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The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas.

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Presentation on theme: "The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas."— Presentation transcript:

1 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Towards a Science of Broadening Participation Patricia Rankin University of Colorado, Boulder

2 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Goals Want to have fun and learn more about how to use elluminate Want you to have fun also! – Feel free to ask questions (use raise hand) – Feel free to try out tools (use chat to ask how if need be) This is an experiment…. Want CIRTLCast to evolve to the most useful format – Audience driven – how can you best take advantage of this opportunity – How can I help meet your learning goals?

3 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Overview Introducing the problem and why it matters – Quick tests – Stages of Development – US Data - Physics Interesting, relevant, research and concepts – Teams – Unintended consequences/Leadership/Schema – UPGEM Open Discussion

4 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Quick Response Needed What problems (if any) can you identify with the following statements? – There will be a separate program for the wives of conference attendees – Its really great to finally have a woman scientist on this committee – Why didnt you complain about what X said – wasnt it offensive to you?

5 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Stages of Awareness Absence of women not noticed, not seen as a problem Increased participation of women actively opposed/women accepted if adopt male style Increased participation of women seen as desirable Increased participation of women encouraged Presence of women not noticed

6 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison US Data - % doctorates awarded to women EngineeringLife SciencesPhysical Sciences

7 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison US Data - % Women on Physics Faculties Full356 Associate Assistant171617

8 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison US Data - % Women on Physics Faculties PhD6710 Masters91316 Bachelor PhD institutions (12%) have five or more women (including CU, UW)

9 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Effective Teams Draw on Difference Studies of how teams operate show that having members from a diverse range of backgrounds – Can increase discussion time but that that discussion often works to the teams advantage in revealing problems – Increases the likelihood of valuable innovations by broadening perspectives and approaches – Maximizes the quantity and quality of work

10 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Unintended Consequences Many well meaning interventions have failed to be fully effective How would you solve the following ? – Women may be underprepared for graduate courses in STEM if come from a liberal arts background – Women are paid less because they typically do not negotiate their starting salaries

11 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Poor Preparation A solution was to offer remedial classes Stereotype Threat – Can alter performance of students by telling them how well you expect them to do – Can measure physiological effects on White engineering students if tell them exam biased in favor of Asian students – Makes a difference on average score if ask for gender information at the start or end of a Physics exam

12 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Negotiation A solution was to train women to negotiate Catalyst Study (http://www.catalyst.org)http://www.catalyst.org – The Double-Bind Dilemma for women in Leadership - Dammed if you do, doomed if you dont Women in leadership roles who act as men do not get the same responses Women may not negotiate because they expect a negative response

13 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Leadership Issues List three people who you think exemplify good leadership What style of leadership works best for solving problems in science and engineering?

14 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Discussion? Do you want to discuss what makes a good science and engineering leader?

15 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Polling Question 1 How many people on the list you made exemplify the style best suited to science and engineering? a=0, b=1,c=2,d=3

16 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Polling Question 2 How many women are on your list? a=0, b=1,c=2,d=3

17 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Accumulated Disadvantage Leaders are expected to be charismatic, strong, decisive, assertive.. – We tend to associate these abilities with men – The more feminine a woman is the less likely she will be seen also as a leader – The more a woman is seen as a leader the more likely she will also be seen as deviant…. Women can be penalized for acting too like men (expected to be more polite, spend more time on niceties….) Women face a labyrinth of accumulated disadvantages – It is possible to navigate – Ongoing work to make it easier

18 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Men are from Mars? Until recently studies of the behaviors of men and women rarely had the chance to compare like to like – Men in group much more likely to be in a leadership role than women Differences in behavior attributed to gender just as likely to be positional – More recent studies are showing that when women in a leadership role are compared to men that they show similar traits Analysis of over thirty studies showed no gendered differences in empathy

19 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison What Might Be Affecting Judgments Valian argues that there exist a set of implicit hypotheses about the differences between the sexes which shape the conceptions of men and women – gender schema – Wants to avoid phrase gender stereotypes – Held by both men and women

20 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Gender Schema When we are looking at a population we understand that anything we use to characterize individuals has an associated distribution However, when we are considering an individual we tend to assume that they are described in terms of the means of these distributions

21 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison As an example College students were given a sample of photographs of men and women and asked to guess their heights in feet and inches. – Pictures always contained a reference item (eg a desk or chair) to help in estimate. – Sample set up (unknown to students) to match every man in sample with a woman of same height. – Male and female students estimated the average height of the sample of women to be less than that of the sample of men. Biernat,Manis and Nelson, 1991

22 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Unintended Consequences Have not generally applied research standards to interventions – Evidence based interventions – Assessment of effectiveness Could we do a better job of anticipating problems in advance? What are broader issues/lessons here?

