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Preparing pre-service teachers in the field of Deafness and Multiple Disabilities to become highly qualified professionals is crucial issue within Deaf.

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Presentation on theme: "Preparing pre-service teachers in the field of Deafness and Multiple Disabilities to become highly qualified professionals is crucial issue within Deaf."— Presentation transcript:

1 Preparing pre-service teachers in the field of Deafness and Multiple Disabilities to become highly qualified professionals is crucial issue within Deaf Education. Current research shows that over one-third of the deaf and hard of hearing students in our schools have multiple disabilities. Almost two thirds of all students who have visual impairments also have at least a secondary disability. Educating professionals and parents about deafness and these disabilities is the best way to ensure optimal learning environments for all students, especially for students who are multiply disabled. This presentation is designed to provide information and resources for teachers of Deaf-Blind/Multiply Disabled Students; although parents and other professionals may also benefit from information. While the focus is to provide information about deaf- blindness, information regarding blindness and vision problems (excluding deafness or multiple disabilities) has been included for a more in-depth understanding of how visual impairments may influence students with other disabilities. Information includes legal definitions of deaf-blindness; various statistics of prevalence of blindness in the United States and among deaf and multiply disabled students; information in current practices in deaf-blind education; links to images that simulate various vision losses and their descriptions; and medical causes of deaf-blindness. The last section presents two types of Internet resources for professionals and parents. The first presents a series of links to websites that serve as resource centers and advocacy organizations for deaf-blind individuals. The second section presents a series of links to websites that provide information about specific special education and legal procedures. Descriptions of websites are provided. The information was gathered from a variety of resources; at the conclusion of the slide is a resource page outlining these resources.

2 Presentation Overview How is deaf-blindness defined in IDEA '97? How many students in the Unites States are considered Deaf- Blind? How common is blindness among Deaf or Hard of Hearing students? How common is blindness among students with multiple disabilities? How are blind students in the United States typically educated (program registration, educational placements, reading medium)? What does a blind student actually see? (View images that show the various vision losses.) What are the causes of deaf-blindness? What kinds of resources are available to teachers, parents, and other professionals who work with deaf-blind students?

3 Definitions in "Definitions Used in this Part" Section of Part 300 - Assistance for States for the Education of Children with Disabilities (300.7 (c)(2) defines Deaf- Blindness as: "..concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they [Deaf-Blind students] cannot be accommodated in special programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness." Source: http://www.ideapractices.org/law/regualtions/glossaryIndex.php http://www.ideapractices.org/law/regualtions/glossaryIndex.php

4 Presentation Overview How is deaf-blindness defined in IDEA '97? How many students in the Unites States are considered Deaf- Blind? How common is blindness among Deaf or Hard of Hearing students? How common is blindness among students with multiple disabilities? How are blind students in the United States typically educated (program registration, educational placements, reading medium)? What does a blind student actually see? (View images that show the various vision losses.) What are the causes of deaf-blindness? What kinds of resources are available to teachers, parents, and other professionals who work with deaf-blind students?

5 The National Deaf-Blind Child Count Summary (as of December 1, 1999) reports 10,198 students (ages 3 - 21) in the United States. This information was collected by Teaching Research in cooperation with state and multi-state Deaf Blind projects. Source: http://www.tr.wou.edu/ntac/census.htm

6 Presentation Overview How is deaf-blindness defined in IDEA '97? How many students in the Unites States are considered Deaf- Blind? How common is blindness among Deaf or Hard of Hearing students? How common is blindness among students with multiple disabilities? How are blind students in the United States typically educated (program registration, educational placements, reading medium)? What does a blind student actually see? (View images that show the various vision losses.) What are the causes of deaf-blindness? What kinds of resources are available to teachers, parents, and other professionals who work with deaf-blind students?

7 Prevalence of Multiple Disabilities Among Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students Gallaudet Research Institute (2001) Source: Gallaudet Research Institute (January 2002) Regional & National Summary of Data From the 2000-2001 Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children & Youth Washington, DC: GRI Gallaudet University Number of studentsPercentage of students Total Deaf Students Surveyed 43,415100 Legally Blind7042.0 Low Vision4951.4

8 Presentation Overview How is deaf-blindness defined in IDEA '97? How many students in the Unites States are considered Deaf- Blind? How common is blindness among Deaf or Hard of Hearing students? How common is blindness among students with multiple disabilities? How are blind students in the United States typically educated (program registration, educational placements, reading medium)? What does a blind student actually see? (View images that show the various vision losses.) What are the causes of deaf-blindness? What kinds of resources are available to teachers, parents, and other professionals who work with deaf-blind students?

