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Carrie Majewski SPED December 14, 2000

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1 Carrie Majewski SPED 53324 December 14, 2000
My Portfolio Carrie Majewski SPED 53324 December 14, 2000

2 That Noble Title: Teacher
Teacher – you are a poet, as you weave with your colorful magic language a passion for your subject. You create a vast and grand mosaic of curiosities to imagine, secrets to unfold, connections only to begin the cycle of learning. Teacher – you are a physicist, as you bring magic, logic, reason, and wonder to the properties, changes, and interactions of our universe. Teacher – you are a maestro, a master of composing, as you conduct and orchestrate individuals’ thoughts and actions from discordant cacophony into harmonic resonance. Teacher – you are an architect, as you provide each student a solid foundation, but always with a vision of the magnificent structure that is about to emerge. Teacher – you are a gymnast, as you encourage the contortions and gyrations of thoughts and the flexing and strengthening of ideas. Teacher – you are a diplomat and the ambassador of tact and sensitivity, as you facilitate productive, positive interactions among the multiplicity of personalities and cultures, beliefs, and ideals. Teacher – you are a philosopher, as your actions and ethics convey meaning and hope to young people who look to you for guidance and example. As you prepare for each day, when your students enter and you encounter their attitudes, ranging from eager, enthusiastic anticipation to uncomfortable, uncertain apathy, recall the powers you have within…from poet to philosopher…and present yourself to those students as a person worthy of the noble title…”Teacher”. - Irish Marcuzzo (Wong, 1998)

3 Table of Contents Introduction Educational Experiences
Educational Philosophy Instructional Strategies Learning Environment Instructional Resources Assessment Protocols Technology Deaf Education Resources Instructional Unit References

4 Introduction When did you decide to become a teacher of d/hh students? Why did you make that decision?

5 My Decision I was never entirely certain about what I wanted to do. I only knew that I wanted to work with children. As the end of my high school senior year approached I considered several different majors. I narrowed my choices to two areas: occupational therapy and education. I decided to enter into Ohio State University’s occupational therapy program with the intention to help children. After one quarter in the program, I came to realize that this major was not appealing to me. I then changed to child development and considered other education programs. Soon after I entered Ohio University as an early childhood/primary and elementary education major. Throughout my years in this program, I enjoyed working in the various classrooms with different children and teachers; however, I continued to feel that I wanted more. During my fifth year as a double major at OU, I began considering diverse courses to explore different areas. Continued….

6 My Decision - Continued
I was very interested in taking ASL, but it did not comply with my schedule at the time. I have always been interested in learning about deafness, Deaf culture, and ASL. My parents were friends with a couple who had a Deaf daughter my age and we often played together. I learned several words in sign language that helped to communicate; however, communication breakdowns often occurred. I frequently thought of her and how badly I had wanted to know ASL so that we could communicate more effectively. I was so interested in learning more about her and her deafness. I simply never considered that I could actually do something in this area. As I performed additional research, I found several deaf education programs. I realized that I could enter into a Master’s program in this field. I felt very excited and interested and soon applied to Kent State University. Upon my acceptance, I was extremely eager to begin, yet nervous since I had no background in this area. When I began the program, I finally felt that I found what I had been looking for.

7 Educational Experiences
Teaching Characteristics of My Weakest and Strongest Teachers Resulting Insights Regarding Effective Teaching

8 Introduction “Efficient: Doing Things Right
Effective: Doing the Right Thing The Effective teacher Affects lives.” -Wong (1998) In deciding to become an educator, I reflected on past and present teachers and what qualities made them effective or not. I realized that a main difference between my strongest and my weakest teachers was their impact on my life. I remember my strong teachers and the enjoyment and success of their classrooms. I remember my weak teachers and the fear, dread, and boredom of their classrooms. The following characteristics describe these teachers as I remember them.

9 Teaching Characteristics of My Weakest Teachers
Unclear expectations Insecure Unfair Biased Boring Impatient Negative attitude Unmotivated Limited experience Favored students Made students feel unimportant Lack of classroom management skills Disrespectful toward students

10 Teaching Characteristics of My Strongest Teachers
Encouraging Enthusiastic Consistent Creative Collaborative Secure/Confident Supportive Caring Respectful Personable Organized Flexible Fair Positive Open-minded Available Aware of limitations and reflective Meets individual needs

11 Summary “Children are like wet cement. Whatever falls on them makes an impression.” –Haim Ginott (Wong, 1998) Being an effective teacher requires problem solving skills. You need to analyze, synthesize, and create materials to help students become successful learners. Effective teachers utilize resources, including their colleagues, who have so much to offer. These teachers reorganize, rearrange, and problem solve to work toward a goal. It is critical to develop good teaching strategies and maintain a positive attitude because “good habits are easy to develop”, but “bad habits are difficult to break” (Wong, 1998). Reflecting upon and developing these lists has helped me to maintain my perspective of an effective educator and helped me to realize how I can accomplish that.

12 Resulting Insights Concerning Effective Teaching

13 Insights In my experiences as a student, as a student teacher, and as a teacher, I have learned and observed teaching methods that work and some that do not. I feel that the most important aspect of being a teacher to remember is that every student learns differently. Adjusting your method of teaching to the diverse abilities of your students is crucial. There is no one right or wrong way to teach. It changes day to day and you must be flexible and creative to meet the needs of your students. Also in being an effective teacher, you must be able to communicate well. You will not only be working with students, but their parents, other teachers, student teachers, the principal, and many others as well. You will be introduced to a variety of cultural, ethnic, and socio-economic backgrounds, as well as varying family structures that you must respect. Teaching is a learning experience. Being open to new ideas and to your students’ opinions and comments provides a great learning opportunity for you to improve as a teacher and as a person. Having a positive attitude and being able to laugh also helps to reduce some of the stress of this occupation. Teaching is an honorable and very important profession. To me, it is my opportunity to change the life of my students and make a positive difference.

14 Educational Philosophy
What are your essential beliefs about teaching?

15 Philosophy – Introduction “Education is not a process of putting the learner under control, but putting the student in control of his or her learning”. -Alison Preece (Wong p.210, 1998) As an educator, I will have expectations of myself and of my students. These expectations will change with experience and various classes. I will also have goals for myself as well as the students. I will set the student goals with the students by listening to what they feel is important, what their needs are, and what they want to accomplish. Their input allows me to have a better idea of what I need to provide as their teacher. The student-teacher relationship is a very important one. The roles of the student and the teacher make up the environment in which both explore, discover, and analyze different ideas and perspectives. As a teacher, I will play many roles in the classroom. Although all of these roles are important, I feel the roles of motivator and guide are the main roles.

