2 Do or Die Assignment Define the term or person assigned. Terms: Find out as much information as possible. May be as simple as a short definition or it may be a little longer.People: Birth/Death, policies they created, social issues they are known for, books written, awards won, significance to South Africa/apartheidPresent your information orally to the class. You DO NOT have to create or hand in anything! (unless you are absent)You can only receive a ZERO or 100 as a TEST GRADE!!!
3 Apartheid Terms – Do or Die! African National CongressAfrikaansApartheidBantuBoer WarBoer/AfrikanerCape of Good HopeFreedom CharterJohannesburgKaffirKloofKraalKwaZulu NatalSharpesville MassacreNational Party (in South Africa)PickaninnyPretoriaSophiatownSowetoSoweto UprisingUmfundisiUmnumzanaVeldUnited Democratic FrontZuluAlan PatonAmy BiehlChinua AchebeDaniel MalanF. W. de KlerkHendrik VerwoerdMark MathabaneNadine GordimerNelson MandelaSteven Biko
4 Unusual Colonial History Colonialism usually represents a struggle between agroup of colonized resisters and a single group ofcolonizers.South African colonialism represents a struggle between two sets of colonizers:The Dutch (strictly exclusionary)The British (relatively accommodating)The Dutch and British are struggling with each other, but also struggle with the resisters:the Natives
5 Arrival of the DutchThe Dutch colonized the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 (the southernmost part of South Africa).The bulk of black people were located further inland and were quickly conquered.The Dutch colonizers saw South Africa as an African “New World” and saw themselves as white pioneer settlers and proclaimed themselves “Afrikaaners”
6 Arrival of the British The British seized the Cape colony in 1806. A century of struggleTensions escalated when British started sending settlers in 1820British settlers also saw the country as permanent home
7 The Great TrekFinally, in 1835 most of the Afrikaners headed northeast to re-establish communities on their own termsThey began battling with the black populationAfrikaners were well established by 1841, but still had tension with British
8 Comparison between British & Dutch Colonialism Dutch (Afrikaner):Concerned with establishing an egalitarian democracy amongst themselvesThought they could retain control over their policies only if they could exclude non-Afrikaners (esp. blacks) from citizenshipEstablished states in the interior through conquest, and rejected any possibility of black inclusion – their principle was “no equality in the church or state”British:Not racially inclusiveBUT open to “extending” the rights of citizenship (right to vote) to blacks that were able to acquire property and a British education.For vast majority of the black people, British were no different from Afrikaners, BUT for the tiny black elite, it made a world of difference.Anglican church wanted to recruit the colonized
9 Union of South AfricaBoer War: British defeated the Afrikaners in a war & incorporated them into a policy that became the Union of South Africa in 1910.Significant autonomy and representative institutions granted for whites and qualified blacksRacial discrimination fact of life from day one!Land Act of 1913
10 The Black EliteThe leaders dressed, talked and acted like British gentlemenThe African National Congress (ANC) was formed in 1912 by this black eliteThis resistance placed stress on the conscience of the British colonizer
11 African National Congress ANC prepared to oppose the Land Act and turned to the Crown for helpFor 30 years, the Crown did nothing to help them.
12 Afrikaner Resentment of the British Resented the economic and cultural domination of the BritishMore Afrikaners in the country but the British were better offAfrikaners largely farmersSouth Africa was now British dominion & Afrikaners did not want to fight for Britain
13 Afrikaner Resentment of the British British mine owners decided to replace largely Afrikaner white workforce with Blacks (cheap labor).Afrikaners’ status worsened as did their resentment of British and Blacks
14 National PartyAfrikaners decided to organize themselves and channel their anger through a political partyThe National Party founded in 1913 to promote Afrikaners in business & politicsFounders were moderates – wanted to cooperate with BritishThe NP also formed a more militant group: Broederbond
15 The Broederbond Protestant men only By invitation only -In theory, it existed to promote Afrikaner culture and Calvinist religion-In practice, it promoted Afrikaner supremacyParty split in 1934 – militant Daniel Malan became the leader
16 Rise of the National Party Daniel Malan was the 4th prime minister of South Africa and stood for Afrikaner supremacyMobilized popular supportNP won elections in Remained in power until the shift to multi-racial democracy n 1994.