9 The Council of Schools for the Blind Learning Outcomes Project (McManon 2002) (Data collection from 23 State Schools for the Blind) Source: http://www.lighthouse.org/educ_stats5.htmhttp://www.lighthouse.org/educ_stats5.htm (page 4) Total Blind Students Surveyed1,962 Students with Visual Impairment Only39.9% Students with Secondary Disability60.4%

10 "The incidence of blindness in children with multiple disabilities is more than two-hundred times that found in the general population; one- third of children with partial sight and two-thirds of children with blindness have other developmental disabilities." Source: Batshaw, M. Children with Disabilities., Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company: Baltimore, MD. 2002 p 188.

11 Presentation Overview How is deaf-blindness defined in IDEA '97? How many students in the Unites States are considered Deaf- Blind? How common is blindness among Deaf or Hard of Hearing students? How common is blindness among students with multiple disabilities? How are blind students in the United States typically educated (program registration, educational placements, reading medium)? What does a blind student actually see? (View images that show the various vision losses.) What are the causes of deaf-blindness? What kinds of resources are available to teachers, parents, and other professionals who work with deaf-blind students?

12 Education Placements Office of Special Education & Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) Report Source: http://www.lighthouse.org/educ_stats5.htm (page 3) http://www.lighthouse.org/educ_stats5.htm Total Blind Students Surveyed (Students aged 6 - 21 who received Vision Services during 1997-1998) 26,070 Regular Classrooms48.28 % Resource Rooms19.27 % Separate Class17.65 % Public Separate Facility3.82 % Private Separate Facility1.99 % Public Residential Facility7.33 % Private Residential Facility1.04 % Home-bound/hospital0.61 %

13 Reported Reading Mediums (1999) Source: Lighthouse International http://www.lighthouse.org/educ_stats5.htm (page 1) http://www.lighthouse.org/educ_stats5.htm Total of Blind Students Surveyed (Legally blind students registered with American Printing House for the Blind as of January 5, 1999) 57,696 Braille Readers5,55710 % Visual Readers14,57125 % Auditory Readers3,8327 % Prereaders 15,38728 % Nonreaders (do not fit into any of the above)18,34932 %

14 Presentation Overview How is deaf-blindness defined in IDEA '97? How many students in the Unites States are considered Deaf- Blind? How common is blindness among Deaf or Hard of Hearing students? How common is blindness among students with multiple disabilities? How are blind students in the United States typically educated (program registration, educational placements, reading medium)? What does a blind student actually see? (View images that show the various vision losses.) What are the causes of deaf-blindness? What kinds of resources are available to teachers, parents, and other professionals who work with deaf-blind students?

15 Lighthouse International has a series of images showing how a person sees the same picture with normal vision, cataracts, corneal pathology, muscular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, and hemianopia. Click on the link below to view images. Visiting this web site link also provides additional information about each of these disorders. Source: http://www.lighthouse.org/resources_lv_compare.htm http://www.lighthouse.org/resources_lv_compare.htm

16 Presentation Overview How is deaf-blindness defined in IDEA '97? How many students in the Unites States are considered Deaf- Blind? How common is blindness among Deaf or Hard of Hearing students? How common is blindness among students with multiple disabilities? How are blind students in the United States typically educated (program registration, educational placements, reading medium)? What does a blind student actually see? (View images that show the various vision losses.) What are the causes of deaf-blindness? What kinds of resources are available to teachers, parents, and other professionals who work with deaf-blind students?

17 Major Causes of Deaf- Blindness SyndromesTrisomy 13 Ushers Down Multiple Congenital AnomaliesCHARGE Association Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Hydrocephaly Maternal drug abuse Microcephaly Prematurely Congenital Prenatal DysfunctionAIDS Herpes Rubella Syphilis Toxoplasmosis Post-natal CausesAsphyxia Encephalitis Head injury/trauma Meningitis Stroke Source: http://www.tr.wou.edu/dblink/overview.htm Adapted from Etiologies and Characteristics of Deaf- Blindness Helen & Kennedy, (1994), p. viii, Table 1. http://www.tr.wou.edu/dblink/overview.htm

18 Presentation Overview How is deaf-blindness defined in IDEA '97? How many students in the Unites States are considered Deaf- Blind? How common is blindness among Deaf or Hard of Hearing students? How common is blindness among students with multiple disabilities? How are blind students in the United States typically educated (program registration, educational placements, reading medium)? What does a blind student actually see? (View images that show the various vision losses.) What are the causes of deaf-blindness? What kinds of resources are available to teachers, parents, and other professionals who work with deaf-blind students?