16 Teacher as a Motivator In order for me to motivate students to want to participate or become actively involved, I must be motivated myself. I will model and express enthusiasm for teaching. Simply having a positive attitude can make all the difference. I will also ensure that the activities are student-centered, relevant to their lives, and have hands-one experiences, which will also enhance student motivation. If I am going to motivate my students, I should also realize their needs, both in the classroom and beyond the classroom. I will need to take into consideration the varied developmental levels, interests, and lives of the students. Children need experiences that will help develop their thinking, afford considerable activity, stimulate language, and help them develop social skills and self-confidence. If the needs of the students are being met and become a consistent part of the learning environment, they become self-motivated, better communicators, more confident, and more independent. As an educator, I hope to provide a comfortable environment where students become self-motivated and independent thinkers.

17 Teacher as a Guide I will also, in many ways, be a guide for the students. I will provide guidance through facilitation of discussions, encouragement, feedback, and support. If I am actively involved and show an interest in the lives of the students, the students will react more positively. I hope to also guide the students in their exploration of the world around them. I will provide the students with plenty of time to experiment, discover, and examine relationships between themselves and their environment. My classroom environment will be one in which the students feel comfortable exploring and asking questions and become independent and critical thinkers. I want the students to feel free to make their own predictions, solve their own problems, and find their own answers. I will be there to provide support, encouragement, and ask open-ended questions in order for the students to investigate other perspectives and ideas.

18 Philosophy - Questioning
Questions can form new ideas and theories and foster thinking and problem-solving skills. Questioning also will provide me with an opportunity to assess the students, the activity, and myself. In order for questioning to be successful, I need to develop a strategy to decide which questions to ask, when to ask them, and in what order to ask them. If I want my students to develop thinking skills, I must implement a questioning strategy that will be successful. Besides offering appropriate questions, I must also be aware of the amount of time I allow for a student's response. Increasing wait-time results in improvement and changes in the students' language, logic use, and also in overall student attitudes. I will need to decide what the students' needs are, how the questioning and wait-time will best supplement the activity, and what appropriately works in my classroom. I want to provide enough wait-time for the students to formulate their own thoughts, ideas, theories, etc. in order to prepare a reply. I hope to offer questions that will foster discussions and further experimentation. Teachers should allow student responses to drive activities, adjust instructional methods, alter content, and seek elaboration of the response.

19 Philosophy - Assessment
I want to have a successful curriculum. In order to have this, I will need to develop methods of assessing the students as well as myself. Assessment provides guidelines and goal setting, exhibits concept development, and gives the teacher and students an idea of where they stand in the education program. The students can also assess themselves through such ways as a portfolio or journal. I will assess myself through the assessment and feedback of my students, a journal, colleague feedback, and videotaping. I will accept suggestions and ideas from my students to enhance the classroom environment and to improve the activities offered. Knowing the opinions and thoughts of the students will help me improve as a teacher. I also want to involve my colleagues in my self-assessment. Through their observations of my classroom, they can inform me of such things as my questioning strategies, wait-time, student involvement, and how well I interact with the students.

20 Philosophy - Multiculturalism
Teachers must create a multicultural learning environment in their classrooms. Education is for all children, and the activities should be as well. Multiculturalism encompasses students from diverse backgrounds, ways of life, and different cultures and ethnicities. Students need to be in a classroom environment that allows and encourages them to use their cultural tools. Some of these tools are language, cognitive referents (including myths), beliefs, learning style, and time to apply the information to problem-solving situations. Children learn using their own language, unique learning styles and thought processes, and at their own levels of development. I will provide a classroom environment where all students are treated equally and fairly.

21 Philosophy - Communication
Communication, in my opinion, is the foundation for an effective education program. Communication has many forms and occurs in virtually all situations. Communication occurs between teacher and student, students in the classroom, teacher with other teachers and administrators, and teacher with the community. Positive and open communication provides a more successful and productive classroom environment. I would invite any other teachers, parents, or community members to participate in any activities. I would also be open to any suggestions, information, or contributions they could offer.

22 Philosophy – Summary “You must become and advocate for what you believe, otherwise you will become a victim of what others want you to believe.” - Jesse Jackson (Wong p.285, 1998) In conclusion, I hope to have a classroom where all of the students are actively engaged in exploring and investigating new ideas and perspectives. Real engagement in the activities comes from empowering students, not superficially but intrinsically. My classroom will be one where the activities are enjoyable, hands-on, meet the students' needs, and are appropriate for all of my students. These are my overall ideas of a successful learning environment; however, every day offers new ideas and perspectives. I will be open and flexible to change and grow with each new day.

23 Instructional Strategies
How will you teach?

24 Instructional Strategies – Introduction “ Those who can, do
Instructional Strategies – Introduction “ Those who can, do. Those who teach, can do wonders” Anonymous (Teachers Touch Tomorrow: A Calendar for the Year 2000) My instructional strategies will put my philosophy to practice. It is easy to say something and not actually do it. My instructional strategies will allow me to implement and use what I believe. Key instructional strategies are used to guide your lesson plan designs. It shows how you will incorporate your teaching philosophies into classroom instructions. I based my key instructional strategies on what has worked best with my students in past field experiences. I found that by teaching with the above strategies my students have learned in the most effective way. My key instructional strategies are how I implement instruction for my lesson plans that best suit the learning styles of all my students. I am flexible and realize that all of these strategies will not work all of the time with every student. I need to change with each class and continue to develop and change my strategies so that my students will have the most effective learning opportunities I can provide.

25 Instructional Strategies – Putting My Philosophy To Practice
Have positive expectations for student success “Students tend to learn as little or as much as their teachers expect. Teachers who set and communicate high expectations to all their students obtain greater academic performance from these students than do teachers who set low expectations” (Wong, 1998). Effective classroom management Discipline is…”helping children learn personal responsibility for their behavior and to judge between right and wrong for themselves. The emphasis is on teaching as we help youngsters learn responsible behaviors rather than merely stopping unproductive actions. Instead of just enforcing rules about what not to do, we want to help children learn to make wise choices about what they should do.” (Fields and Boesser, 1994)

26 Instructional Strategies – Putting My Philosophy To Practice
Create an engaging classroom atmosphere When students are involved in an activity that interests them, they really explore and want to learn. If they are provided with opportunities, the can become independent learners and thinkers.The more time the students spend engaged in an activity, the more they learn. Design lessons for student mastery It is the responsibility of educators to help the students realize their full potential. If the students cannot display learning or achievement, then we, as educators, were unsuccessful. We should build upon their strengths and interests to help them achieve. The information should be meaningful and relate to them.

27 Instructional Strategies – Putting My Philosophy To Practice
Collaborate Effective communication between colleagues, administrators, parents, and the community is an extremely important aspect of education. Collaborating and working cooperatively to achieve and succeed is critical for an effective education program. Take advantage of those “teachable moments” There are times when the activities or lessons we implement introduce other questions and/or ideas proposed by the students. There will also be times when an unexpected event or situation may need immediate attention. It is important to take advantage of these moments as they happen and use them as a learning experience.

28 Instructional Strategies – Putting My Philosophy To Practice
Ensure mental and physical safety of students Students should have a learning environment where they feel comfortable, secure, important, and respected. Establishing rules together and consistency are very important in ensuring safety. Be a positive role model Educators constantly provide an example for their students. Children constantly observe and learn from those involved in their lives on a daily basis. By providing an appropriate and positive example, the students can learn and observe what is expected of them.

