generalization between what they have seen and heard about before and what way lying on the table? Were the higher objective students able to explain their experiences in a way that helped other students relate to the object? Were the students able through stories and experiences able to conclude as a whole that the object is a heart? Were the students able to use there past generalizations to predict where the heart is located in the human body. Student Homework- Have the students while they are home to identify one object in their house that has a heart and one object that does not have a heart. They are to draw a picture of each object.

105 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
Lesson #2 Unit Segment- Exploration Academic Objectives- As a whole student will identify where the heart is located on the human body. Students will be able to identify activities that make their heart beat fast and slow. Students will be able to identify certain activities and will measure the heartbeats Students will be able to locate their heart and will describe if the heart is beating slow or fast. Curriculum Materials- Practicum teacher, books on the heart, outline of the human body, two heart charts, computers ready with heart websites

106 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
Student Activity- When the student’s come in have prepared a number of printed material on the heart laid out on the table. As well as the computers available with websites on the heart. In each picture available showing the location of the heart in the human body. Allow the students time to look at each picture and website and discuss with each other what they see. Begin by recapping what they learned previously about the heart. Show them a picture of just the heart and ask them what it is? Discuss what it is and how they knew that. Next hold up a cut out outline of the human body, ask the students where they think the heart is located. The high objective students should use the printed material in front of them to help identify the location. Have the students raise their right hands and place them on their hearts. Check for their reactions to see if they can really feel their hearts beating.

107 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
Student Activity Cont. Next have the students run in place for 60 seconds, and then do 30 jumping jacks. Then have them feel their heart again. Record their reactions. Their hearts are beating FAST. Now have them put their heads down on the table for two minutes, tell them to relax. Then have them feel their hearts again. Record their reactions. Their hearts are beating SLOW. Discuss and have the students explain why they think their hearts were beating fast after they ran and slow after they sat for a while. Place two charts on the board labeled: “This makes my heart beat fast!” “This makes my heart beat slow!” Begin by having the student’s list all of the activities they can that would make their hearts beat fast and slow. List their ideas on a separate piece of chart paper. Next explain that they are to pick one activity that they think would make their hearts beat slow and one that they think would make their hearts beat fast. Explain the procedure, some students will perform the activity then they will locate their heart and show another student where it is. Another group of students will feel the student’s heart beating and they will tap with their foot the number of times they feel the person’s heart beating. The last group will mark the number of times the persons hear beat. Once it has been documented how many times the heart beat for each activity, fast or slow, the students are to place that activity on the right chart for either fast or slow. Continue this activity until each chart has at least three activities under it.

108 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
Student Evaluation- Were the students able to conclude which activities made the heart beat fast and slow? Were the students able to locate the placement of the heart in the human body? Were the lower objective students able to identify an activity and perform it successfully? Were they able to locate their heart and show another student? Were the mid objective students able to find the beating heart and tap with their foot the number of times the heart beat. Were the high objective students able to place a mark next to the activities name, in correlation with the number of times the person tapped their foot of the floor. Student Homework- While the students are home they will list as many activities that they perform at home that makes their hearts beat fast and slow. For low objective students they can draw a picture of themselves doing the activity. The next days have them identify the activity and whether their heart was beating fast or slow.

109 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
Lesson Design #3 Unit Segment- Application Academic Objectives- Students will work together to make a game about the heart. Students will look through printed material and on the Internet to find pictures that show activities that make a person’s heart beat fast and slow. Students will name the different activities on a separate sheet of paper. Students will glue the picture of the activity on one piece of paper and will place the word and the picture together. Curriculum Materials- Practicum teacher, magazines, websites on fitness and exercise, scissors, glue, paper

110 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
Student Activity- It will be explained to the students what they are going to make a heart memory game. They will split up into groups and each group will have a job to do. Group one will be in charge of looking though magazines and on the Internet to find pictures of the activities that make a person’s heart beat fast and slow. As they find each activity they are to cut it out and pass it to group two. Group two will then look at the picture, identify the activity, and then will write it on a separate sheet of paper. For example, group one cut out a picture of a person on a bike. Group two will then write on the paper PERSON ON A BIKE. Once that is completed group two will give their picture and the piece of paper to group three. Their job is to glue the picture of the activity on a square piece of paper. This method will be repeated though the entire class. Provide more examples if needed.

111 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
Student Evaluation- Were the students able to work together? Were they able to follow my directions, did I give them a clear example? Should I have given them more examples? Were my three groups able to carry out their own set of directions? Student Homework- Have the student’s identify their favorite T.V. show. Tell them that they have to watch that show tonight. They are to each find one activity from their T.V. show that is not been used in their game that makes a person’s heart beat fast or slow. They are to draw a picture of the activity and then on a separate sheet of paper they are to label it.

112 J. Instructional Unit Cont.
Summary of Unit This unit was an eye opening experience for me. I found out how very difficult it is to keep the attention and interest of a first grader during a lesson. I learned how to relate the deaf education curriculum to that of the regular education class. I found it interesting on how different it was to actually teach the lessons you create. It was a lot harder than I imagined it to be. I over anticipated the level of my students and for that my first lesson was a total flop. I learned a great deal from that situation, and I am sure I will make many more similar mistakes in the future.


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