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Jackie Robinson & the Civil Rights Movement

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1 Jackie Robinson & the Civil Rights Movement
Ryan L. & Jared B Horace Greeley High School

2 Did Jackie Robinson Have More of an Effect on Civil Rights as an Athlete or as a Political Activist?

3 Jackie’s Youth Born: January 31, 1919 Cairo Georgia
Jerry Robinson (Father) was making $12 a month as a sharecropper Jack Roosevelt Robinson was the fifth child in the Robinson family When he was born his parents had to find a way to make more money Jerry Robinson asked his boss, Jim Sasser, for more money Sasser allowed Jerry to work as a half-cropper. Half-cropping- receiving half the crops to sell in market

4 Jerry Robinson Disappears
When Jackie was 16 months old, his father said he was going to Memphis is search for a job Jerry Robinson never returned Mallie (Mother) moved the family to Pasadena Cal. where her brother in law, Uncle Burton, lived. Pepper Street "Tour of the Sierra Vista Local Line." 7 June 2007 <http://www.uncanny.net/~wetzel/sopasadena1926.JPG>.

5 “Even before I went to high school and college I resolve not to take insults without retaliating. Growing up in Pasadena, I encountered many situations which I considered unjust. I remember going to the YMCA and being told that Negroes were allowed to use the facilities of the Y only on a certain day of the week…” - Jackie Robinson Breaking through the Big League

6 Pepper Street There were restrictive rules that banned black people from Pepper Street. Mallie got a light skinned black man to act like he was buying their house at 121 Pepper Street. White residents petitioned and threatened to burn the house down. Though the threats were there for all blacks, the Robinson’s remained in Pasadena

