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By Veronica H. EHAP The History of Modern European Psychology.

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1 By Veronica H. EHAP The History of Modern European Psychology

2 How did European Psychologists affect life in Europe from the 19th Century to the 20th Century?

3 Origin of Psychology Psychology began in EuropePsychology began in Europe Progressed through many different thinkers with different ideas and schools of thoughtProgressed through many different thinkers with different ideas and schools of thought This succession was affected by Europes history as well as Europes culture being affected by psychologyThis succession was affected by Europes history as well as Europes culture being affected by psychology

4 Charles Darwin (1809-1892) British naturalistBritish naturalist Co-originator of the theory of evolutionCo-originator of the theory of evolution Extremely influential in the development of psychologyExtremely influential in the development of psychology Influenced much of European culture and mind-set Social DarwinismInfluenced much of European culture and mind-set Social Darwinism Wrote Origins of Species in 1859Wrote Origins of Species in 1859

5 Darwins Research and Discoveries Darwin took a five year journey to investigate life on Islands, especially the Galapagos IslandsDarwin took a five year journey to investigate life on Islands, especially the Galapagos Islands –He collected organisms and fossils –Came up with the theory of evolution –Discovered that existing species were all related through decedents with modification natural selection

6 Darwins Impact on European Society Darwins idea of the Survival of the fittest affected many European livesDarwins idea of the Survival of the fittest affected many European lives –It changed the attitude of many people, making them much more competitive and ruthless –This change in attitude is shown through Realpolitique ruling, for example Queen Elizabeth I of England –The idea behind Manifest Destiny is also inspired by Darwin

7 Quotes by Elizabeth I A strength to harm is perilous in the hand of an ambitious head. There is nothing about which I am more anxious than my country, and for its sake I am willing to die ten deaths, if that be possible.

8 Paul Pierre Broca (1824-1880) Born in Sainte- Foy-La-Grande, FranceBorn in Sainte- Foy-La-Grande, France Went to medical school in ParisWent to medical school in Paris Was a professor of surgical pathology at the University of ParisWas a professor of surgical pathology at the University of Paris

9 Brocas Early Works Studied:Studied: –The history of cartilage and bone –Cancer pathology –Treatment of aneurysms –Infant mortality Made important contributions to the understanding of the limbic systemMade important contributions to the understanding of the limbic system

10 Brocas Research and Discovery Researched the location of the production of speech research of the lateralization of brain functionsResearched the location of the production of speech research of the lateralization of brain functions Discovered the speech production center of the brain, located in the frontal lobesDiscovered the speech production center of the brain, located in the frontal lobes Region now known as Brocas areaRegion now known as Brocas area

11 Location of Brocas area

12 Method to Brocas Research He studied many aphasic patientHe studied many aphasic patient –Most famous patient: Nicknamed Tan Nicknamed Tan 1861 through post-mortem autopsy determined that he had a lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere of his brain 1861 through post-mortem autopsy determined that he had a lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere of his brain The lesion covered the area which controlled the speech production The lesion covered the area which controlled the speech production

13 Brain Studied by Broca Brain of patient with motor aphasia

14 Realization from Brocas Work Speech production frontal lobes left hemisphere of the brain brocas area

15 Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Born in a small German village called NekarauBorn in a small German village called Nekarau Known as the Father of PsychologyKnown as the Father of Psychology First man to be called solely a psychologist, without another name given to himFirst man to be called solely a psychologist, without another name given to him

16 Wundts Research 1879 Wundt established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig1879 Wundt established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig He concentrated on psychological researchHe concentrated on psychological research –mostly studying human sensory Wundt used a systematic methodological approachWundt used a systematic methodological approach His research was a milestone in establishing psychology as a scienceHis research was a milestone in establishing psychology as a science

17 Wundts Works Wrote Principles of Physiological Psychology in 1874Wrote Principles of Physiological Psychology in 1874 Created the structuralism which is the structure of conscious experiencesCreated the structuralism which is the structure of conscious experiences His chief method of examination was called introspectionHis chief method of examination was called introspection –Which is just observation of sensations

18 Edward B. Titchener (1867-1927) Titchener was a student of Wilhelm WundtTitchener was a student of Wilhelm Wundt Put his own spin on Wundt's psychology of consciousnessPut his own spin on Wundt's psychology of consciousness He attempted to classify the structures of the mind like other scientists wouldHe attempted to classify the structures of the mind like other scientists would

