6 chung Autonomous Robot Mower, Another example of autonomous robots Hitachi H8S/300H (Cf. Lego RCX: H8/3292) 16 bit micro controller (Cf. Lego RCX: 8bit) Written in C with Real-time Operating System
7 chung Robota The term robot originates from the Czech word, robota, meaning compulsory labor (or slave) From the play R.U.R. (Rossums Universal Robots) by Czech play writer Karel Capek in 1921. The play RUR featured robots that nearly took over the world. They stopped only when they could not answer the question: What do we do after we have destroyed all of the humans?
8 chung Three Laws of Robotics In 1942, Issac Asimov, An American science fiction writer, introduced the word robotics in his short story Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm Law 2: A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law
9 chung Definition: (Autonomous) Robot without constant attention A mobile computer situated in the real world interacting with the environment through sensors and actuators in order to perform various intelligent tasks without constant attention Real robots do not need joy stick remote controls! Real robots do not need joy stick remote controls!
10 chung Definition: Robotics The science of building and programming robots
11 chung Robots for 3D Jobs Dangerous Dull Dirty
12 chung G. Walters Robot – The first Robot 1948, 1953 A wheeled machine with motors Photocells Two vacuum tubes Moved toward light if moderate intensity Avoided bright light
24 chung A police robot extends a telephone to a red van parked on 15th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue near the White House Tuedsay, Jan. 18, 2005 in Washington. A man upset over custody of his child threatened to blow up his van a block from the White House on Tuesday, prompting a standoff with police, the FBI
25 chung Weaponized robot, also known as SWORDS, in Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Friday, Jan. 14, 2005. The Pentagon's research arm, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, also recently awarded contracts to aid research of robots that one day could be dropped into combat from airplanes and others meant to scale walls using electrostatic energy also known as "static cling." Many of the vehicles being developed will have some autonomy, meaning they'll navigate rough terrain, avoid obstacles and make decisions about certain tasks on their own.
26 chung … Humanoid Robots Honda's "ASIMO" Rings Opening Bell at the NYSE February 15, 2002
28 chung Design principles of autonomous agents, Rolf Pfeifer, 1996 Autonomous – Have to solve tasks without human intervention Self-sufficient – They have to be able to sustain themselves over extended period of time Embodied – must be realized as a physical system capable of acting in the real world Situated – The whole interaction with the environment must be controlled by the agent itself
29 chung Fundamental Components of Autonomous Robots A brain (or brains) A brain (or brains) Body: physical chassis that holds other pieces Body: physical chassis that holds other pieces Actuators: allows to move. Motors, hydraulic pistons, lamps, etc Actuators: allows to move. Motors, hydraulic pistons, lamps, etc Sensors Sensors Power source Power source Communication
31 chung Steering Mechanisms: Pivoting, Turning, and Walking Pivoting: see next slide Turning Todays Cars are excellent example of turning steering Tricycles use a front wheel drive system Bicycles use a rear wheel drive system Walking: Very difficult to realize… Four+ legged Biped
32 chung Pivoting Also known as Zero-turn radius steering Independent left and right wheels Examples: Bulldozers and Tanks Two driving wheels and a rear idle wheel E.g.) Lego Roverbot