7 Pepper Street Gang Jackie began to dislike school and became known as a troublemaker Joined Pepper Street Gang Group of poor white and minority boys Challenged wealthy white boys in sports for money “I joined a gang. We didn’t go around mugging people or having deadly street fights or snatching pocketbooks, but we did get into a lot of mischief and trouble with the police” Jackie Robinson School teacher influences Jackie to be a good kid and leave the gang “Jack… you know in your own heart that you don’t belong in a gang…” Works Cited Aaron, Henry. "Jackie Robinson." Time. 1 June 2007 <www.time.com/time/time100/heroes/profile/robinson01.html>. "Branch Rickey and Jackie Robinson Precursors of the Civil Rights Movement." Worldandi.Com. 7 June 2007 <www.worldandi.com/.../2003/march/mtpub.asp>. "Breaking the Color Line, and Jackie Robinson." The Library of Congress. 30 May 2007 <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/robinson/jr1940.html>. "By Popular Demand: Jackie Robinosn and Other Baseball Highlights." Collection Connections. 29 May 2007 <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/collections/jr/file.html>. "By Popular Demand: Jackie Robinson and Other Baseball Highlights, 1860s-1960s." The Library of Congress. 29 May 2007 <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/collections/jr/history.html>. "Cleveland Browns Stadium/ Formerly the Cleveland Municipal Stadium." African American Heritage Trail. 6 June 2007 <www.aaheritagetrail.com/toursite_05.html>. "Congressional Gold Medal Recipient Jackie Robinson." 1 June 2007 <"Remembering Dr. King." 2 June >. "Congressional Gold Medal Recipient Jackie Robinson." 1 June 2007 <http://www.congressionalgoldmedal.com/JackieRobinsonBio.htm>. Dunn, Herb. Jackie Robinson. "Dwight D. Eisenhower Library." The National Archives. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/images/telegram-1957.jpg>. "Dwight D. Eisenhower Library." The National Archives. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/letter-1958.html>. "Jackie Robinson." AfricanAmericans.Com. 1 June 2007 <www.africanamericans.com/JackieRobinson.htm>. "Jackie Robinson Day." MLB. 5 June 2007 <mlb.mlb.com/mlb/events/jrd/index.jsp?year=05>. "Jackie Robinson." Did You Know? 2 June 2007 <scoop.diamondgalleries.com/scoop_article.asp?...>. Jackie Robinson and American Culture. 28 May 2007 <http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/hist490/integration/JRCulture.htm>. "Jackie Robinson's Hall of Fame Plaque." National Baseball Hall of Fame. 2 June 2007 <http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/hofers_and_honorees/plaques/images/Robinson_Jackie.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/hofers_and_honorees/plaques/Robinson_Jackie.htm&h=488&w=340&sz=66&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=Vhi-aCmrinNIqM:&tbnh=130&tbnw=91&prev=/images%3Fq%3DJackie%2BRobinson%2Bhall%2Bof%2Bfame%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den>. "Jackie Robinson Los Angelas Dodgers." Los Angelas Dodgers. 31 May 2007 <www.losangelasdodgersonline.com/jackierobinson.php>. "Jackie Robinson." National Baseball Hall of Fame. 1 June 2007 <http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/>. "Jackie Robinson, Political Life After Baseball." 3 June 2007 <http://www.framinghamdems.org/JackRob.html>. "Jackie Robinson Stadium." UCLA Bruins. 5 June 2007 <Uclabruins.cstv.com>. "Jackie Robinson Stealing Home: May 15, 1952." Ask Meta Filter. 4 June 2007 <ask.metafilter.com/22898/stealing-home>. "Jackie Robinson Time Line." MLB. 2 June 2007 <mlb.mlb.com/.../timeline_1.jsp>. "Jackie Robinson with Martin Luther King Jr." The Baseball Hall of Fame. 2 June 2007 <www.baseballhalloffame.org/education/experience>. "Jackie Robinson with Teammates Spider Jorgensen, Pee Wee Reese, and Eddie Stanky." The Baseball Hall of Fame. 4 June 2007 <www.baseballhalloffame.org/education/experience>. "Jackie Scores Winning Run." San Francisco State University. 1 June 2007 <http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/hist490/integration/Robinson/1947CourierAM.jpg>. "John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library." The National Archives. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/letter-1961.html>. Johnson, Woodrow B. "Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball." San Francisco State University. 30 May 2007 <http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/hist490/integration/Robinson/didyouseeAM.htm>. "Labor and Civil Rights: Two Movements, One Goal?" THE GEORGE MEANY MEMORIAL ARCHIVES. 4 June 2007 "Lyndon Baines Johnson Library." The National. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/letter-1967.html>. "Lyndon Baines Johnson Library." The National Archives. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/telegram-1965.html>. "Mack Robinson." Pasadena City College. 5 June 2007 <http://www.pasadena.edu/about/history/afro-american_history/images/mack.jpg>. "Malcolm X." UC Irvine Libraries. 4 June 2007 <http://course.lib.uci.edu/ed/spirit/focusnew/TeacherDevelopment/images/Malcolm%20X.jpg>. "Media Photographs." The Online News Hour. 4 June 2007 <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/aboutus/photos.html>. "National Archives and Records Administration." The National Archiver. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/letter-1972.html>. "Negro League History 101." Negro League Baseball. 2 June 2007 <http://www.negroleaguebaseball.com/history101.html>. "Negro Writer Hails Jackie." Sporting News. 31 May 2007 <"President Harry Truman Wipes Out Military Segregation." 2 June 2007 <www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/educate/truman.html>. "Quotes by Jackie Robinson." The Official Site of Jackie Robinson. 31 May 2007 <www.jackierobinson.com/about/quotes.html>. "Remembering Dr. King." 2 June 2007 <dwacon.blogspot.com/search/label/African-American>. "Robinson Accepts Dodgers Contract." MLBlogs. 2 June 2007 <bestblog.mlblogs.com/.../hot_stove/index.html>. Robinson, Jackie, and Alfred Duckett. Breakthrough to the Big League. New Yorl: Harper and Row, 1965. Robinson, Jackie, and Alfred Duckett. I Never Had It Made. New York: G.P. Putnam_Sons, 1972. Schwartz, Larry. "Jackie Changed Face of Sports." ESPN. 31 May 2007 <espn.go.com/sportscentury/features/ html>. Spink, J.g. Taylor. "Jackie Replys to Open Letter From Publisher Spinks." Sporting News. 31 May 2007 <www.sportingnews.com/archives/jackie/art5.html>. "Sports and Civil Rights Highlights." UMass. 3 June 2007 <www.umass.edu/pubaffs/jackie/time_bas.html>. Sports Artifacts. 6 June 2007 <http://www.sportsartifacts.com/pub50jackie.JPG>. "Sunday April 15, 2007." See You in June 2007 <seeyouin1984.blogspot.com/2007_04_01_archive.html>. "Teaching with Documents: Beyond the Playing Field- Jackie Robinson, Civil Rights Advocate." The National Archives. 2 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/index.html>. "The Foundations Mission." The Jackie Robinson Foundation. 6 June 2007 <www.jackierobinson.org>. "The Trends of Military Policy." 30 May 2007 <www.army.mil/.../AMH-V2/AMH%20V2/chapter7.htm>. "Timeline: the Black Press and the Integration of Baseball." 4 June 2007 <http://www.cubanxgiants.com/jrobinson/>. "Tour of the Sierra Vista Local Line." 7 June 2007 <http://www.uncanny.net/~wetzel/sopasadena1926.JPG>. "Welcome to Shodowball: the Story of the Negro Leagues." ThinkQuest. 1 June 2007 <library.thinkquest.org/3427/>.

