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© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Preview Nervous System Neurons Brain Endocrine System Damage, Plasticity, and Repair Genetics and Behavior Biological Foundations and Health and Wellness
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Nervous System Neuroscience…study of the body’s electrochemical communication circuitry Characteristics of the nervous system complexity integration adaptability (plasticity) electrochemical transmission
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Nervous System: Pathways Afferent Nerves carry information spinal cord and brain Efferent Nerves carry information muscles
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Nervous System: Divisions Central Nervous System (CNS) brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) somatic nervous system – sensory nerves muscular activity autonomic nervous system – internal organs sympathetic nervous system – arouses parasympathetic nervous system – calms
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Nervous System: Divisions
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Nervous System - Cells Neurons information processing about 100 billion in brain mirror neurons (in primates) Glial Cells provide support and nutrition
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurons: Structure cell body dendrites axon myelin sheath
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurons: Structure
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neural Impulse Axons ions/ion channel negatively/positively charged semipermeable membrane polarization Resting Potential stable charge of an inactive neuron
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neural Impulse Action Potential depolarization (ion channel opens) repolarization ion exchange sweeps along length of axon all-or-none principle once initiated, cannot be stopped
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Synapses and Neurotransmitters Synapse/Synaptic Gap space between sending axon’s terminal buttons and the receiving dendrite or cell body Synaptic Transmission electrical impulse is converted into a chemical signal axon vesicle releases neurotransmitter into gap dendrite receptor site detects neurotransmitter
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Synapses and Neurotransmitters
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters carry information across the synaptic gap to next neuron. Acetylcholine muscle actions, learning, memory black widow venom ↑ Ach levels botox (botulin) ↓ Ach levels Alzheimer’s disease: ↓ Ach levels GABA anxiety: ↓ GABA levels
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurotransmitters Glutamate excitatory learning & memory involved in many psychological disorders Norepinephrine stress and mania: ↑ norepinephrine levels depression: ↓ norepinephrine levels regulates sleep states in conjunction with ACh
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurotransmitters Dopamine voluntary movement reward anticipation stimulant drugs: activate dopamine receptors Parkinson’s disease: ↓ dopamine levels schizophrenia: ↑ dopamine levels
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurotransmitters Serotonin regulation of sleep, mood, attention, learning depression: ↓ serotonin levels prozac: ↑ serotonin levels Endorphins natural opiates mediate feelings of pleasure and pain
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neurotransmitters Oxytocin both a hormone and a neurotransmitter related to onset of lactation in new mothers related to attachment/emotional bonds Note: Drugs can interfere with neurotransmitters mimics or enhances NT effects blocks effects of NT
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neural Networks interconnected pathways of nerve cells integrate sensory input and motor output take years to develop a given piece of information embedded in multiple connections between neurons
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Studying the Brain Brain Lesioning naturally occurring or induced Electrical Recording electroencephalograph (EEG) single-unit recording
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Brain Imaging X-Ray CT Scan PET MRI fMRI TMS
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Hindbrain Brainstem medulla – control breathing, regulate reflexes pons – sleep & arousal Cerebellum motor coordination
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Midbrain Substantia Nigra Parkinson disease Reticular Formation stereotyped behavior patterns like walking
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Brain: Structure and Function
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Forebrain Limbic System memory and emotion amygdala - discrimination of objects needed for survival - emotional awareness and expression hippocampus - formation and recall of memories Thalamus relay station for much sensory information
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Forebrain (cont’d) Basal Ganglia coordination of voluntary movements Hypothalamus eating, drinking, sexual behaviors regulate body’s internal state emotion, stress, reward
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Brain in Different Species What brain structures are similar across species? How is the brain suited to each species?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Cerebral Cortex Neocortex: outermost layer Four Lobes: occipital ( vision) temporal (hearing, language processing, memory) frontal (intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles) parietal (spatial location, attention, motor control)
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Cerebral Cortex
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Are Brains Wired to Recognize Faces? prosopagnosia fusiform face area (FFA) FFA – specifically for processing faces?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Somatosensory, Motor, and Association Cortex Somatosensoy Cortex (in parietal lobe) body sensations Motor Cortex (in frontal lobe) voluntary movements Point-to-Point Mapping Association Cortex (75% of cortex) not sensory or motor, but associations between
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Split-Brain Research x X Corpus Callosum Large bundle of axons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain W.J., the Split Brain Patient
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Hemispheres of the Cortex Hemispheric Specialization of Function left hemisphere verbal processing, speech, grammar Broca’s Area Wernicke’s Area right hemisphere spatial perception, visual recognition, emotion
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Happy Brains? Happiness: Prefrontal Lobe Asymmetry positive emotional responses more left prefrontal lobe activity negative emotional responses more right prefrontal lobe activity Biofeedback Mindfulness (Awareness) Meditation
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Endocrine System set of glands that regulate the body by secreting hormones into the bloodstream hormones = chemical messages relatively slow communication system interconnected with the nervous system pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Brain Damage and Plasticity Recovery from brain damage depends on age of the individual extent of the damage Repairing the damaged brain collateral sprouting substitution of function neurogenesis brain tissue grafts
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Genetics and Behavior chromosomes, genes, and DNA Human Genome Project dominant-recessive genes principle molecular genetics selective breeding behavior genetics and adoption studies
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Genes and the Environment Genotype – genetic heritage + the effects of experience = Phenotype – observable characteristics environment alters how genetic traits develop both physical & psychological characteristics genetic expression
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Biological Foundations and Health and Wellness stressors …circumstances and events that threaten individuals and/or tax their coping abilities stress … our response to those stressors causes/effects of acute and chronic stress
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Discuss the nature and basic function of the nervous system. Explain what neurons are and how they process information. Identify the brain’s levels and structures and summarize the function of those structures. Identify the endocrine system and describe how it affects behavior.
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Describe the brain’s capacity for recovery and repair. Explain how genetics increases understanding of behavior. Describe the role of the biological foundations of human psychology in the body’s stress response.
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary The Nervous System structure and function of the nervous systems structure of a neruon electrochemical communication neurotransmitters and their effects Brain: Structure and Function brain imaging techniques hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain cerebral lobes and functions
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Brain Damage and Plasticity collateral sprouting, substitution of function, neurogenesis, brain tissue grafts Genetics and Behavior “genes v. environment” and adoption studies Biological Foundations & Health and Wellness acute and chronic stress
IV.Neuroscience The relationship between brain and behavior.
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© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior.
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