29 Instructional Strategies – Putting My Philosophy To Practice
Evaluate student learning Using formal and informal assessments allow me to not only evaluate my students’ learning, but my teaching as well. Their success depends on mine. Attend workshops and seminars for additional training Continuing education is important for educators to keep current on important issues, instructional strategies and resources, and to continue learning. This increases our effectiveness as an educator, which impacts the students’ learning as well.

30 Instructional Strategies – Putting My Philosophy To Practice
Cooperative learning Form cooperative learning groups, where students can discuss lessons, collaborate, and work together to brainstorm, research, and find answers. “Cooperative learning enhances students’ academic, management, and social skills” (Orlich, Harder, Callahan, Gibson, 2001). In cooperative learning, the students are focused on the task at hand, they cooperate and interact to work together, each member holds an individual responsibility for their learning and must participate. Problem-solving Use activities in class that encourage students to use critical thinking and problem solving strategies. Query-based learning process – students search for answers to a question related to themselves and their culture – student actively engaged – teachers is clarifier or definer and help students - involves systematic exploration and examination of the problem and the proposing of solutions. It is very important to make time to use this strategy effectively. Also there needs to be continuous monitoring and feedback by the teacher. (Orlich, Harder, Callahan, Gibson, 2001)

31 Instructional Strategies – Putting My Philosophy To Practice
Discovery learning Discovery learning is an inquiry process that provides opportunities for students to create meaning from information and explore different hypotheses. Discovery learning also involves “knowing that…knowing how” and “discovering that …discovering how” and communicating the what and the how to others (Orlich, Harder, Callahan, Gibson, 2001). Observations Regularly observing my students may provide important information that I may have failed to notice without doing this. Consistent observations can offer insights that can be used to assist student’s and attend to more specific strengths and needs.

32 Instructional Strategies – Putting My Philosophy To Practice
Encourage autonomy I believe in encouraging independence by not doing for learners what they can do for themselves. Independent learners are able to examine and monitor their own behaviors in the learning process. Students should be expected to take responsibility for tasks, such as establishing classroom rules and editing their work. Multimethodology I plan to use a variety of teaching methods, techniques, and procedures in order to meet the learning needs of all my students. In doing this, I hope to encourage and motivate my students to want to learn. Reflection Reflection allows me to consider what worked, what didn’t, and why for each day that I teach. Through reflection, I can improve and change those areas that were not as successful.

33 Instructional Strategies – Putting My Philosophy To Practice
Be organized, planned, prepared A cluttered or barren room sends a negative message to your students as well as visitors. A well-organized, attractive, and inviting room shows that you care and is given respect. Teacher as motivator, guide, and facilitator (monitor environment) I believe that the other roles center on in particular. In order for me to motivate students to want to participate or become actively involved, I must be motivated myself. I will model and express enthusiasm for teaching, toward the students, and toward the subject matter, which will provide students with a positive example to follow. I will encourage autonomous learning, but monitor the environment and make myself available as a guide and facilitator of learning. “…While I cannot teach my students everything that they need to know, I can teach them how to be better learners” (Dr. Harold Johnson, 2000).

34 Instructional Strategies – Putting My Philosophy To Practice
Questioning Effective questioning strategies, such as using a multiple response or open-ended techniques of questioning, can encourage discussion, critical thinking, as well as students learning to form questions of their own. The students can improve their communication, listening, and social skills. Also important is the amount of wait-time provided. Student’s need an efficient amount of time to think and respond. Effective communication Effective communication skills are critical to successfully accomplish a task. Students learn to effectively communicate through cooperative learning, discovery learning, through questioning, and also by observing others communicate successfully.

35 Instructional Strategies – Summary “Knowledge grows when teachers cultivate it.” -Anonymous (Teachers Touch Tomorrow: A Calendar for the Year 2000) In conclusion, I look forward to having a classroom where all of my students are enthusiastically and actively engaged in discovering and exploring new ideas and perspectives. Actual engagement in the activities occurs from empowering students, not superficially but intrinsically. My classroom will be one where the activities are enjoyable, hands-on, meet the students' needs, and are appropriate for all of my students. These are my overall ideas for implementing successful and effective instructional strategies; however, every day offers new ideas and perspectives. I will be open and flexible to change and grow, learning more with each new day.

36 How will you create an effective learning environment?

37 Learning Environment – Introduction “The highest stake of all is our ability to help children realize their full potential.” - Samuel J. Meisels (Wong p.197, 1998) “Schooling is not just to impart cognitive knowledge; the schools have a responsibility and an interest in helping children develop into well-adjusted individuals with positive attitudes and positive self-esteem” (Orlich, Harder, Callahan, Gibson, 2001). The teacher should organize a well-managed classroom where students can learn in a task-oriented environment and feel secure with no surprises, no yelling, and where everyone knows what is happening. This is a classroom with procedures and routines and one that is conducive to learning.This is a productive working environment where students must pay attention, be cooperative and respectful of each other, exhibit self-discipline, and remain on task. For this to occur, the room must have a positive climate, all materials ready and organized, and furniture arranged for productive work. A successful classroom is a predictable environment where work is ready (desks, books, papers, assignments, and materials), the room is ready (classroom has positive climate that is work-oriented,) and the teacher is ready (has a warm, positive attitude and positive expectations that all students will succeed).

38 Learning Environment – Utilizing My Instructional Strategies
Students know what is expected Teacher holds positive expectations for all students, which are “set high, consistently reinforced expectations for behavior and academic performance.” (Survival Guide for New Teachers, 2000). In addition to positive expectations, the teacher needs to ensure students completely understand the task at hand in order for them to achieve what is expected of them. Students are actively involved with their work “Effective teachers know that the more time on task, also called academic learning time, spent by the student, the more the student learns” (Routman, 1994).

39 Learning Environment – Utilizing My Instructional Strategies
Parent Involvement “Parents are their children’s first and most influential teachers.” (Wong, 1998). Effective parent involvement has been shown by research to positively affect academic achievement. Parents should be a continuing part of their child’s education. Parents are also one of the most valuable resources that educators can utilize. They have far greater power to effect change than the teacher does. I will always welcome parents and their ideas and suggestions. Teacher serves as a motivator and guide As an educator, it will be my responsibility to motivate my students to have and maintain a desire to learn. I am not there to do things for them, but to guide them through the learning process.

40 Learning Environment – Utilizing My Instructional Strategies
Teacher is prepared and organized, but flexible It is very important to be prepared for each day and have all the lesson plans and materials organized. However, it is also important for a teacher to understand that things come up unexpectedly, lessons do not always work, and students all have different learning needs. For these reasons, flexibility is very important. Hands-on activities and lessons with some basis on student interest It is important for a teacher to get to know his/her students. This includes getting to know not only their individual abilities, but their interests as well. If you know what they are interested in, you can build your lesson on that and create a successful learning experience.