8 Muir Technical High School
Jackie always enjoyed playing little league in Cali. and was very good Four sport athletic star Football Basketball Track Baseball "Branch Rickey and Jackie Robinson Precursors of the Civil Rights Movement." Worldandi.Com. 7 June 2007 <www.worldandi.com/.../2003/march/mtpub.asp>.

9 Pasadena Junior College
1937: Entered Pasadena Junior College Won league baseball championship Junior college football championship Set junior college broad jump record 25’ 6.5”

10 UCLA Jackie had trouble in school, but ended up going to UCLA
He played football, baseball, track and field, and basketball. 1939: enters UCLA on athletic scholarship First student to earn 4 varsity letters in one year National champion in long jump Highest scorer in the pacific coast conference in basketball All-American football running back until his eligibility expired Performed better in track, basketball, and football than in baseball

11 After UCLA 1941: Joined an intergraded semi-pro football league
Honolulu Bears He played a game at Pearl Harbor and left 2 days before the Japanese attacked 1942: Drafted to the Army Stationed at fort Riley in Kansas "Congressional Gold Medal Recipient Jackie Robinson." 1 June 2007 <http://www.congressionalgoldmedal.com/JackieRobinsonBio.htm>.

12 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin
Older brother, Mack, went to the 1936 Olympic games in Berlin as part of the US track team 200-meter dash Silver Medal Hitler congratulated all the medalists, but when the black US athletes got up on the podium, Hitler left the stadium. This made a strong statement Jackie was so proud of his brother “Jackie dreamed that someday he too might use his athletic ability to accomplish something so wonderful and powerful.” -Herb Dunn "Mack Robinson." Pasadena City College. 5 June 2007 <http://www.pasadena.edu/about/history/afro-american_history/images/mack.jpg>.

13 As a Professional Athlete

14 The Negro Leagues Established on February 13, 1920
Kansas City, Missouri YMCA President: Andrew Foster “Father of black baseball” By 1923 there were two leagues NNL had teams in the South and Midwest ECL had teams on the East coast 1924: First Negro World Series 1945: Robinson released from the Army and joined the Negro Baseball league

15 Kansas City Monarchs Negro League Team in the NNL
Robinson made $400 a month Jackie played 47 games (1 season): 163 at bats 5 home runs .387 batting average 13 stolen bases The Library of Congress. 29 May 2007 <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/collections/jr/history.html>.

16 The Major Leagues Branch Rickey: President of the Brooklyn Dodgers
Wanted to bring the ideal black player into the MLB August 28,1945: Jackie Robinson was interviewed by Branch Rickey Jackie showed that he had the character along with his baseball talent Rickey wanted a player who was strong enough not to fight back October 23,1945: Signs with Montreal Royals, a Dodgers farm team "By Popular Demand: Jackie Robinson and Other Baseball Highlights, 1860s-1960s." The Library of Congress. 29 May 2007 <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/collections/jr/history.html>. “I cannot face my God much longer knowing that his black creatures are held separate and distinct from his white creatures in the game that has given me all that I can call my own” -Branch Rickey

17 "Robinson Accepts Dodgers Contract." MLBlogs. 2 June 2007 <bestblog.mlblogs.com/.../hot_stove/index.html>. Robinson is seen with Branch Rickey signing a contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers farm team.