19 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Born in Freiberg, Moravia in the Czech RepublicBorn in Freiberg, Moravia in the Czech Republic Moved to Vienna, Austria when he was four years oldMoved to Vienna, Austria when he was four years old He graduated from the medical school at the University of Vienna in 1881He graduated from the medical school at the University of Vienna in 1881 Decided to specialize in neurologyDecided to specialize in neurology

20 Freuds impact on European Society Revolutionized ideas of how the human mind worksRevolutionized ideas of how the human mind works Established the theory that the unconscious motives control much of human behaviorEstablished the theory that the unconscious motives control much of human behavior Advanced fields of psychiatry and psychologyAdvanced fields of psychiatry and psychology

21 Freuds Impact on European Art Movement Freuds theories influenced surrealismFreuds theories influenced surrealism –Freud preformed psychoanalysis which was like the concept of many paintings Exploring the inner depths of the unconscious mind Exploring the inner depths of the unconscious mind Freuds ideas also were used by many authors and artists as subject matter Freuds ideas also were used by many authors and artists as subject matter

22 Freuds Works Freud went to Paris in 1885 to study Jean Martin Charcot, a famous neurologistFreud went to Paris in 1885 to study Jean Martin Charcot, a famous neurologist Freud then returned to Vienna in 1886 and started to work extensively on hysterical patientsFreud then returned to Vienna in 1886 and started to work extensively on hysterical patients Freud wrote many important and highly influential pieces, some being:Freud wrote many important and highly influential pieces, some being: –The interpretation of Dreams in 1900 –The Ego and the Id in 1923 –Civilization and Its Discontents in 1930

23 Freuds Theories Freud observed many patients on how they behaved according to their unconscious drives and experiencesFreud observed many patients on how they behaved according to their unconscious drives and experiences Concluded that the unconscious plays a large role in shaping someones behaviorConcluded that the unconscious plays a large role in shaping someones behavior Thought that people used what he called defense mechanismsThought that people used what he called defense mechanisms

24 Freuds Form of Therapy Psychoanalysis is a technique of therapyPsychoanalysis is a technique of therapy –An analysis to explain the connections between the patients unconscious mind and their mental processes Free association- basic method of transference of informationFree association- basic method of transference of information The patient, lays down and says whatever comes to mindThe patient, lays down and says whatever comes to mind Catharsis- the sudden release of emotionCatharsis- the sudden release of emotion

25 Couch used for Psychoanalysis Freuds famous couch in his London clinic

26 Freuds Division of the Brain Freud believed that the brain was divided into three different partsFreud believed that the brain was divided into three different parts –The Id –The Ego –The Superego Thought everyone was born with certain natural drives which he called instinctsThought everyone was born with certain natural drives which he called instincts

27 The Id The Id is located in the nervous systemThe Id is located in the nervous system It is the part of the brain that controls the instinctsIt is the part of the brain that controls the instincts –For example controls the desire for sexual pleasure It translates the persons needs into motivational forces, instinctsIt translates the persons needs into motivational forces, instincts The transformationThe transformation –need wish called the primary process The Id works to satisfy the pleasure principleThe Id works to satisfy the pleasure principle

28 The Ego This part of the brain tries to resolve the conflicts between someone's instincts and their external realityThis part of the brain tries to resolve the conflicts between someone's instincts and their external reality –An example is that it determines the socially acceptable method to get what someone wants The problem solving activity performed is called the secondary processThe problem solving activity performed is called the secondary process It functions on the reality principleIt functions on the reality principle

29 The Superego This section of the brain is the persons conscienceThis section of the brain is the persons conscience It controls the moral thoughts, such as what is right and wrongIt controls the moral thoughts, such as what is right and wrong Two parts of the Superego:Two parts of the Superego: –Conscience: an internalization of punishments and warnings –Ego ideal: driven by rewards

30 Freuds Sexual Stages of Development Freud said that the sex drive is the most important motivating forceFreud said that the sex drive is the most important motivating force He created a psychosexual stage theory with stages starting from infancy until adulthoodHe created a psychosexual stage theory with stages starting from infancy until adulthood Stages:Stages: –Oral Stage –Anal stage –Phallic Stage –Latency Stage –Genital Stage

31 The Oral Stage Lasts from birth to about eighteen monthsLasts from birth to about eighteen months The focus is of pleasure from the mouthThe focus is of pleasure from the mouth –An example is infants sucking and biting