23 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Insanity: Doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results - Einstein Basic Principle

24 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison UPGEM Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map – Partly a result of Wenneras and Wold study of acceptance rates for postdoctoral fellowships – Also demographic trends – Break the Pattern – workplace cultures – Draw the Line – conference proceedings

25 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison UPGEM Study – EU % Women (2006 data) CountryAssociate ProfProfessor Denmark103 US146 Finland129 Estonia1110 Poland1413 Italy3323

26 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison UPGEM Questions Generally former communist countries have more women in physics – why is Estonia low cf Italy? What is the impact of class? Can class over-rule gender? Catholicism/Protestantism – effect on respect for women as mothers? Are children a problem? How does cultural diversity impact career path?

27 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Research Workplace Cultures The Hercules Culture – physicist fighter – Individual seeks personal recognition such as Nobel The Caretaker Culture – social physicist – Members engaged in and care about social context of workplace The Worker Bee Culture – diligent physicist – Researchers work for distant leader

28 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison HerculesCaretakersWorker Bees Work RelationPhysics is the only thing Physics is everything but must be socially acceptable Physics is not everything in their life Workplace IdentityFocus is on egoFocus is on groupFocus is on task and family/friends Competition1-on-1 fights using all means available Group versus GroupUninterested in competition Power RelationsAnti-authoritarian with hidden power games Group requires young members to work their way up Formal Hierarchy GenderUsed as negative element in competition Acceptance in relation to group and not used negatively in competition Not used negatively in competition

29 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Physics in Culture Primary relation between scientific culture and national culture: – Hercules culture is most pronounced in Denmark. – Caretaker culture is most pronounced in Italy. – Worker Bee culture is pronounced in Estonia and Poland. – The Finnish data do not suggest a domination of either but a mix of the three Influences Pull factors that draw people in and Push factors that drive people out

30 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison General Push factors creating leavers Competition - open and hidden (the latter bordering on harassment) Poor reconciliation of family and work life Demands of mobility Loneliness, lack of feedback Problems of time management (long hours at work

31 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Women especially affected by Perception of womens career as inseparable from children & family responsibility Sexual harassment / need to downplay femininity Lack of female role models and little identification with the (male) stereotypes in natural science

32 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison UPGEM Recommendations Scientific Culture – Look for ways to combine best aspects of all workplace cultures Leadership – Change selection to value professional and social skills – More women needed – Training as part of university accreditation

33 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Selection Mechanisms – Transparency – Bias awareness training – Assertion courses Workplace environment – Make harassment a group issue not an individual one Time Management – Make a group responsibility

34 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Family Life – Grants for people who go abroad – Day Care – Balance Parental leave between mothers and fathers Science and Society – Scientists need to understand role of and in society – Challenge male stereotypes of nerd/geek…

35 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Discussion topics What is on your mind? What topics should be explored in more depth?

36 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Swedish Postdoctoral Study A key paper is Nepotism and Sexism in Peer-Review Nature Vol 387, 22 May 1997, Christine Wenneras and Agnes Wold – Used Swedens Freedom of Press Act to get the data on 114 postdoctoral applications in male applicants, 52 women (46%) 16 men got awards, 4 women did – Applications read by one of 11 committees, each application reviewed by 5 people and scored from 0-4 on scientific competence, relevance of proposal, quality of proposal, methodology. Scores then multiplied together (0-64) and averaged over the reviewers to produce a ranking and 1-3 names submitted to a final committee

37 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Total Impact Points Regression Analysis showed major factor in getting an award was the competence rating and men received higher competence ratings Wonneras and Wold found a model that did a good job of predicting the competence rating for the men – Looked at number of publications weighted by quality of journals they published in and the number of citations

38 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison A Level Playing Field? The model did not fit the women applicants A women needed at least 100 impact points to be rated the same as a man with 40 impact points So – women dont just have to be twice as good….

39 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison No glass ceiling but playing field is sloped Psychologists presented with a CV from real-life scientists more likely to hire the candidate with a male name (Steinpres et al, 1999) Success more likely to be attributed to luck for women and skill for men (Deux and Emswiller, 1974) Blind auditions for orchestra members increase the likelihood by 50% that a woman will be hired (Goldin and Rouse, 2000) Evaluators under stress give women lower ratings than men for same written evaluations of performance (Martell, 1991) Women are judged more fairly when they exceed 30% of applicant pool (Sackett et al, 1991)

40 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Implicit Bias? (Larry Summers should have known better….) 50 yrs ago a Harvard psychologist, Gordon Allport, discussed tendency of people to categorize and base expectations on probabilities – A man wearing an expensive suit has money Mahzarin Banaji, of Harvard argues that dont need antipathy towards a particular group to harbor implicit prejudices that can alter behavior. – Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures ease of making associations

41 The CIRTL Network CU-Boulder : Howard : Michigan State : Texas A&M : Vanderbilt : UW-Madison Debate IAT shows that people are quicker to make the association of science and male nouns and liberal arts and female nouns than the reverse Some debate over what the test is measuring – Could it be measuring awareness of inequities? – Meta-analysis of data however does correlate test performance with behaviors


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