18 Breaking the Color Barrier
"Jackie Robinson." AfricanAmericans.Com. 1 June 2007 <www.africanamericans.com/JackieRobinson.htm>. April 1947: Major League debut as Dodgers first baseman wearing #42

19 Being Bigger Than Life Received racial threats from white fans and players Fans threw trash on him Opposing pitchers hit him purposely while players spiked him with their cleats Teammates petitioned to get Jackie off the Dodgers Players expected him to carry their bags and shine their shoes Robinson family received many death threats Had to obey segregation laws Rode in back of team bus Had to enter restaurants through black entrances while rest of team went through the front

20 Threats Target Robinson
"Timeline: the Black Press and the Integration of Baseball." 4 June 2007 <http://www.cubanxgiants.com/jrobinson/>.

21 Spring Training with the Dodgers
Spring 1947: Jackie goes to Cuba with the rest of the Brooklyn Dodgers Several Dodger players signed a petition refusing to play This petition was quickly put down by Branch Rickey who threatened to fire all protesting players.

22 Becoming an Idol Jackie excelled for the Dodgers
Never started any fights or said anything about all the abuse he received Blacks saw Jackie as a hero Eventually, even whites began to see Jackie as a heroic figure Became a symbol in American society "Jackie Scores Winning Run." San Francisco State University. 1 June 2007 <http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/hist490/integration/Robinson/1947CourierAM.jpg>.

23 Respect from his Teammates
"Jackie Robinson with Teammates Spider Jorgensen, Pee Wee Reese, and Eddie Stanky." The Baseball Hall of Fame. 4 June 2007 <www.baseballhalloffame.org/education/experience>. I started the season as a lonely man, often feeling like a black Don Quixote tilting at a lot of white windmills. I ended it feeling like a member of a solid team Jackie Robinson

24 Jackie’s Popularity Rises
The Library of Congress. 29 May 2007 <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/collections/jr/history.html>. Life Magazine 1951

25 Gaining Respect from Whites
Jackie Robinson and American Culture. 28 May 2007 <http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/hist490/integration/JRCulture.htm>.

26 Jackie Gains Respect Sports Artifacts. 6 June 2007 <http://www.sportsartifacts.com/pub50jackie.JPG>.

27 Jackie Steals Home in World Series
"Jackie Robinson Stealing Home: May 15, 1952." Ask Meta Filter. 4 June 2007 <ask.metafilter.com/22898/stealing-home>.

28 Black Arts Jackie Robinson’s popularity and success in Baseball started to become a major influence in black music, art, and the press!

29 Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball
Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball ? (Words and music by Woodrow Buddy Johnson, June 1949) Did you see Jackie Robinson hit that ball? It went zoom in cross the left field wall. Yeah boy, yes, yes. Jackie hit that ball. And when he swung his bat, the crowd went wild, because he knocked that ball a solid mile. Yeah boy, yes, yes. Jackie hit that ball. Satchel Page [i.e., Paige] is mellow, So is Campanella, Newcombe and Doby, too. But it's a natural fact, when Jackie comes to bat, the other team is through. Did you see Jackie Robinson hit that ball? Did he hit it boy, and that ain't all. He stole home. Yes, yes, Jackie's real gone Johnson, Woodrow B. "Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball." San Francisco State University. 30 May 2007 <http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/hist490/integration/Robinson/didyouseeAM.htm>.

30 Career Statistics Batting Average: .311 Hits: 1518 Homeruns: 137
First Game: April 15, 1947 Final Game: September 30, 1956 1947: National League rookie of the year 1949: National League MVP 6 time All-Star

31 The Hall of Fame 1962: Inducted into Hall of Fame
Inducted on first ballot 124 votes out of 160 ballots (77.5%) "Congressional Gold Medal Recipient Jackie Robinson." 1 June 2007 <"Remembering Dr. King." 2 June >. "Jackie Robinson's Hall of Fame Plaque." National Baseball Hall of Fame. 2 June 2007 <http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/hofers_and_honorees/plaques/images/Robinson_Jackie.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/hofers_and_honorees/plaques/Robinson_Jackie.htm&h=488&w=340&sz=66&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=Vhi-aCmrinNIqM:&tbnh=130&tbnw=91&prev=/images%3Fq%3DJackie%2BRobinson%2Bhall%2Bof%2Bfame%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den>.

