Formative Feedback in the Classroom x y 8 MPa 4 MPa 7 MPa 1. 4 MPa 2. –4 MPa 3. 7 MPa 4. – 7 MPa yx equals: yx equals: classroom communication system
In-Class Feedback: Polling PRS 1 Lecture Class Discussion PRS 2 Class Discussion PRS 2 Repeat
System with Undiagnosed Feedback
Improvement on sign-subscript question on final exam
Why make Assignments with Diagnostics and Feedback? "Individuals acquire a skill much more rapidly if they receive feedback about the correctness of what they have done. If incorrect, they need to know the nature of their mistake... the feedback they [currently] receive is often neither timely nor informative." Pellegrino, J., Chundowsky, N, Glaser, R., NRC Report: Knowing What Students Know: the Science and Design of Educational Assessment, 2001.
Benefits of Online Assignments Benefits to Students Benefits to Students immediate feedback, immediate grade, reviewable immediate feedback, immediate grade, reviewable Benefits to Teaching Assistants Benefits to Teaching Assistants focus changes from grading to helping student focus changes from grading to helping student Benefits to the Instructor Benefits to the Instructor target difficult concepts, monitor class performance, reuse & share target difficult concepts, monitor class performance, reuse & share Benefits to School Benefits to School permanent records - ABET permanent records - ABET
Features of Online Assignments Target difficult concepts Identify specific errors or misconceptions; Provide feedback, explaining why the result is incorrect (can be progressive); Adaptive Assignments: Direct student to follow- up exercises that specifically addresses their error or misconception. Automatic Grading Motivate students to learn the correct approach by: Penalizing them for incorrect responses Limiting the number of attempts per question Encouraging students to seek help from the instructor or TA after repeatedly missing a question. Formative Assessment
yes General Diagnostic Design Problem & Questions Resources Submit Answers correct? Finished Show Grade no yes Diagnostic Feedback (Progressive) yes new prob? diag- nosed? Undiagnosed Feedback (Progressive) no last try? no yes
Example: Multiple Choice
3 Example: Stress & Strength of Materials
Maximal Tensile Force
Repeat Original Question 2
Maximum tensile stress: Percent Correct
Max compressive stress: Percent Correct
Summary Online assignments provide immediate formative feedback to students. Online assignments provide immediate formative feedback to students. Diagnosed incorrect responses are more likely to be followed by the correct response than undiagnosed responses. Diagnosed incorrect responses are more likely to be followed by the correct response than undiagnosed responses. Undiagnosed feedback (just knowing the response is incorrect) is still beneficial, particularly before the final attempt. Undiagnosed feedback (just knowing the response is incorrect) is still beneficial, particularly before the final attempt.