17 The National Party Era Democracy for a few! Used public resources exclusively for advancement of AfrikanersPacked military and bureaucracy with supportersAdopted policy of Apartheid (separateness); passed laws that completed separation of the races
18 Apartheid Legislation Population Registration Act (1950) defined allpeople as one of four racial categories:Whites: people of European origin with no trace of other blood in their familiesColoreds: includes people of mixed racial origin but also descendants of Malaysian and others brought to South Africa as slavesAsians (Indians): colonial IndiaAfricans (Blacks): everyone else whose family roots were on the continent
19 Apartheid Legislation Prohibition of Mixed Marriages (1949) & Immorality Acts (1950) banned marriage and sexual relations across racial linesNative Laws Amendment Acts (1953) only Blacks who had been born there could live legally in urban areasExtension of University Education Act (1959) prohibited Africans from attending the three major universities
20 Apartheid Legislation Reservation of Separate Amenities Act (1953): separate, segregated facilitiesSuppression of Communist Act (1950): allowed state to ban people from political lifePass Laws: required Africans to carry internal passports when outside their homelandsEmployers used these laws to enforce work discipline
21 “Separate Nations” Hendrik Verwoerd became Prime Minister in 1958 In 1961, South Africa declared a republicShifted emphasis from racism to his theory of “separate nations”
22 The “Homelands”Areas of rural South Africa set aside as “homelands” for black populationSupposedly given a degree of self-gov’tThe NP argued that blacks could enjoy the vote in their homelandsHomelands were less than a tenth of South Africa’s most infertile land and had puppet gov’ts
23 The “Homelands” Divided South Africa into different states: -Blacks citizens of impoverished “homelands”-3 million sent to “homelands”-Rest of country became first world, white majority state-Forced relocation into urban areas: part of Johannesburg was flattened; 60,000 residents forced into a new slum, SowetoChief objective was to deny non-whites the fruits of white labors: commerce and industry
24 “…the white man, therefore, not only has an undoubted stake and –and a right to- the land which he developed into a modern industrial state from denuded grassland and empty valleys and mountains. But – according to all the principles of morality – it was his, is his, and must remain his.”-Hendrik Verwoerd
27 Political Opposition to Apartheid In 1940s, the ANC Youth League insisted that appeals to Crown were implausibleThey offered a change to mass demonstration and civil disobedienceThe colours of the ANC flag are black, green and gold. Black symbolises the people, green the fertility of the land, and gold the mineral wealth beneath the soil. These colours were adopted by the ANC in 1925.
28 Nelson Mandela Born in 1918 Studied at all-black Fore Hare University Expelled for participating in political demonstrationsFinished his B.A. by correspondence, earned law degree in One of first Africans to practice law in S. A.Joined ANC and helped form the Youth League in 1944
29 Politics of Mass Demonstration (1950s) ANC had support but little organizationEarlier campaigns centered around issues important to eliteHeld Defiance CampaignPolice harassment/ignored by government
30 The Congress of the People (1955) ANC held on June 25& 26, 1955Adopted the Freedom Charter, a vision for a united, non racial and democratic South AfricaCrowd at Congress of the People (1955) to adopt Charter
31 The Freedom Charter (1955) The people shall govern Equal rights for all groupsShare country’s wealthShare landEnjoy equal human rightsWork and securityEqual education and cultureHousing, security and comfortPeace and friendship
32 The Sharpeville Massacre March 21, 1960 The regime constantly harassed ANCYoung ANC leaders came to doubt that nonviolence was the answerMass demonstration turned into armed resistanceA large crowd of South Africans assembled in front of the Sharpeville police station to protest the “pass laws.” Tensions escalated: the crowd threw rocks at police and the police retaliated with gunfire. 60 protesters were killed, 180 wounded. Some were shot in the back while trying to flee
35 Politics of Armed Resistance (1960s) After the Sharpeville Massacre, te ANC built a new military wing headed by Nelson MandelaThey launched a sabatoge campaignThe regime used violence to ban the ANC and arrest its leadersNelson Mandela was arrested and spent 27 years in prison