32 New Hopes for Black People
Jackie Robinsons success in the major leagues: Proved that blacks could succeed in America Democracy became more meaningful to blacks Increased respect for blacks

33 As a Political Activist

34 “A life is not important except in the impact it has on other lives.”
-Jackie Robinson "Remembering Dr. King." 2 June 2007 <dwacon.blogspot.com/search/label/African-American>. Martin Luther King Jr. and Jackie Robinson before a press conference in NYC

35 Jackie’s Idols Malcolm X Martin Luther King Jr. "Malcolm X." UC Irvine Libraries. 4 June 2007 <http://course.lib.uci.edu/ed/spirit/focusnew/TeacherDevelopment/images/Malcolm%20X.jpg>. "Remembering Dr. King." 2 June 2007 <dwacon.blogspot.com/search/label/African-American>. Though Jackie had similar views and looked up to these two civil rights leaders, he did not agree with their actions. Jackie went about fighting civil rights differently

36 Standing up for Black Rights
July 1944: While in the army, Jackie refuses an order to ride in the back of the bus Fort Hood, Texas Robinson was court marshaled NAACP, black press, and black population were furious Robinson was found innocent, and was released from the army

37 President Truman July 26, 1948: President Truman desegregates the Army
Executive order 9981 4 years after Jackie’s protest "President Harry Truman Wipes Out Military Segregation." 2 June 2007 <www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/educate/truman.html "The Trends of Military Policy." 30 May 2007 <www.army.mil/.../AMH-V2/AMH%20V2/chapter7.htm>.

38 For the Good of the People
Jackie Robinson Construction Company Built low income housing for the poor and underprivileged “Afternoon of Jazz” Annual Concerts in which first year earnings went to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference Supported Civil Rights work and voter registration in the South Freedom National Bank Founded as well as worked as chairman It was a minority-owned bank in Harlem, N.Y.

39 Civil Rights in Baseball
1972: Jackie Criticizes baseball for having no black manager Two years later baseball has its first black manager 1974: Frank Robinson with the Cleveland Indians "Cleveland Browns Stadium/ Formerly the Cleveland Municipal Stadium." African American Heritage Trail. 6 June 2007 <www.aaheritagetrail.com/toursite_05.html>.

40 Letter to the White House
"Dwight D. Eisenhower Library." The National Archives. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/images/telegram-1957.jpg>. August 1957: Letter to Presidential Assistant Fred Morrow

41 Letter to President Eisenhower
1954: Supreme Court said that all states must integrate schools (Brown v. Board of Education) Eisenhower ordered federal troops to protect black students in Little Rock Arkansas Jackie was elated with Eisenhower’s actions But thought they were too late Robinson’s letter said that he was thankful for their support and reminded them that all black citizens deserve full federal support for all civil rights under the constitution "Dwight D. Eisenhower Library." The National Archives. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/letter-1958.html>. Notice that the letters are written on Chock Full of Nuts legislation. This is because Jackie went into the company and worked his way up to become an executive.

42 Integrated Schooling Youth march for integrated schools
Included popular figures such as Martin Luther King Jr., Ralph Bunche, A Phillip Randolph, Roy Wilkins, and Jackie Marched down Constitutional avenue to the Lincoln memorial Asked all people to sign a petition and asked for speedy integration of schools "Labor and Civil Rights: Two Movements, One Goal?" THE GEORGE MEANY MEMORIAL ARCHIVES. 4 June 2007 <http://www.nlc.edu/archives/lcr1h.html>.