32 The Anal Stage Lasts from about eighteen months to three or four years oldLasts from about eighteen months to three or four years old The focus is now on the anusThe focus is now on the anus –Children have a fixation with going to the bathroom –Same time as when children are potty trained

33 The Phallic Stage Lasts from three or four years old to around seven years oldLasts from three or four years old to around seven years old The focus of pleasure is now on the genitaliaThe focus of pleasure is now on the genitalia

34 The Latent Stage This period could last from any age as young as five years old to pubertyThis period could last from any age as young as five years old to puberty Sexual urges are suppressedSexual urges are suppressed

35 The Genital Stage This stage begins at puberty and lasts throughout an adults lifeThis stage begins at puberty and lasts throughout an adults life It represents the resurgence of the sex drive in adolescencesIt represents the resurgence of the sex drive in adolescences Focuses mostly on pleasure from sexual intercourseFocuses mostly on pleasure from sexual intercourse

36 Conclusions of Freuds Psychosexual Stages Freud believed that everyone goes through these stagesFreud believed that everyone goes through these stages He believed if the normal pattern of psychosexual development was interrupted they would be stuck in an earlier, more immature stage, contribute to mental illnesses in adulthood theory is known as Theory of Psychosexual DevelopmentHe believed if the normal pattern of psychosexual development was interrupted they would be stuck in an earlier, more immature stage, contribute to mental illnesses in adulthood theory is known as Theory of Psychosexual Development

37 Freuds Defense Mechanisms Freuds interpretations of how people cope with stresses in their livesFreuds interpretations of how people cope with stresses in their lives Eleven most common defense mechanisms:Eleven most common defense mechanisms: –Denial: blocking external events from awareness –Repression: not being able to recall a threatening situation, person, or event –Isolation: involves stripping the emotion from a difficult memory or threatening impulse –Displacement: the redirection of an impulse onto a substitute target –Projection: see your own unacceptable behaviors in other people

38 Defense Mechanisms (cont.) –Reaction Formation: changing an unacceptable impulse into its opposite –Undoing: gestures or rituals which are meant to cancel out unpleasant thoughts –Introjections/ Identification: copying someone else because you think it is better than yourself –Regression: movement back in psychological time when someone is faced with stress –Rationalization: cognitively distorting the facts to make an event or impulse less threatening to the person –Sublimation: transforming an unacceptable impulse to a productive product

39 From The Interpretation of Dreams, 1900 The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind. -- Sigmund Freud -- Sigmund Freud

40 A letter by Freud A letter written from Freud to Wilhelm Fliess, a Berlin physicianA letter written from Freud to Wilhelm Fliess, a Berlin physician These letters make a record of Freud's self analysisThese letters make a record of Freud's self analysis They document the process through which he arrived at some of his most persuasive and controversial ideasThey document the process through which he arrived at some of his most persuasive and controversial ideas In this particular letter, that he wrote after his father died, he describes himself as being torn up by the rootsIn this particular letter, that he wrote after his father died, he describes himself as being torn up by the roots

41 Depictions from Interpretation of Dreams An illustration in The Interpretation of Dreams.An illustration in The Interpretation of Dreams. It is depicting a French nurses dream, in order to help herIt is depicting a French nurses dream, in order to help her

42 Carl Gustav Jung (1875- 1961) He was born in Kesswil, SwitzerlandHe was born in Kesswil, Switzerland Was the first president of the International Psychoanalytic AssociationWas the first president of the International Psychoanalytic Association Founder of analytical psychologyFounder of analytical psychology Successor of Sigmund FreudSuccessor of Sigmund Freud

43 Jungs Works He broke with Freud in 1912, when he published Psychology of the UnconsciousHe broke with Freud in 1912, when he published Psychology of the Unconscious –It focused on the two dimensions of the unconscious The personal part, encompasses the repressed or forgotten content of an individual's mental and material life The personal part, encompasses the repressed or forgotten content of an individual's mental and material life The collective unconscious, which Jung referred to as the acts and mental patterns shared either by members of a culture or universally by all human beings The collective unconscious, which Jung referred to as the acts and mental patterns shared either by members of a culture or universally by all human beings He also wrote In Psychological Types in 1921He also wrote In Psychological Types in 1921