36 White Opposition to Apartheid Small but vocal: The Progressive PartyHelen Suzman was a leader who spoke out against discriminationTried to improve conditions of political prisonersWhite opposition newspapers denounced apartheid
38 South African Students Organization Young black activists moved away from non-racial ideology towards black consciousnessSteven Biko founded SASO in 1969Philosophy was black assertiveness, unity, and reliance in trying to end the White rule“We know that all interracial groups in South Africa are relationships in which whites are superior, blacks inferior. So as a prelude whites must be made to realize that they are only human, not superior. Same with blacks. They must be made to realize that they are also human, not inferior."Steven Biko
41 Cry Freedom Film about Steven Biko’s death Based on Donald Woods’s book, Biko
42 Cry Freedom Students will be able to: understand how apartheid destroyed families and divided a nationunravel the motives behind apartheidarticulate how awareness breaks down ignorance and leads to enlightenmentshow how protest and human sacrifice are for the greater goodconnect the struggle for apartheid to the struggle for civil and human rights in other nations
43 Banning Laws A Banned Person could be/have imprisoned without trial sent to any other part of the countryfollowed and watched by police 24 hours a dayforbidden to speak in publicforbidden to travelforbidden to be in a room with more than one person at a time (excluding immediate family)forbidden to attend or join any organizationforbidden to protest or oppose any government policytheir passport taken away from themtheir home or any other premises searched without a warranttheir home electronically bugged
44 Soweto UprisingOn the morning of June 16, 1976, thousands of students Soweto gathered at their schools to participate in a student-organized protest demonstration.The cause for the march was student opposition to a decree issued by the Bantu Education Department that imposed Afrikaans as the language half the subjects in higher primary (middle school) and secondary school (high school). Since members of the ruling National Party spoke Afrikaans, black students viewed it as the "language of the oppressor." Moreover, lacking fluency in Afrikaans, African teachers and pupils experienced first-hand the negative impact of the new policy in the classroom.
45 Soweto UprisingPolicemen stopped the students and tried to turn them back. At first, the security forces tried unsuccessfully to disperse the students with tear gas and warning shots. Then policemen fired directly into the crowd of demonstrators. Many students responded by running for shelter, while others retaliated by pelting the police with stones.That day, two students died from police gunfire; hundreds more sustained injuries during the subsequent chaos that engulfed Soweto. The shootings in Soweto sparked a massive uprising that soon spread to more than 100 urban and rural areas throughout South Africa.
46 Amy BiehlIt was supposed to have been one of Amy Biehl's last days in South Africa. In only three days was scheduled to return to the United States. An idealistic Stanford graduate, Amy was completing a 10-month course of study as a Fullbright exchange scholar at the University of Western Cape Community Law Center where she had helped to develop voter registration programs for South African blacks and women as that nation's first all-race elections approached in April, Amy was scheduled to continue her promising academic career the following week as a new graduate student at Rutger's University in New Jersey. Amy never made it back to the United States alive. On August 25, 1993, while Amy was driving three black colleagues back to Cape Town's Guguletu Township, a group of youths pelted her car with stones and forced it to stop. Dozens of young men then surrounded the car repeating the militant Pan Africanist Congress chant, "One settler [white person], one bullet!" Amy was then pulled from the car, struck in the head with a brick as she tried to flee, and then beaten and stabbed in the heart while she lay on the ground. During the attack, Amy's black friends yelled that she was a "comrade" and friend of black South Africa to no avail. Amy was carried back to the car after the attack by her friends who then drove her to the nearest police station where she died. Amy was 26 years old at the time of her murder.