43 Politics -Jackie Robinson
I guess you'd call me an independent, since I've never identified myself with one party or another in politics. . . I always decide my vote by taking as careful a look as I can at the actual candidates and issues themselves, no matter what the party label. -Jackie Robinson

44 Robinson on the Campaign Trail
Nelson Rockefeller’s Presidential (Republican) Campaign Robinson was a national director for Rockefeller’s campaign When Rockefeller elected N.Y. governor, Robinson became special assistant for community affairs Hubert Humphrey’s Presidential (Democratic) Campaign Robinson helped campaign for Humphrey in presidential primary

45 Nixon v. Kennedy 1960 election: Robinson supported Nixon over Kennedy
In private meetings with Robinson: Nixon seemed friendly, charming, a good leader, and a big supporter of African American Civil rights Kennedy did not seem as supportive and had trouble looking Robinson in the eyes. Jackie wondered if this had to do with a prejudice against him and other blacks.

46 Changing Opinion: Robinson and Kennedy
Robinson no longer feared that Kennedy didn’t support black people and began believing that Kennedy was a good leader This was after the election of John F. Kennedy Robinson also began to believe that Kennedy was a better candidate than Nixon was Nixon refused to campaign in Harlem while Kennedy did When Henry Cabot Lodge (Nixon running-mate) claimed that there will be a black member in the Nixon cabinet, Nixon responded that Lodge was speaking for himself, not the both of them. Kennedy spoke publicly about his objection to the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. This helped assure Robinson that Kennedy was not a racist and would be a supporter of black civil rights "Media Photographs." The Online News Hour. 4 June 2007 <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/aboutus/photos.html>.

47 Letter to President Kennedy
1961 Signified his growing trust in president Kennedy Robinson stated that he is happy in the way Kennedy's administration is going thus far However Jackie wanted Kennedy and his administration to help at a quicker pace. "John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library." The National Archives. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/letter-1961.html>.

48 Letter to President Johnson : 1967
Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leaders opposed the Vietnam war Jackie wrote letter to let President Johnson know that he had the support of many black Americans regarding the war Wanted Johnson to remember and support black Americans "Lyndon Baines Johnson Library." The National. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/letter-1967.html>.

49 To President Lyndon B. Johnson
"Lyndon Baines Johnson Library." The National Archives. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/telegram-1965.html>. Robinson, as well as many other Americans, were angry about protestors that were being clubbed in Selma Alabama. This resulted in several deaths and a lot of injuries Robinsons letter urged him to stop this immediately

50 Letter to President Nixon’s Assistant: 1972
To Roland L. Elliot (Presidential Assistant) Expresses concern about blacks still not obtaining full rights Jackie warns Government to show more support towards blacks Thinks blacks will become more aggressive and this could hurt America "National Archives and Records Administration." The National Archiver. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/letter-1972.html>.

51 Jackie’s Legacy

52 The Jackie Robinson Foundation
Created in 1973 by Rachel Robinson Gives minority youth scholarships to attend college Jackie Robinson Scholars Each scholar is also given: $7,200 in financial support Mentors summer internships and permanent jobs 266 Scholars attending 93 colleges across the United States "The Foundations Mission." The Jackie Robinson Foundation. 6 June 2007 <www.jackierobinson.org>.

53 Jackie Robinson Field Home of UCLA baseball
27 seasons since the field was made A private gift from Hoyt Pardee, an old classmate of Jackie Robinson UCLA ’41 "Jackie Robinson Stadium." UCLA Bruins. 5 June 2007 <Uclabruins.cstv.com>.

54 The Jackie Robinson Award
Rookie of the Year Award 1987: became known as The Jackie Robinson Award "Jackie Robinson." Did You Know? 2 June 2007 <scoop.diamondgalleries.com/scoop_article.asp?...>.

55 60th Anniversary April 15, 2007 Over 200 players wore #42 in honor of Jackie Robinson Every member of the Dodgers wore #42 "Sunday April 15, 2007." See You in June 2007 <seeyouin1984.blogspot.com/2007_04_01_archive.html>. "Jackie Robinson Day." MLB. 5 June 2007 <mlb.mlb.com/mlb/events/jrd/index.jsp?year=05>.

56 To Be Considered Although Jackie Robinson was more active and affective as a political activist, would he have been as successful if he was not a superior athlete?