41 Learning Environment – Utilizing My Instructional Strategies
Effective classroom management Many aspects are involved in effective classroom management. First, it is important to establish procedures and routines with your students. If the students are involved in the process of organizing and setting up the classroom, they will take more responsibility for it. Also important is student involvement. If students are interested and involved in their work, the less likely there will be behavior problems. Little wasted time, confusion, or disruption In a successful classroom, the teacher uses the time efficiently and effectively, the students know and understand what they need to be doing, and there is little or no distraction. The majority of the time spent in the classroom is for academic learning time, in which the students are actively engaged in their work.

42 Learning Environment – Utilizing My Instructional Strategies
Arrange room for positive interactions (stress cooperative learning) can collaborate comfortably, open spaces where class can gather or small groups can meet, centers of designated areas where student have opportunities for talk, exploration, writing, reading, and sharing. Accessible technology Ideally, every classroom should have up-to-date technology, not only computer systems, but calculators, televisions, etc. This technology should also be accessible by the students. They can learn about the uses of technology as well as how to use different technology for different purposes.

43 Learning Environment – Utilizing My Instructional Strategies
Expecting self-evaluation of behaviors When students finish working together, they can be asked to reflect upon their behaviors and what they learned. With teacher guidance, students can constantly examine how they might improve the functioning of the group, and gradually, they may take more responsibility for their behaviors. They will also learn the importance and use of reflection. Modeling and role playing appropriate and inappropriate behaviors It is important that the students know and understand what behaviors are appropriate an which are inappropriate in your classroom and why. Modeling and role playing are two ways that can help the students understand why certain behaviors are appropriate and why others are not. It is also important that the teacher consistently praise and encourage positive behaviors.

44 Learning Environment – Summary “The purpose of teaching is to help all people succeed, not to brand people as failures.” (Wong p.242, 1998) In an effective classroom the students are actively engaged in meaningful work. The procedures manage what they do and they are aware of how the class operates. The teacher is moving around the room, also at work, helping, adjusting, answering, guiding, facilitating, smiling, and caring. The teacher is highly organized, students have opportunities in setting up the environment, students understand, respect, and share responsibilities for classroom management. Consistency and routine provide for an inviting, comfortable, successful and effective implementation of instructional strategies. Along with learning expectations and the emotional climate, the physical layout and setup of the classroom support the teacher’s philosophy of learning and teaching. The way the room is organized affects children’s views of themselves and has an impact on their attitudes toward school and learning. Displays of children’s work, space for exploration, learning centers, and a library, create an attractive and pleasant atmosphere. My beliefs about learning and teaching will be evident in the format and content of the classroom as well as the bulletin boards, which are done by and for the students so they can take more pride and responsibility for how the room looks and functions.

45 Instructional Resources
What academic content will you teach?

46 Instructional Resources
The Kent State University deaf education web site ( ) provides links to national organizations, national standards, and grade level specific curricular resources. The following academic content areas will have links to national organizations, national standards, and curricular resources: Math, Science, and Deaf Studies. These links will offer beneficial information for teachers as well as parents and students.

47 Instructional Resources

48 Instructional Resources - Math
National Organizations: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Found by: Adrienne Rossi and Catherine Wilson Kent State University 2001 The Mathematical Association of America

49 Instructional Resources - Math
National Organizations: The Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education Found by: Terina Brazek, Amy Chickini, Jayme Ruby, & Janet Wuertzer Kent State University 2001 National Organizations:American Mathematical Society Found by: Adrienne Rossi and Catherine Wilson

50 Instructional Resources - Math
National Standards: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards Found by: Adrienne Rossi and Catherine Wilson Kent State University 2001 National Mathematics Standards Grades K-4 The Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education Found by: Terina Brazek, Amy Chickini, Jayme Ruby, & Janet Wuertzer

51 Instructional Resources - Math
Curricular Resources: Objectives in Math Found by: Jennifer Fabian and Robyn Kwiatkowski Kent State University 2001 Issues in Math Education

52 Instructional Resources - Math
Curricular Resources: The Math Forum Found by: Adrienne Rossi and Catherine Wilson Kent State University 2001 How Parents Can Help Found by: Jennifer Fabian and Robyn Kwiatkowski

53 Instructional Resources

54 Instructional Resources - Science
National Organizations: American Association for the Advancement of Science Found by: Meg Coyne and Nancy Sutherland Kent State University 2001 The Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

55 Instructional Resources - Science
National Organizations: National Science Teacher’s Association Found by: Meg Coyne and Nancy Sutherland Kent State University 2001 National Science Foundation Found by: Ana Cintado, Michelle Knapp, Tara Tillett, & Melissa Cotton

56 Instructional Resources - Science
National Standards: National Science Education Standards Found by: Meg Coyne and Nancy Sutherland Kent State University 2001 The Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education Found by: Terina Brazek, Amy Chickini, Jayme Ruby, & Janet Wuertzer

57 Instructional Resources - Science
Curricular Resources: Education World Found by: Meg Coyne and Nancy Sutherland Kent State University 2001 Athena-Earth and Space Science for Teachers

58 Instructional Resources
Deaf Studies

59 Instructional Resources – Deaf Studies
National Organizations: Gallaudet Directory of Organizations Found by: Holly Maines and Ashley Ayers Kent State University 2001 National Association of the Deaf

60 Instructional Resources – Deaf Studies
National Organizations: Alexander Graham Bell Association for Deaf/HH Found by: Holly Maines and Ashley Ayers Kent State University 2001 American Society for Deaf Children

61 Instructional Resources – Deaf Studies
National Standards: Bill of Rights for d/hh students Found by: Holly Maines and Ashley Ayers Kent State University 2001

62 Instructional Resources – Deaf Studies
Curricular Resources: Deaf Today Found by: Holly Maines and Ashley Ayers Kent State University 2001 Identity and Deafness: Who Am I

63 Instructional Resources – Deaf Studies
Curricular Resources: Deaf Views Found by: Holly Maines and Ashley Ayers Kent State University 2001 Hand Glass

64 Assessment Protocols How will you evaluate the cognitive, linguistic, and academic abilities of your students?

65 Assessment Protocols - Introduction
Assessments are based on students' performance of real tasks. We need to focus attention on the tasks which are completed throughout the learning process, not solely the final product. Educators should continuously ask how students may improve and develop. As often as possible challenges and issues are selected from the real world and request that students offer us their best thoughts in response to these issues. Teachers do not wait until the end of the progression to ask how they are doing. They make assessment constant and frequent, altering strategies and asking students to adjust and revise their efforts as they observe what is successful and what is not. As teachers we make use of our assessment results to guide our own efforts, directing our attention where it will be most useful and releasing those strategies which are proving insignificant in favor of those proven valuable. We utilize evaluation as a primary tool of program improvement.

