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Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems www.rubicode.net Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems (RUBICODE)

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Presentation on theme: "Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems www.rubicode.net Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems (RUBICODE)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems (RUBICODE) Research Overview For further information contact Paula Harrison ( Funded under the European Commission Sixth Framework Programme Contract Number:

2 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems RUBICODE research themes 1.Frameworks and concepts for the assessment of ecosystem services in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. 2.Approaches for linking ecosystem service provision to functional traits. 3.Socio-economic and environmental drivers of biodiversity change. 4.Indicators for monitoring ecosystem services. 5.Strategies for conserving and managing biodiversity and the services it provides that take account of drivers of biodiversity change. 6.Identification of current gaps in knowledge and future research needs.

3 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Importance of ecosystem services ServiceKey contributionSome contributionNo contributionPoorly known Provisioning services: Food, fibre, fuel/energy A, F, G, M, S,WH Fresh water F, M, WG, HA(-), S Regulatory services: Pollination A, F, G, HM, SWA, F, M Pest regulation A, SG, MH, WF, M, W Water purification S, WF, G, H, MA(-)A, M Cultural services: Recreation/ecotourism A, F, G, H, M, WS Religious values A, F, M, SWG, H Supporting services: Provision of habitat A, F, G, H, M, S, W Key: A: Agro-ecosystems; F: Forests; G: Grasslands; H: Heathlands; M: Mountains; S: Soil ecosystems; W: Freshwater ecosystems. Harrison et al. (in press) Biodiversity & Conservation

4 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Status of ecosystem services Harrison et al. (in press) Biodiversity & Conservation Status of selected ecosystem services in rivers and lakes in 2 time periods

5 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Service-providing unit (SPU) The collection of organisms and their characteristics necessary to deliver a given ecosystem service at the level required by service beneficiaries. Need to know: The sections of society that need/use the service (Ecosystem Service Beneficiaries - ESBs). The level at which it is required. The organisms that provide the service (Ecosystem Service Providers – ESPs). The characteristics of these organisms required to provide the service at the desired level (SPU). Luck et al. (2009) Bioscience, 59:

6 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems { Quantify the ecosystem service demand: determine the net level of demand/need for the service Quantify the service-providing unit (SPU): determine the characteristics of organisms necessary for service provision quantify the relationships between SPUs and service supply quantify the components of biodiversity that support the SPU Identify and value potential alternatives for providing the service Evaluate options: compare valuations and examine trade-offs determine implications for biodiversity conservation determine implications for policy and sustainable livelihoods Define the ecosystem service: identify the ecosystem service beneficiaries identify the spatio-temporal scale of service delivery identify the ecosystem service providers (ESPs) 1. IDENTIFICATION 2. QUANTIFICATION { Value the service as provided by the SPU 3. APPRAISAL {

7 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Seed dispersal in an urban park ctmsu.sytes.net Need: Cultural, recreational and biodiversity value of park (15M visits/year). Eurasian Jay primary facilitator of acorn germination (85% of the oaks in the NUP are estimated to result from natural regeneration by the jay). Quantification (SPU): A minimum of 12 pairs of Eurasian Jay present each year for 14 years. Valuation: Estimate replacement cost of seed dispersal service = 16,880 /pair. Hougner et al. (2006) Ecol. Econ. 59,

8 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Buffering nutrient and sediment pollution of rivers ctmsu.sytes.net SPU = riparian plant community (different trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses). But: the service rate depends on the number of constituent zones density and width of buffer Need: Riparian vegetation regulates the flow of nutrients and sediment from uplands to the stream. No practical alternatives. grass strip filters sediment particles and assimilates phosphorus wider zone of riparian woody vegetation assimilates nitrate from the groundwater multi-zone riparian buffers are most effective!

9 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Drivers e.g. Economy Demography Society Technology (exogenous) Pressures e.g. Climate change Land use change Air pollution (endogenous) States Ecosystem service beneficiaries (ESB) Supporting system Ecosystem service providers (ESP) Impact on service provision Responses Policy, strategic decisions and management strategies Baseline/Futures Service Providing Units (SPUs) Valuation of services and alternatives Trade-offs Mitigation Social-Ecological System Adaptation Rounsevell et al. (in press) Biodiversity & Conservation

10 Drivers Macroeconomics, EU regulations/policies Global climate change Consumer trends Technology (exogenous) Pressures Land cover changes Local climate, Local air, water, soil pollution Alien species, Increases/decreases in visitors (endogenous) Responses Protection policies Seeding/planting regimes Provision of cultural & aesthetic services States Oaks & Coniferous forest (Supporting) Jays (ESP) The Stockholm Urban Park (Socio-ecological system) Urban Population (ESB) SPU threshold (12 breeding pairs) Valuation of alternatives Storylines Adaptation (application/ implementation) Scenarios Trade-offs Planting or seeding by humans = 16,800 /jay pair Mitigation policy

11 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems A functional approach to biodiversity A tool to reduce complexity Trait: a measurable character of an organism that has demonstrable links to the organisms function Groups species or populations with a similar RESPONSE to environmental change and/or similar EFFECTS on ecosystem function as a result of shared characters = traits Traits may be morphological, ecophysiological, demographic, biochemical, behavioural…

12 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Linking traits to ecosystem services De Bello et al. (in press) Ecosystems

13 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Pressure Response Traits Trophic Effect Traits Trophic Response Traits Functional Effect Traits Ecosystem service TROPHIC LEVEL 1 TROPHIC LEVEL 2 Environmental / management pressure Pressure Response Traits Lavorel et al. (in review) Functional Ecology

14 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Indicators of ecosystem services Nutrient cycling: 78% Water retention: 36% Fresh water: 81% Feld et al. (2009) Oikos

15 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Indicators of ecosystem services

16 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Static site-based PAs & networks Species/habitat protection Conservation policy and management strategy Human aesthetic, cultural and moral values Framework for integrating ecosystem services into conservation (part 1)

17 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Societal needs Conservation within socio-ecological systems Management for sustainable ecosystem services Ecosystem sustainability and integrity Ecosystem service provision Sectoral policy and management Static site-based PAs & networks Species/habitat protection Conservation policy and management strategy Human aesthetic, cultural and moral values ES & conservation framework (part 2) Haslett et al. (in press) Biodiversity & Conservation

18 Rationalising Biodiversity Conservation in Dynamic Ecosystems Thank you from the RUBICODE team!


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