57 The right of every American to first-class citizenship is the most important issue of our time.
-- Jackie Robinson

58 The End Works Cited Aaron, Henry. "Jackie Robinson." Time. 1 June 2007 <www.time.com/time/time100/heroes/profile/robinson01.html>. "Branch Rickey and Jackie Robinson Precursors of the Civil Rights Movement." Worldandi.Com. 7 June 2007 <www.worldandi.com/.../2003/march/mtpub.asp>. "Breaking the Color Line, and Jackie Robinson." The Library of Congress. 30 May 2007 <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/robinson/jr1940.html>. "By Popular Demand: Jackie Robinosn and Other Baseball Highlights." Collection Connections. 29 May 2007 <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/collections/jr/file.html>. "By Popular Demand: Jackie Robinson and Other Baseball Highlights, 1860s-1960s." The Library of Congress. 29 May 2007 <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/collections/jr/history.html>. "Cleveland Browns Stadium/ Formerly the Cleveland Municipal Stadium." African American Heritage Trail. 6 June 2007 <www.aaheritagetrail.com/toursite_05.html>. "Congressional Gold Medal Recipient Jackie Robinson." 1 June 2007 <"Remembering Dr. King." 2 June >. "Congressional Gold Medal Recipient Jackie Robinson." 1 June 2007 <http://www.congressionalgoldmedal.com/JackieRobinsonBio.htm>. Dunn, Herb. Jackie Robinson. "Dwight D. Eisenhower Library." The National Archives. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/images/telegram-1957.jpg>. "Dwight D. Eisenhower Library." The National Archives. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/letter-1958.html>. "Jackie Robinson." AfricanAmericans.Com. 1 June 2007 <www.africanamericans.com/JackieRobinson.htm>. "Jackie Robinson Day." MLB. 5 June 2007 <mlb.mlb.com/mlb/events/jrd/index.jsp?year=05>. "Jackie Robinson." Did You Know? 2 June 2007 <scoop.diamondgalleries.com/scoop_article.asp?...>. Jackie Robinson and American Culture. 28 May 2007 <http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/hist490/integration/JRCulture.htm>. "Jackie Robinson's Hall of Fame Plaque." National Baseball Hall of Fame. 2 June 2007 <http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/hofers_and_honorees/plaques/images/Robinson_Jackie.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/hofers_and_honorees/plaques/Robinson_Jackie.htm&h=488&w=340&sz=66&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=Vhi-aCmrinNIqM:&tbnh=130&tbnw=91&prev=/images%3Fq%3DJackie%2BRobinson%2Bhall%2Bof%2Bfame%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den>. "Jackie Robinson Los Angelas Dodgers." Los Angelas Dodgers. 31 May 2007 <www.losangelasdodgersonline.com/jackierobinson.php>. "Jackie Robinson." National Baseball Hall of Fame. 1 June 2007 <http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/>. "Jackie Robinson, Political Life After Baseball." 3 June 2007 <http://www.framinghamdems.org/JackRob.html>. "Jackie Robinson Stadium." UCLA Bruins. 5 June 2007 <Uclabruins.cstv.com>. "Jackie Robinson Stealing Home: May 15, 1952." Ask Meta Filter. 4 June 2007 <ask.metafilter.com/22898/stealing-home>. "Jackie Robinson Time Line." MLB. 2 June 2007 <mlb.mlb.com/.../timeline_1.jsp>. "Jackie Robinson with Martin Luther King Jr." The Baseball Hall of Fame. 2 June 2007 <www.baseballhalloffame.org/education/experience>. "Jackie Robinson with Teammates Spider Jorgensen, Pee Wee Reese, and Eddie Stanky." The Baseball Hall of Fame. 4 June 2007 <www.baseballhalloffame.org/education/experience>. "Jackie Scores Winning Run." San Francisco State University. 1 June 2007 <http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/hist490/integration/Robinson/1947CourierAM.jpg>. "John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library." The National Archives. 3 June 2007 <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/letter-1961.html>. Johnson, Woodrow B. "Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball." San Francisco State University. 30 May 2007 <http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/hist490/integration/Robinson/didyouseeAM.htm>. "Labor and Civil Rights: Two Movements, One Goal?" THE GEORGE MEANY MEMORIAL ARCHIVES. 4 June 2007 "Lyndon Baines Johnson Library." 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