44 Alfred Adler (1870-1937) He was born in Vienna, AustriaHe was born in Vienna, Austria He grew up in Vienna and became ill with pneumonia as a childHe grew up in Vienna and became ill with pneumonia as a child He followed through with his decision and received his M.D. degree in1895 he at the University of ViennaHe followed through with his decision and received his M.D. degree in1895 he at the University of Vienna Founder of individual psychologyFounder of individual psychology Rejected Freudian theoriesRejected Freudian theories

45 Adlers Achievements In 1898, he wrote his first book which his main beliefs of his school of thought were basedIn 1898, he wrote his first book which his main beliefs of his school of thought were based –Focusing on the necessity of looking at man as a whole, reacting to his/her environment In 1912 Adler published, The Neurotic ConstitutionIn 1912 Adler published, The Neurotic Constitution His next book was Understanding Human Nature in 1927His next book was Understanding Human Nature in 1927

46 Adlers Spread of Help His efforts were halted by World War IHis efforts were halted by World War I He served as a doctor with the Austrian ArmyHe served as a doctor with the Austrian Army Adler founded several child guidance clinics in ViennaAdler founded several child guidance clinics in Vienna Adlers help in Vienna stimulated the development of similar clinics in other countries throughout EuropeAdlers help in Vienna stimulated the development of similar clinics in other countries throughout Europe

47 Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Born in Neuchatel, SwitzerlandBorn in Neuchatel, Switzerland He studied natural sciences at the University of Neuchatel and received his PhDHe studied natural sciences at the University of Neuchatel and received his PhD He went to Zurich for a semester and became interested in psychoanalysisHe went to Zurich for a semester and became interested in psychoanalysis

48 Piaget Theories He was interested in the nature of thought itselfHe was interested in the nature of thought itself He called his work: Genetic EpistemologyHe called his work: Genetic Epistemology –the study of the development of knowledge

49 Piagets Terms from his Studies Schema- certain skills learned to deal with ones environmentSchema- certain skills learned to deal with ones environment Assimilation- the act of copying a behavior learned from an old schema and repeating it on a new objectAssimilation- the act of copying a behavior learned from an old schema and repeating it on a new object Accommodation- accommodating an old schema to a new objectAccommodation- accommodating an old schema to a new object Adaptation- broad term for learning how to do many thingsAdaptation- broad term for learning how to do many things

50 Piagets Cognitive Stages Sensorimotor stageSensorimotor stage –From birth to two years old Preoperational stagePreoperational stage –From two years old to seven years old Concrete stageConcrete stage –From seven years old to eleven years old Formal stageFormal stage –Over eleven years old

51 Sensorimotor stage Infant uses senses and motor abilities to understand the worldInfant uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world Between one and four months the child works on their primacy circular reactions:Between one and four months the child works on their primacy circular reactions: –An action serves as a stimulus which makes the infant repeat the same action Ex. Sucks their thumb, enjoys it so repeats Ex. Sucks their thumb, enjoys it so repeats Between four and twelve months uses secondary circular reactions:Between four and twelve months uses secondary circular reactions: –Involves an action that has an outcome that makes the infant want to repeat Ex. Squeeze a rubber ducky, it quacks, so squeezes again because they want to hear the quack again Ex. Squeeze a rubber ducky, it quacks, so squeezes again because they want to hear the quack again

52 Preoperational Stage Now the child has mental representations and is able to pretendNow the child has mental representations and is able to pretend Now thinks in images and symbolsNow thinks in images and symbols Can not make logical sentences but can use symbols and other things to communicateCan not make logical sentences but can use symbols and other things to communicate –Ex. Creative play use the checker pieces as cookies

53 Concrete stage Children understand logical principals that apply to concrete external objectsChildren understand logical principals that apply to concrete external objects Know that certain properties of an object remain the same even when the appearance may changeKnow that certain properties of an object remain the same even when the appearance may change –Conservation: the quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance Appreciate perspectives from another point of view, not just their ownAppreciate perspectives from another point of view, not just their own

54 Concrete stage (cont.) Child learns classification and seriation:Child learns classification and seriation: –Classification: refers to whether a child can group things under one category –Seriation: is the process of putting things in order

55 Formal Stage Involves logical operations in abstract way, called hypothetical thinkingInvolves logical operations in abstract way, called hypothetical thinking Learn to group possibilities in four different ways:Learn to group possibilities in four different ways: –Conjunction: two things together make a difference –Disjunction: one or the other thing affects the outcome –Implication: the formation of a hypothesis, if something happens then that will cause something else to happen –Incompatibility: the elimination of a hypothesis, if something happens then something else will not happen as a result

56 The End


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