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1 chung Robotics 101 for Robofest May 2005 CJ Chung Lawrence Tech / Computer Science.

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Presentation on theme: "1 chung Robotics 101 for Robofest May 2005 CJ Chung Lawrence Tech / Computer Science."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 chung Robotics 101 for Robofest May 2005 CJ Chung Lawrence Tech / Computer Science

3 2 chung What is a Robot? A remote-controlled machine is a robot: True or False?

4 3 chung What is a Robot? A machine whose behavior can be programmed … Then, is a VCR a robot?

5 4 chung What is a Robot? Is a tethered machine a robot? Surprisingly, there is no exact definition of a robot Today, people use robot for almost any machine designed to be clever

6 5 chung Introducing Roomba! Vacuum Cleaner Robot www.irobot.com Affordable Virtual Wall

7 6 chung Autonomous Robot Mower, Another example of autonomous robots Hitachi H8S/300H (Cf. Lego RCX: H8/3292) 16 bit micro controller (Cf. Lego RCX: 8bit) Written in C with Real-time Operating System

8 7 chung Robota The term robot originates from the Czech word, robota, meaning compulsory labor (or slave) From the play R.U.R. (Rossums Universal Robots) by Czech play writer Karel Capek in 1921. The play RUR featured robots that nearly took over the world. They stopped only when they could not answer the question: What do we do after we have destroyed all of the humans?

9 8 chung Three Laws of Robotics In 1942, Issac Asimov, An American science fiction writer, introduced the word robotics in his short story Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm Law 2: A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law

10 9 chung Definition: (Autonomous) Robot without constant attention A mobile computer situated in the real world interacting with the environment through sensors and actuators in order to perform various intelligent tasks without constant attention Real robots do not need joy stick remote controls! Real robots do not need joy stick remote controls!

11 10 chung Definition: Robotics The science of building and programming robots

12 11 chung Robots for 3D Jobs Dangerous Dull Dirty

13 12 chung G. Walters Robot – The first Robot 1948, 1953 A wheeled machine with motors Photocells Two vacuum tubes Moved toward light if moderate intensity Avoided bright light

14 13 chung

15 14 chung Lots of Robots after Walters Robot …

16 15 chung Lots of Robots after Walters Robot …

17 16 chung Lots of Robots after Walters Robot …

18 17 chung Lots of Robots after Walters Robot …

19 18 chung Lots of Robots after Walters Robot …

20 19 chung Lots of Robots after Walters Robot …

21 20 chung Lots of Edutainment Robots after Walters Robot …

22 21 chung First Raffle Ticket chosen by a Mobile Autonomous Robot [chung 4-15-00]

23 22 chung First Ribbon Cutting by an Lego Autonomous Mobile Robot [chung 01]

24 23 chung Lawrence Tech AIBO Robot soccer team

25 24 chung A police robot extends a telephone to a red van parked on 15th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue near the White House Tuedsay, Jan. 18, 2005 in Washington. A man upset over custody of his child threatened to blow up his van a block from the White House on Tuesday, prompting a standoff with police, the FBI

26 25 chung Weaponized robot, also known as SWORDS, in Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Friday, Jan. 14, 2005. The Pentagon's research arm, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, also recently awarded contracts to aid research of robots that one day could be dropped into combat from airplanes and others meant to scale walls using electrostatic energy also known as "static cling." Many of the vehicles being developed will have some autonomy, meaning they'll navigate rough terrain, avoid obstacles and make decisions about certain tasks on their own.

27 26 chung … Humanoid Robots Honda's "ASIMO" Rings Opening Bell at the NYSE February 15, 2002

28 27 chung More Humanoid Robots: SONY QRIO

29 28 chung Design principles of autonomous agents, Rolf Pfeifer, 1996 Autonomous – Have to solve tasks without human intervention Self-sufficient – They have to be able to sustain themselves over extended period of time Embodied – must be realized as a physical system capable of acting in the real world Situated – The whole interaction with the environment must be controlled by the agent itself

30 29 chung Fundamental Components of Autonomous Robots A brain (or brains) A brain (or brains) Body: physical chassis that holds other pieces Body: physical chassis that holds other pieces Actuators: allows to move. Motors, hydraulic pistons, lamps, etc Actuators: allows to move. Motors, hydraulic pistons, lamps, etc Sensors Sensors Power source Power source Communication

31 30 chung Body: Mechanical Design Problems Movement: Changing location Steering: Changing direction Navigation: Determining location (very difficult task)

32 31 chung Steering Mechanisms: Pivoting, Turning, and Walking Pivoting: see next slide Turning Todays Cars are excellent example of turning steering Tricycles use a front wheel drive system Bicycles use a rear wheel drive system Walking: Very difficult to realize… Four+ legged Biped

33 32 chung Pivoting Also known as Zero-turn radius steering Independent left and right wheels Examples: Bulldozers and Tanks Two driving wheels and a rear idle wheel E.g.) Lego Roverbot

34 33 chung Gearing Proper Gear Spacing Gear Reduction 16 tooth : 16 tooth – 1:1 16 tooth : 40 tooth – 2:5 16 tooth : 8 tooth – 2:1 Worm Gear: n-to-1 reduction. Cannot be back-driven! Pulley Wheels

35 34 chung Sensors of Human Eyes Ears Nose Skin Tongue Equilibrium: Balance … 6 th sense(?)

36 35 chung Robot Sensor Types Passive Sensors (does not require power supply) Touch Temperature Balance … Active Sensors (require power supply) Light Distance Rotation Sonar …

37 36 chung How to develop Intelligent Robots? The most difficult task Developing intelligent and adaptive software is the key

38 37 chung Why Robotics in Classes? Multi-disciplinary learning: all STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) subjects Develops critical thinking Provides co-operative learning environment Teaches real-life lessons, not virtual fantasy


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