47 Mass Resistance in 1970sIn 1976, black school children protested against discriminatory education policies – police fire on the children.Triggers a violent conflict in Soweto – more than 600 killedSteven Biko was arrested for encouraging the protests – died in police custody on Sept. 12, 1977Journalist Donald Woods broke story about Biko’s execution. Hollywood made a movie Cry Freedom.
48 United Democratic Front 600 civil society groups came together in 1983Committed to non-racialism as a strategyResisted to the 1983 constitution that offered colored and Indian people a role in parliament but excluded Blacks
49 International Community South Africa banned from Olympic games in 1960sUnited Nations suspended South African membership in 1974U. N. imposed arms embargo in 1977 & declared apartheid a crime against humanityAmerican universities divested themselves of stocks in companies that did business in South AfricaMany American corporations pulled out of South AfricaBanks refused to roll over loansIn 1985, U. S. Congress passed a bill that outlawed further investment in South Africa
50 South African Gov’t Response Reshaped the parliament: big chamber for whites and two smaller chambers for coloreds and Indians.-white supremacy preservedBlacks (3/4 of population) got no representationIndians and coloreds understood that these institutions were shams and boycotted electionsPass laws lifted
51 South African Gov’t Response NP gov’t grew more repressiveCrime continued and grewGov’t declared state of emergencyPolitical Stalemate:-gov’t could only rule with force-Opposition too weak to overthrow gov’tLeadership of ANC and NP began secret negotiations (including with Mandela, even though he was in prison)
52 Changes had to be made…Fredrik Willem de Klerk came to power in In 1990 he “unbanned” the ANC and other anti-apartheid groupsNelson Mandela released from prison in 1990In 1991, the Land Acts and Registration Acts were abolishedNew constitution in 1993First non-racial elections held in 1994 with Nelson Mandela being elected president.
53 Under Mandela’s rule Served 5 year term Focused on social issues neglected during apartheid era: unemployment, housing shortages, crimeReintroduced South Africa to global economyCreated Truth and Reconciliation Committee (under Archbishop Desmond Tutu)Lack of Political violence under Mandela
54 Characteristics of South African Writing Plot is LEAST importantSetting, atmosphere, characterization, and theme are MOST importantVery little dialogue between charactersMost themes are social and politicalThe main purposes are to inform and persuade
55 Themes in South African Writing -Reuniting family and nation-Reconciliation between fathers and sons-Tensions between urban and rural societies-Vicious cycle of inequality and justice-Relationship between Christianity and injustice
56 South African Literature Cry the Beloved Country, by Alan Paton in 1948Chinua Achebe, Nigerian author of Things Fall ApartMark Mathabane wrote Kaffir Boy, his autobiography published in 1986Nadine Gordimer, author of “The Train from Rhodesia”, Crimes of Conscience, Berger’s Daughter, various short stories
57 Demographics and Natural Resources South Africa TodayDemographics and Natural ResourcesEthnic groups as of 200979.3% Black 9.1% White 9.0% Coloured 2.6% Asian11 official languages listed in the Constitution25% unemploymentAgriculture - products:corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy productsIndustries:mining (world's largest producer of platinum, diamonds, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, commercial ship repair
65 Apartheid Terms Apartheid Afrikaans Bantu Boer Boer War Cape of Good HopeCurse of HamSowetoJohannesburgKaffirAfrican National CongressNational Party (in South Africa)Sharpeville MassacreUnited Democratic FrontFreedom CharterAmy BiehlDaniel MalanNelson MandelaF. W. de KlerkSteven BikoNadine GordimerMark MathabaneAlan PatonHendrik VerwoerdPopulation Registration ActGroup Areas ActInflux Control LawsBantu Authorities ActPass LawsBantu Homelands Citizenship ActMixed Marriages ActImmorality ActBantu Education Act
66 For People For Places Date of birth/death Place of birth Education, if anyIf an activist:BeliefsWhat they stood forWhat they accomplishedAwards, if anyIf an author:Most famous writingsThemesWhen/how discovered?Population: racial make-up, # of peopleBrief history of the areaWhat is the area known for?