66 Assessment Protocols - Introduction
The most common purposes for assessment of children who are deaf or hard of hearing include: Establishing a baseline level of performance. Determining an appropriate placement or change in placement. Measuring progress (including legally required assessment such as three-year re-evaluations). Suggesting solutions to identified problems such as behavior, attention difficulties, or slow progress. Developing goals and objectives when reviewing a program. (Eccarius, 1997)

67 Formal Assessment Protocols
Norm-referenced tests or standardized achievement tests (group & individual) These are “tests designed to compare individual students with national averages or norms of expectancy” (Overton, 2000). Some may be required as an assessment protocol. Others may be useful to you in adapting and modifying lesson plans to meet the needs of your students. The following are some examples of norm-referenced achievement tests that may be used: Woodcock-Johnson Revised Tests of Achievement, Standard and Supplemental Batteries This test is presented in an easel type of format, comprises of two parallel achievement batteries that allow the examiner to retest the same student within a short amount of time with less practice effect. The battery of subtests allows the examiner to select the specific subtests needed for a particular student. This achievement battery has standard subtests and supplemental subtests (Overton, 2000).

68 Formal Assessment Protocols
Peabody Individual Achievement Test –Revised PIAT –R This test is contained in four easels, called Volumes I, II, III, and IV. For this revision, the number of items has been increased on the existing subtests.This test was listed as one of the most frequently used by professionals in Child Service Demonstration Centers, by school psychologists, by special education teachers who listed this as one of the most useful tests, and by teachers who are in both self-contained and resource classrooms for students with learning disabilities (Overton, 2000). Wechsler Individual Achievement Test This test was designed to be used in conjunction with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale and has been included in recent research. This is an individually administered achievement test made up of eight subtests. The examiner may administer all eight subtests for a comprehensive assessment or three of the subtests as a screening instrument.Students ages 5-0 to or grades K through 12 may be administered this instrument (Overton, 2000).

69 Formal Assessment Protocols
Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement This relatively new test has received favorable review and has had positive correlations with the Wide Range Achievement Test in both spelling and math and moderate correlation with the reading subtests. This test is an individually administered achievement test for school-aged students. It consists of two forms: the Comprehensive Form and the Brief From. Both are presented in easel fashion with computation and spelling subtests using pencil-and-paper tasks. Starting points are suggested by grade-level functioning (Overton, 2000). Standardized diagnostic tests Individually administered tests designed to determine specific academic problems or deficit areas (Overton, 2000). Aptitude tests Tests designed to measure strength, talent, or ability in a particular area or domain (Overton, 2000).

70 Informal Assessment Protocols
Informal Assessment – Nonstandardized methods of evaluating progress… (Overton, 2000). The following methods of informal assessment can be used daily to monitor the progress of students. In formal assessment allows teachers to continually screen all students, including those who are academically at risk and those with special needs. Curriculum-based assessment Using content form the currently used curriculum to assess student progress (Overton, 2000). Criterion-related assessment When items of an assessment instrument are related to meeting objectives or passing skill-mastery objectives (Overton, 2000).

71 Informal Assessment Protocols
Anecdotal recording Anecdotal records are dated, informal observational notations that can describe, for example, language development as well as social development in terms of the learner’s attitudes, strengths, needs, progress, learning styles, skills, strategies used, or anything else that seems significant at the time of the observation (Routman, 1994) Checklists Lists of academic or behavioral skills that must be mastered by the student (Overton, 2000). Questionnaires Questions about a student’s behavior or academic concerns that may be answered by the student, by the parent(s), or by the teacher (Overton, 2000).

72 Informal Assessment Protocols
Interviews Can be conducted by different members of the multidisciplinary team. Often, these are unstructured and informal (Overton, 2000). The interview questions should be adapted and appropriate for the interviewee. Performance assessment Assessment that requires the student to create an answer or product to demonstrate knowledge (Overton, 2000). Portfolio assessment Evaluating student progress, strengths, and needs using a collection of different measurements and work samples (Overton, 2000).

73 Informal Assessment Protocols
Error analysis Analyzing a student’s learning problems by determining error patterns (Overton, 2000). The Brigance Inventories This assessment system provides criterion-related assessment at various skill levels. Each battery contains numerous subtests, and each item is referenced by objectives that may be used in developing IEPs. There are three criterion-referenced instruments for the various age groups served in special education. In each system, the educator should select only the areas and items of interest to identify specific strengths and needs (Overton, 2000).

74 Assessment Protocols - Summary
Assessment is a continuous process and is performed daily in the form of informal assessments. My classroom environment and instructional strategies will play major roles in which assessments can be used and how they are implemented. By being consistently prepared and organized, I allow more time for assessment, such as informal observations of the students. When the students are engaged in hands-on activities, I will possibly have more reliability in the assessments implemented. Also by incorporating an effective classroom management plan, I will have less wasted time, confusion and disruptions, which will allow for more reflection and evaluation. Another aspect of assessment can occur through the use of technology. Using videotaped lessons and educational computer games that can show a student’s progress can be used. Assessment is a major aspect of realizing my students strengths and needs as well as my own . I do understand that it is critical that assessment practices adhere legally and ethically. I have a professional responsibility as a special educator to be accountable for each assessment decision; therefore knowledge of the various types of assessment and when to use them is necessary.

75 Technology How will you use technology to enhance your teaching and your students’ learning?

76 Technology - Introduction
Connected to a stimulating new world of current information, students construct meaning and develop insight while the teacher demonstrates how to navigate and explore through the maze of new resources. The front of the classroom seems to disappear as connected computers provide for investigation, exploration, and discovery. Student questions and questioning develop into a key focus of classroom activity as teachers demonstrate and then expect effective searching, collecting, and interpreting techniques while students apply the tools and information to search for solutions to present-day issues. Inquiry and information literacy become fundamental as they transform the wires and cables into powerful paths to learning. To bring a wired classroom to life, students must be furnished with the technology of questioning and a set of beliefs must be implemented which clarifies our rationale. For technology in the classroom to have the opportunity for success, an adequate number of computers, sufficient staff development and an assortment of powerful tools loaded with information all must be provided.

77 Technology in the Classroom
Upgraded computer systems (monitor, tower, modem) CD Rom Printers Software Internet Service Provider system Overhead projector Television VCR

78 Technology in the Classroom
Slide projector Video camera Polaroid Camera 35mm camera AM/FM radio (with tape and CD player) Magnifying glasses Microscopes Telescope Bunsen burners Calculators

79 The Technologically Enhanced, Student-Centered Classroom
Characteristics of Engaged Learners: * Responsible for their own learning * Enthusiastic about learning * Deliberate * Collaborative and Cooperative In the classroom, knowledge is actively constructed by the learner on on the basis of prior knowledge, attitudes, and values. Sophisticated technology is utilized to support the pursuit of knowledge. However, no matter how significant computers and other technologies are in the school of the future, “it is only a means, to the greater end of enabling students to learn through interaction with various aspects of life” (Cromwell, 1998). The Technologically Enhanced, Student-Centered Classroom

80 Classroom Set-Up If we expect student-centered, engaged classrooms with the technologies entirely combined with the daily schedules, the computers should be placed where they will be most beneficial, not stored in a back corner or stuck against a back wall. In some classrooms it is difficult to find a "front" because the concentration is on learning rather than teaching alone.

