Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Biotechnology Chapter 8

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology Chapter 8"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biotechnology Chapter 8

2 What is biotechnology? The collection of technologies that use living organisms or the products from living organisms to benefit humans and their surroundings.

3 Origins of Biotechnology
Although it seems like a new thing, biotechnology has actually been around for a while: Domesticated plants and animals are the result of selective breeding Using yeast to make bread rise Using bacteria or yeast to ferment grapes into wine 3

4 So Why Should I Care? Biotechnology affects agriculture and food safety, healthcare, law enforcement and environmental issues Career opportunities Voting on laws and policies Biotechnology could play a key part in the evidence in court cases 4

5 Traditional Biotechnology
Agriculture and Breeding Trait variation exists between a species Farmers selected the best ones and bred them Same for animals (Dogs) Food Taking one type of food and using enzymes to transform it into another (Milk to cheese) 5

6 Modern Biotechnology: 2 types
Cell Cultures Multiplication of strains of cells (vaccines) Genetic Transformations Manipulation of genetic information (Cloning) 6

7 Applications of Biotechnology: Cloning
Cloning is creating a genetically identical copy of something Single cells and DNA are fairly easy to clone, but cloning entire organisms becomes increasingly difficult Cloning uses an egg cell from one donor and DNA from a second donor implanted into a surrogate. Done to create cells for research, maintain desirable genetics, and save human and animal lives 7

8 DNA Fingerprinting DNA fingerprinting is identifying the pattern of certain sequences in parts of DNA DNA is isolated, copied, cut into pieces, and separated based on size using gel electrophoresis. Probes are then used to find specific DNA sequences. Can be used for maternity or paternity tests and in forensics to determine identity and compare unknown DNA samples to find out if a suspect is guilty or not 8

9 Genetic Transformation
Modification of a species’ genome by introducing genes from another species. GMO (Genetically Modified Organism) Living organism (plant or animal) that has had its DNA modified through genetic transformation to provide it with new traits (Corn) Cloning Movie

10 Pasteurization Used to prevent the proliferation of harmful microorganisms in food. Heating time and temperature kill most unwanted microorganisms Provides Healthier food Longer shelf life Preservation of the foods nutritional properties

11 Vaccinations To help humans become immune to disease-causing agents.
Immunity: the capacity to resist a disease to which we have been exposed by being able to fight off the infectious agent that causes the disease Video Video 2

12 Stem Cell Research

Download ppt "Biotechnology Chapter 8"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google