3 farmers at the turn of the century? What were someof the majorproblems facingfarmers at the turn of the century?
4 I. FARMER’S PLIGHT Population needs food Farmers planted more crops Problems –supply exceeds demand (prices of crops decrease).RR rates same, new machine prices rise.Farmers buy more land & equipment- prices fall even more!Take out loans, lose farms!
5 UNFAIR- everyone else makes money off of the farmers who work all day and are in debt! Merchants make money- sold farm equipmentBankers who lent $, make $ off of loans and mortgagesRXR who ship make $.There are property taxes- not really income taxes....
6 Written by a Farmer at the End of the 19c When the banker says he's broke And the merchant’s up in smoke, They forget that it's the farmer who feeds them all. It would put them to the test If the farmer took a rest; Then they'd know that it's the farmer feeds them all.
7 Price Indexes for Consumer & Farm Products: 1865-1913
8 Recap of ProblemsFalling Prices for Crops Inability to repay loans Excessive railroad prices
9 Objective: Explain what the farmers’ movement hoped to achieve and what weakened their efforts Do Now: Review Plight of Farmers
10 II. FARMER’S ORGANIZEJoined local organizations to assist them in day to day struggles. Form nationwide movementWant: Reform RR and banking practices.
11 Grange Movement- Founder Oliver Hudson Kelley National Grange- 1867Form cooperatives- groups of farmers pool their resources to buy equipment & sell goods (large amount = cheaper price). Sold products directly to big city markets.
12 Main focus- state laws regulation RR freight/grain-storage rates Main focus- state laws regulation RR freight/grain-storage rates. (Granger laws)1870- Granger Laws passed. RR companies challenge these Granger laws - Wabash V. Illinois-state gov’t had no power to regulate traffic that moved across state boundaries. (interstate). So, again, no laws protecting farmers.
13 So, the fed gov steps in -Interstate Commerce Act Federal regulation of RR and interstate commerce.Interstate Commerce Commission- (ICC) monitor RR- but little power to enforce its rulings. Courts always rule in favor of RR.
14 III. The Alliance Movement Farmers’ Alliance- (similar to Nat’l Grange) Leader Mary Elizabeth Lease.Graduated income tax. Also, wanted cooperatives, low cost insurance, tougher banks regulations, gov’t ownership of RRs.
15 United We Stand, Divided We Fall In 1889 both the Northern and Southern Alliances merged into one—the Farmers’ Alliance.
16 Objective: Discuss why farmers supported money backed by silver and how it affects the economy Read: Money hand out.
17 IV.THE MONEY QUESTIONIssue- Want expansion of money supply. Print more greenbacks (paper $)Why do they want an increase in the amount of $ in circulation?- (charge more for their products, easier to pay off bank loans, easier to get a loan).
18 Background- Greenbacks originally redeemable for either gold or silver coins. In 1873, Congress voted to stop coining silver and convert to the Gold Standard. Each dollar equal to & redeemable for set amount of gold.So amount of $ in circulation, limited by the amount of gold held in the US treasury.
19 Results of government using the gold standard - decrease amount of $ in circulation, lowering of prices, harder to get loans/pay back loans. Many farmers demanded silver.
20 So, Congress passed the Bland-Allison Act in Sherman Silver Purchase Act in 1890 to pacify the alliance- buy silver each month, coins. But bought so little silver, didn’t add to $ supply.So, farmers vote/take seats in Congress and governorships, etc. Vote for anyone that supports their cause.
21 V. A DECADE OF POPULIST POLITICS Pleased by success, want to form a political party.The Populist Party- People’s party.Called for (wanted) - graduated income tax, bank regulation, gov ownership of RR & telegraph companies, free or unlimited coinage of silver. Restrictions on immigration, shorter workday, voting reforms.
22 The Populist (Peoples’) Party James B. Weaver, Presidential Candidate Founded by James B. Weaver and Tom Watson.Omaha, NE Convention in July,Got almost 1 million popular votes.Several Congressional seats won.James B. Weaver, Presidential Candidate& James G. Field, VP
23 Omaha Platform of 1892 Direct election of Senators. Gov. ownership of RRs, telephone & telegraph companies.Gov.-operated postal savings banks.Restriction of undesirable immigration.8-hr work day for government employees.Abolition of the Pinkerton detective agency.Australian secret ballot.Re-monitization of silver.A single term for President & V.P.
25 Some Success- 1892 -elected more than 10 party members to Congress, numerous state leaders. Economic Depression- Many Causes but President Cleveland blamed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Congress repealed the law.
26 Results of Populism Recap New ideas that later became law Political forum for addressing special interests Message of hope to downtrodden
27 Objective: Evaluate the significance of the Populist in the Election of 18 96 Do Now: Recall three things the Populists wanted
28 VI. THE ELECTION OF 1896 Silver central issue. William McKinley- Ohio gov, Republican, Gold standard.Split Democratic Party- nominated free silver supporter William Jennings Bryan- Populist Party nominated him too.McKinley wins....
30 VII. THE END OF POPULISM- Why? Business leaders contributed millions to Republican campaign.People don’t switch their partiesFree silver too weak an issue for national campaignWorkers and immigrants found nothing to appeal to them.Defeat, and conditions improve anyway.Democrats take some of Populist ideas as their own.
33 William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) The “Great Commoner”
34 William Jennings Bryan Prairie avenger, mountain lion,Bryan, Bryan, Bryan, Bryan,Gigantic troubadour, speaking like a siege gun,Smashing Plymouth Rock with his boulders from the West.Revivalist style of oratory.
35 Bryant’s “Cross of Gold” Speech You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!
36 Bryan: The Farmers Friend (The Mint Ratio) 18,000 miles of campaign “whistle stops.”
37 Dem. Party Taken Over by the Agrarian Left Platform tariff reductions; income tax; stricter control of the trusts (esp. RRs); free silver.