81 Role of the Teacher and Student
In order to provide clear expectations and keep working, the teacher plans the tasks which need to be completed, guides students to the necessary resources and then monitors their work to ensure that they are progressing deliberately and successfully. The teacher requires students to present work at regular check points, collaborating to supply the appropriate amount of guidance so that the students develop autonomy and responsibility within feasible boundaries. The teacher is on the move, glancing over shoulders, asking questions and teaching mini-lessons for individuals and groups who need help acquiring a specific skill. Support is modified and individualized. The teacher establishes understandable expectations, provides clear directions, and maintains well-structured and productive learning. Students need to see examples of what they are expected to produce. If they have a clear picture of what they are trying to create, they can continue to compare their own work with the model shown by the teacher. Also, the better educators do of defining standards through the use of assessment strategies, the better students will be able to support their efforts with the assignment requirements.

82 Technology - Summary Community involvement, professional development, and planning are three themes that emerged as the key factors in technological innovation in responses to a nationwide school district Education World survey. The consensus was that a combination of detailed planning, community involvement, and intensive, ongoing professional development. This includes the development of appropriate assessment methods. These are considered crucial in making technology effective in schools. It is also believed that these three “cornerstones of a successful technology program are inextricably intertwined” (Cromwell, 2000). The concept is that if teachers are better able to use technology themselves, then they will encourage their students to use technology. Educators have previously settled for simple usage of technology as an indication of success. This focus will no longer be sufficient. We are not utilizing technology to simply see it practiced. Technology needs to be used to enhance learning and as an instructional tool.

83 Deaf Education Resources
Additional resources that may be of use to me, my students, and parents as well

84 Deaf Education Resources - Introduction
The following resources consist of books, videos and web sites that can be used by educators, parents, and students. The information I included covers many issues from different methodologies in deaf education to poetry in American Sign Language. The variety of resources allows for anyone to search through them and find what they are looking for.

85 Deaf Education Resources
Deaf Culture, Our Way: Anecdotes from the Deaf Community by Roy, Sam and Thomas Holcomb A collection of anecdotes from the everyday lives of Dead people. The authors have compiled a variety of memorable moments to provide a glimpse into life as experienced by Deaf people. ASL Poetry: Selected Works of Clayton Valli by Clayton Valli This video features the work of internationally known Deaf poet, Clayton Valli. This collection of poems are recited through sign and also offers discussion of poetry in sign language. May 1985

86 Deaf Education Resources
A Journey into the Deaf – World by Harlan Lane, Robert Hoffmeister and Ben Bahan This book combines personal accounts and perspectives of life in the “Deaf World” and provides more explanations regarding the Deaf community. May 1996 Odyssey of Hearing Loss: Tales of Triumph by Dr. Michael A. Harvey, Ph.D. In this book, a clinical psychologist shares true stories of people struggling with hearing loss. The issues faced by the individuals as well as by the psychologist who is trying to help are also discussed. March 2000

87 Deaf Education Resources
Movers & Shakers: Deaf People Who Changed the World by Cathryn Carroll and Susan M. Mather Provides stories of 26 Deaf role models. This series contains a workbook and teacher’s guide. This would be useful for Language Arts and as a more in-depth look at the structure of ASL. Mask of Benevolence: Disabling the Deaf Community by Harlan Lane This book looks more closely at controversial issues as seen form the Deaf community, such as cochlear implants and Deaf education. March 2000

88 Deaf Education Resources
Facilitating Hearing and Listening in Young Children by Carol Flexer This book provides information mainly concerning hearing and hearing impairment, the structure and function of the ear, types and degrees of hearing impairment, and more. Also emphasized is the facilitation of listening skills. October 1999, 2nd Edition Lessons in Laughter: The Autobiography of a Deaf Actor by Bernard Bragg Bernard Bragg is a deaf actor, director, playwritght, and lecturer. In this book, he tells of his life experiences through his observation and self-reflection. June 1989

89 Deaf Education Resources
Deaf Like Me by Tomas and James Spradley Written by the uncle and father of a little girl who happens to be deaf, Deaf Like Me is the touching account of parents coming to terms with their baby girl's profound deafness. The love, hope, and anxieties of all hearing parents of deaf children are expressed with power and simplicity. In the epilogue, Lynn reflects upon being deaf, her education, her struggle to communicate, and the discovery that she was the focus of her father's and uncle's book. This story is moving and inspiring, Deaf Like Me is for every parent, relative, and friend of deaf children everywhere. May 1985

90 Deaf Education Resources
Choices in Deafness: A Parent’s Guide to Communication Options Edited by Sue Schwartz, Ph.D. This work provides comprehensive information on various methodologies, offering the perspective of parents and of children. This edition also covers the medical causes of hearing loss, the diagnostic process, meeting with the audiologist, and the pros and cons of the cochlear implant. This work guides parents through the choices they must make for their child, covering conditions and treatment from both the parents' and the child's point of view. National organizations serving the deaf or hard of hearing are listed, along with contact information. 1996, 2nd Edition

91 Deaf Education Resources
Language & Literacy Development in Children Who Are Deaf by Barbara R. Schirmer This second edition provides the most current information about teaching language, reading, and writing to deaf children. Models and strategies are clearly described and supported by theory, current research, and numerous examples of how these models and strategies can be used in classrooms with deaf students. This book also discusses issues related to American Sign Language, bilingual education techniques, incorporating technology into instruction, and developing balanced literacy programs for deaf children 2000, 2nd Edition

92 Deaf Education Resources
A new site, replacing the Kent State University, Council on the Education of the Deaf site. This site is full of information. There are employment listings, collaborative opportunities, instructional strategies, publication announcements and much, much more. This is a site worth looking at. The Deaf Education Option web This site offers valuable information concerning the options regarding the education of deaf and hard of hearing students. The different philosophies and approaches are explored here and links to organizations and other resources are provided as well.

93 Instructional Unit Preschool Health Unit

94 Instructional Unit - Introduction
*My instructional unit includes three main aspects of maintaining a healthy body. These include: healthy/not healthy foods, personal habits and health professions. Through this unit the children will develop an awareness of how important it is to keep their bodies healthy. I have planned appropriate and enjoyable hands-on activities that engage the students in experiences that help them to relate this information to their lives. * The unit is attached to the end of my portfolio. If you would like to see the entire unit you can click here: Instructional Unit

95 Reflections What do you now understand is required to be an effective teacher and what will you have to do to become such a teacher?