19 Resource Centers and Advocacy Organizations A Deaf- Blindness Web Resource http://www.deafblind.co.uk http://www.deafblind.co.uk Very extensive pages; topics include: terminology, web links to conferences, list of magazines and journals related to deaf- blindness, list serve providers, equipment for deaf- blindness, communication, windows, and web access for deaf-blind individuals. Disability Specific Web Sites http://www.disserv.stu.umn.edu/disability/index. html http://www.disserv.stu.umn.edu/disability/index. html Provides links to huge index of disabilities, including deaf- blindness. See/Hear Newsletter http://www.tsbvi.edu/Outreach/seehear/summer0 1/summer01.pdf http://www.tsbvi.edu/Outreach/seehear/summer0 1/summer01.pdf Link to a PDF version of the See/Hear quarterly newsletter about visual impairments and deaf- blindness for families and professionals. Topics with additional articles include: family, programming, syndromes/conditions, and news and views. NICHCY Publications http://www.nichcy.org/disabinf.asp#top http://www.nichcy.org/disabinf.asp#top Links to 14 fact sheets and 3 briefing papers on specific disabilities, includes deafness and visual impairments. American Association for the Deaf-Blind (AADB) http://www.tr.wou.edu/dblink/aadb.htm http://www.tr.wou.edu/dblink/aadb.htm Seeks to encourage independent living for individuals who are deaf-blind; provides technical assistance to persons who are deaf-blind, families, educators, and service providers.

20 …contd. Deaf-Blind Link: National Information Clearinghouse on Children Who are Deaf-Blind http://www.tr.wou.edu/dblink http://www.tr.wou.edu/dblink Through federal funding Deaf-Blind Link serves as an information and referral service that collects, develops and distributes information to help improve the education and lives of children and youth who are Deaf- Blind. Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults (HKNC) http://www.helenkeller.org/national http://www.helenkeller.org/national HKNC is a national program that provides evaluation, short-term comprehensive vocational rehabilitation training, work experience training and assistance to deaf-blind clients for job and residential placements. Deaf-Blind Child http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Meadow s/5939 http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Meadow s/5939 Provides parents of deaf-blind children with information resources and opportunities to communicate experiences and share children's profiles. Texas School for the Blind & Visually Impaired http:// www.tsbvi.edu/ http:// www.tsbvi.edu/ Collection of deaf-blindness information, topics include curriculum planning, adaptive technology, assessment, discussion rooms for families and mentor programs. American Foundation for the Blind http://www.afb.org http://www.afb.org 1) information about blindness, low vision, Helen Keller, advocacy, education employment, technology, web accessibility; 2) directory of services: finding organizations that provide services to blind individuals; 3) community: message boards, job listings, events, announcements; 4) bookstore: AFB press catalogue, subscription to journals; 5) access to online subscriptions to blindness related journals. Library of Congress National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped http://www.loc.gov/ http://www.loc.gov/ Library of Congress official web site; provides links to services for individuals with disabilities and blindness.

21 Resources Related to Special Education Law and Procedures IDEA 97 Final Regulations - Glossary of Definitions and Acronyms http://www.ideapractices.org/law/regulation s/glossaryIndex.php http://www.ideapractices.org/law/regulation s/glossaryIndex.php A detailed listing of acronyms used in the final regulations and definitions used in Part 300 (Assistance to States for the Education of Children with Disabilities, Other Definitions). IDEA Practices - Professional Development Resources http://www.ideapractices.org/resources/ind ex.php http://www.ideapractices.org/resources/ind ex.php Links to information resources for a variety of topics, including assessment and accommodations, behavior/discipline, family and community, IEPs/IFSPs and many more! Part IV Department of Education - Educating Blind & Visually Impaired Students; Policy Guidance; Notice http://www.ed.gov/legislation/FedRegister/ other/2002-2/060800a.html http://www.ed.gov/legislation/FedRegister/ other/2002-2/060800a.html Describes background information to educators about their obligations to provide blind and visually impaired students with appropriate education services in the least restrictive environment. Also provides information about procedural safeguards so parents are aware of their rights, background, in general, evaluation requirements, IEP development & content requirements instruction in Braille, assistive technology, orientation & mobility services, LRE & provision of services, procedural safeguards. NICHCY - OSEP Reviewed Materials on IDEA 97 http://www.nichcy.org/idealist.htm#definitio ns http://www.nichcy.org/idealist.htm#definitio ns List of selected published materials that have been reviewed by OSEP, a section on blind and visually impaired children, link to requirements of Part B of IDEA for blind/visually impaired students. OSEP - Regulations & Policy http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/Po licy/ A variety of links, including links to the IDEA Law, IDEA Regulations, FAQs, and other publications.

22 A Final Thought… "Alone we can do so little, together we can do so much." ~ Helen Keller

23 Resources (listed as shown in presentation) http://www.ideapractices.org/law/regualtions/glossaryIndex.php http://www.tr.wou.edu/ntac/census.htm Gallaudet Research Institute (January 2002) Regional & National Summary of Data From the 2000-2001 Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children & Youth Washington, DC: GRI Gallaudet University http://www.lighthouse.org/educ_stats5.htm (page 4)http://www.lighthouse.org/educ_stats5.htm Batshaw, M. Children with Disabilities., Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company: Baltimore, MD. 2002 p 188. http://www.lighthouse.org/educ_stats5.htmhttp://www.lighthouse.org/educ_stats5.htm (page 3) http://www.lighthouse.org/educ_stats5.htmhttp://www.lighthouse.org/educ_stats5.htm (page 1) http://www.lighthouse.org/resources_lv_compare.htm


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