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Contact: Dr. Karen Dilka Eastern Kentucky University Date submitted to deafed.net – May 29, 2007 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.
Samuel Heinicke Father of Oral Education
The Early Years Born April 10th, 1727 in Nautschutz, Germany to a wealthy farmer. Lost his inheritance 1750 he enlisted in the army in Dresden Studied with the Guards Chaplain Began to tutor children of his officers
1754 he tutored his first deaf pupil Johann Konrad Ammans Surdus Loquens (Talking Deaf) Heinicke then chose deaf education as his vocation and decided to leave the army His request for dismissal was declined due to the arise of the Seven Years War
Captured by the Prussians This was his way out of the Army Slipped through the gates of the prison disguised as a fiddler Fled to Jena and reunited with his family Afraid of being caught he fled again to Hamburg and became a tutor
First School School at Eppendorf Educating his second deaf pupil proved successful Elector Fredrick Augusts interest was captured Provided Heinicke with money for school
Electoral Saxon Institute for Mutes and Other Persons with Speech Defects Founded 1778 Annual grant from the state Student tuition Director of school for 12 years Died of stroke in 1790
Publications Three articles –1st: written language provided natural transition to speech; criticized those who began by teaching spoken language –2nd: he omitted his criticism –3rd: taught pupils to both speak and write, but emphasized speech
1775, published first textbook written on the instruction of deaf pupils 1778 Observations of the Deaf and Dumb – In my method of instructing the deaf, spoken language is the fundamental point- the hinge upon which everything turns.
Principles of Instruction Taste Learning speech, which depends on hearing, is only possible by substituting another sense for hearing, and this can be no other than taste, which serves chiefly to fix vowel sounds. A, pure water; E, wormwood (vermouth extract); I, vinegar; O, sugar water; U, olive oil
Speech machine Top to bottom method
Turning points in the education of deaf people: Edward L. Scouten/ Danville, Ill : Interstate Printers and Publishers, c1984 The conquest of deafness: Ruth E. Bender/ Danville, Ill: Interstate Printers and Publishers, c1981 Gallaudet Encyclopedia of Deaf people and Deafness: John V. Van Cleve/ Gallaudet College, McGraw-Hill Book Co, Inc. Educating the Deaf: Donald F. Moores/ Houghton Mifflin Co., c2001 References