96 Being an Effective Teacher
Based on what I do or what I do not do in my classroom will determine the effectiveness and success of my teaching. I need to establish effective classroom management skills, hold positive expectations for every student, and design lessons for my particular students. I need to remember that I am not teaching them, but I am learning as well. I learned that I must maintain consistency, which means do what you say you are going to do at all times and with every child. I should model a love for learning and maintain a sense of humor. I also must: Offer a variety of interesting choices of activities for students when they finish work or have down time. Keep an open door to parents. Reward and praise students. Maintain respect above all. Learn the names of your students quickly and correctly. Don't be sarcastic to children or correct them in ways that cause embarrassment. (Survival Guide for New Teachers, 2000)

97 Being an Effective Teacher
I have realized that my ideas and beliefs may change as I teach and my instructional strategies will be modified with each new class. I need to maintain my roles as a motivator and guide and find a way to help each individual student reach their full potential. The way the learning environment is set up and the assessment protocols I use will impact each student’s learning. It is very important that I consider their individual needs and motivate and guide them to become confident, independent, critical thinkers. I have decided to become an educator because I am devoted to making a difference in the lives of my students. In conclusion, I look forward to a classroom of my own where all of the students are enthusiastically involved in discovering and investigating new ideas and perspectives. Authentic engagement will result from empowering students, not superficially but intrinsically. My classroom will be one where the activities are engaging, hands-on, and appropriate for all of my students. As I mentioned, every day offers new ideas and perspectives and I will be open and flexible to change and grow with each new day.

98 The full references for information previously cited

99 References American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Calendar (2000). Colorado Springs, CO: Current. Cromwell, Sharon. (1998) Education World Cromwell, Sharon. (2000) Education World Disability Etiquette Handbook

100 References Eccarius, M. (1997). Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Assessment (ERIC EC Digest #E550). Kids Together, Inc. MHHE: CYBEREDUCATOR: The Internet and World Wide Web for K-12 Education file://D:\cybereducator/cybpart04c.html National Center on Educational Outcomes North Regional Educational Laboratory: Teachers on Teaching

101 References Fields, M. & Boesser, C. (1994). Constructive guidance and discipline. New York: Macmillan. Flexer, C. (2000). Facilitating hearing and listening in young children. San Diego: Singular Publishing. Orlich, D, Harder, R., Callahan, R., Gibson, H. (2001). Teaching strategies:A guide to better instruction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Routman, R. (1994). Invitations: Changing as teachers and learners K-12. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Survival Guide for New Teachers (2000)

102 References Salend, S.J. (2001). Creating inclusive classrooms. Columbus, OH: Merril Prentice Hall. Schirmer, B.R. (2000). Language & literacy development in children who are deaf.Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Smith, T., Polloway, E. Patton, J., Dowdy, C. (2001). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Vallecorsa, A., deBettencourt, L., Zigmond, N. (2000). Students with mild disabilities in general education settings: A guide for special educators. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

103 References What to Expect Your First Year of Teaching
Wong, H. & Wong, R. (1998). How to be an effective teacher: The first days of school. Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications.

104 One hundred years from now it will not matter What kind of car I drove, What kind of house I lived in, How much I had in the bank account, Or what my clothes looked like. But the world will be a better place because I was important in the life of a child. -Anonymous (from poster)

105 Instructional Unit: Preschool
Carrie Majewski Spring 2001 SPED 53319 Instructional Approaches: Deaf/Hard of Hearing Students Instructor: Dr. Harold Johnson

106 Unit Organization Academic subject: Health Unit objectives
Students will: 1. Learn the importance of good health 2. Learn about and explore healthy/not healthy foods 3. Learn about different types of exercise and why it’s important 4. Explore tools for health needs 5. Learn about healthy habits and their importance 6. Learn about health occupations

107 Unit Organization Exercise/Body Health Professions
Curriculum materials: Exercise/Body Health Professions Lightweights Stethoscope Construction Paper Thermometer Empty Paper Towel Rolls Tongue Depressors Glue White Lab Jacket Scissors Clip Board Mats Paper Towels Pencils General Telephones Chalk Band aids/Bandages Chalkboard Reflex Hammer

108 Unit Organization Tools for Health Needs Healthy/Not Healthy Food
Curriculum materials: Tools for Health Needs Healthy/Not Healthy Food Toothbrushes Fruits and Vegetables Toothpaste Meat Toothfloss Dairy Hairbrush Bread and Cereal Soap Poultry Shampoo Food with mold or Towels obviously spoiled Wash clothes Thermometer Tissues

109 Unit Organization Number of classes: 4-5
Length of classes: Approximately 20 min Number of students: 15 Language and cognitive goals for one student in the class: Language Goal: Increase communicative competence in understanding and being understood Cognitive Goal: Become a more productive and efficient learner by asking a peer for confirmation rather than always going to the teacher Days I worked on unit: I taught a health unit for two weeks in February. I worked on this health unit on the following days: March 10, 13, 20, 30, and April 3, 10, 12, 13, 17 and 18.

110 Lesson Design Chalk Unit segment: Introduction
Lesson’s academic objectives: 1. Establish students’ K-W 2. Foster language and communication development 3. Expose students to written print 4. Encourage development of thinking skills Lesson’s curriculum materials: Chalk Chalkboard

111 Lesson Design Lesson’s student activities:
1. Students will sit at the table as a large group 2. Students will be introduced to the unit topic: “What it Takes to be Healthy” and the three areas of focus: food, the body, and health professions. 3. The teacher will write each of the three areas on the board. 4. Students will brainstorm what they know about these areas and the teacher will write them on the board. 5. The students will be encouraged to ask questions about the three areas and tell which area interests them most. This information could be recopied onto large, lined paper to keep posted throughout the unit.

112 Lesson Design Lesson’s student evaluation:
Did all the students participate? Did students interact with each other? Did each student provide something they know about the topic? Did students ask questions? Did each student name an area of interest? Lesson’s student homework: Watch TV and draw a picture of a person you see who looks sick and one who looks healthy (parents will caption the drawing)

113 Lesson Design 1. Students will actively explore materials
Unit segment: Exploration Lesson’s academic objectives: 1. Students will actively explore materials 2. Students will discuss and ask questions about the provided materials. 3. Students will work collaboratively in small groups Lesson’s curriculum materials: Lightweights White Lab Jacket Mats Clip Board Towels Thermometer Stethoscope Pencils Paper Telephones Reflex Hammer Band aids/Bandages Tongue Depressors

114 Lesson Design Lesson’s curriculum materials continued:
Toothbrushes Fruits and Vegetables Toothpaste Meat Toothfloss Dairy Hairbrush Bread and Cereal Soap Poultry Shampoo Food with mold or Wash clothes obviously spoiled Tissues

115 Lesson Design 1. Students will form three collaborative groups (five
Lesson’s student activities: 1. Students will form three collaborative groups (five students in each group) based on the following areas: food, the body, and health professions 2. The materials for each area will be set out in a different area of the classroom the teacher will spend time with each group, asking open-ended questions and facilitating discussions. Food: The food group will compare real food. Some food will be healthy and other foods will be spoiled or have mold to noticeable differences.

116 Lesson Design Lesson’s student activities continued:
The Body: The body group will explore and discuss different health tools and what they are used for. Health Professions: The health professions group will investigate and discuss tools used by health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and dentists. Examples of some questions that may be asked by the teacher: “What is that?” “Do you know what it is used for?” “Does that look good or bad for you?” “Why do you think it might make you sick?” “What do you do with that?”

117 Lesson Design Lesson’s student evaluation: Lesson’s student homework:
Did all the students participate? Did students interact with each other? Did students actively explore the materials? What did the students know about the materials presented? What did the students not know or have a difficult time with regarding the materials? Lesson’s student homework: Bring in an item from home that would relate to your area, but you did not see in the materials you explored (will be added to the materials in that area)

118 Lesson Design Unit segment: Application Lesson’s academic objectives:
1. Students will work collaboratively 2. Students will communicate effectively with one another 3. Students will work on decision-making skills 4. Students will work with minimal teacher assistance Lesson’s curriculum materials: Same materials as in the exploration lesson as well as the materials brought in by the students for homework . Some extra materials would include: construction paper, glue, scissors, and empty paper towel rolls for students who want to create some of their own materials. Also, pretend foods and exercise equipment would be added to the materials.

119 Lesson Design Lesson’s student activities:
1. Each group of students will design their own dramatization based on their area (food-restaurant, body-gym, and health professions-doctor’s office) 2. Students will decide what materials they will need (from those previously explored, brought in, and any additional) 3. Students will decide who will play which part in the dramatization (such as the doctor, patients, etc.) 4. Students will set up their dramatization

120 Lesson Design Lesson’s student evaluation: Lesson’s student homework:
Did all students participate? Did the groups work collaboratively? Were the students communicating effectively? Did students use minimal teacher assistance? Did students successfully develop a dramatization? Lesson’s student homework: Students will come in tomorrow dressed (or bring in costume) appropriate for their part in their dramatization and will bring any additional props that will supplement the costume.

121 Lesson Design Unit segment: Evaluation (may take two classes)
Lesson’s academic objectives: 1. Students will work cooperatively to implement ideas and plan of dramatization 2. Students will use their language skills to effectively communicate with each other 3. Students will creatively develop ways for different areas to interact (such as a student eats at the restaurant, gets sick and then needs to go to the doctor, etc.) 4. Students will use minimal teacher assistance 5. Establish K-W again

122 Lesson Design Lesson’s curriculum materials:
Use the same materials as in the application lesson. Students may now want to use the tables and chairs and blocks from the block area as well as clothes from the dramatic play area. Also any other clothing and props brought in by the students for homework that would appropriately add to the dramatization will be used.

123 Lesson Design Lesson’s student activities:
1. Students will implement their dramatization plan 2. Students will find ways to have areas interact 3. Students will interact and communicate effectively 4. Students will use materials and props appropriately and to supplement the activity 5. At the end of the activity (make take another day) students will develop two or three questions as a group to present to the teacher about their area that they want the other groups to be asked 6. When the teacher asks each group the questions, they will collaborate to come up with the answers * Activity will be videotaped and digital camera will be used

124 Lesson Design Lesson’s student evaluation: Did all the students participate? Did students play their roles and use props appropriately? Did the students find ways to interact between groups? Did the students collaborate to come up with questions about their area? Did the students collaborate to answer the questions presented? Were students’ answers appropriate to the question asked? Did students understand the questions asked and were their answers understandable? Lesson’s student homework: Take home pictures of dramatization from digital camera and tell parent(s) about it and what you did

125 Unit Feedback Evaluation of instruction: 3
Overall, the activities I taught were successful. However, I should have taken the unit objectives from the regular education curriculum rather than making my own. The activities and materials were appropriate for this age group. The topic was very broad and should have been more narrowed and related activities to one another so that learning was more substantial. Assessment of d/hh student’s performance: 3 Although the assessment that I used was enough, I could have used more, such as using a checklist. I needed something more specific and functional to better assess learning.

126 Unit Feedback Selection of instructional strategies to match students’ learning needs: 3-4 The instructional strategies used were appropriate for this grade level and students’ learning needs were always a consideration. IEP and speech goals were also incorporated into the activities. Effective use of technology: 3 I used the technology that was available to me at this particular school. I used a digital camera and would have used a video camera to tape the dramatization had that been one of the lessons I taught.

127 Unit Feedback Effective sequencing of instruction: 2-3
To implement this unit in my own classroom, I would have made the topic more focused and make each activity link to the next. My activities were fun, yet unrelated activities. Effective use of instructional time: 3 Instructional time was used effectively. If students were very interested and actively involved, then the time spent on the activity was expanded to allow the students to continue. However, sometimes the expanded time was too long and students became bored.

128 Unit Feedback Focus upon assisting students to become more effective learners: 3-4 I attempted to assist students when necessary, but encouraged peer assistance rather than constant teacher involvement. I made the activities as student-centered as possible with hands-on materials. I attempted to meet the academic objectives for each activity. Effective rapport with and management of students: 3-4 I love the preschool age-group and tried to come up with creative ideas for classroom management. The students and I developed a positive relationship and learned from each other. At first the students were really “testing” me and I was backing down too easily. As time progressed, I got used to them and their ways of learning and behavior. I developed some ideas and things worked out well. They also became used to my teaching style. Once this happened, things changed overall for the better.

129 Unit Feedback Effective use/integration of support services: 3
When I entered the classroom as a substitute, I was unsure of many things. I wasn’t incorporating auditory training goals, IEP goals, or speech goals into the activities. Soon, I learned of each child’s support services and began talking with the auditory trainer, occupational therapist, speech therapist, school nurse, school psychologist, and they were all excellent resources. Effective use of student/initiated/centered learning experiences: 3-4 I tried to make my activities as student-centered as possible with hands-on materials as well. After some activities were not successful, I decided to try and gather information about student interests prior to the implementation of an activity. This way I could still provide the information, but in a way that would focus more on the interests of the students.

130 Unit Feedback Effective communication with students: 3-4 I tried to communicate with each individual student on their level of understanding and model correct usage of language when communicating as well. I tried to encourage the students to ask when they don’t understand, which was very difficult because they don’t like to do this. Often, I would find that they went through the day and did not understand some key concepts. I tried to become more aware and observant. I also asked more open-ended questions during activities. Effective design of instruction to encourage group learning: 3-4 I attempted to encourage group learning through small and large group activities that required the students to interact with each other. I also tried to incorporate teacher and peer modeling.

131 Unit Feedback Effective use of classroom routines: 3
Entering as a substitute, I did not have much to go on for classroom routines. I gradually realized their routine and we set up our own as well. So, at first I was not effectively using the classroom routines, but once aware, I began to plan accordingly. Designed instruction to enhance/increase students’ social participation in family, school, and community: 2-3 Although the activities required interaction between students, I feel I could have done more for this part. We could have gone on field trips or involved the school, families, and even community in our activities somehow. We could have done our dramatizations and invited the other preschool classes and parents to come and watch, for example. We could have gone on field trips to the grocery store (food), high school gym (bodies-exercise), or to a doctor’s office (health professions).

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