Presentation on theme: "Building Resilience to Social Vulnerability A SIDS Perspective."— Presentation transcript:
Building Resilience to Social Vulnerability A SIDS Perspective
Objectives of presentation Build consensus on theoretical underpinnings of social vulnerability Examine linkages between economic, social and environmental vulnerability Review status of work on social vulnerability Agree on actions that can help build resilience to social vulnerability.
Theoretical underpinnings Vulnerability refers to proneness to damage from external forces; Economic vulnerability refers to risks faced from exogenous shocks to systems of production, distribution and consumption; Environmental Vulnerability refers to risk of damage to natural eco-systems
Social Vulnerability Social vulnerability reflects “…the degree to which societies or socio-economic groups are affected by stresses and hazards, whether brought about by external forces or intrinsic factors – internal and external – that negatively impacts the social cohesion of a country” (UNDP 2000).
Theoretical Underpinnings cont’d Definition useful because it: – Establishes the link between the economy and the society; – Stresses that hazards can be external/ internal; avoidable/unavoidable; – Calls for a determination of the factors which promote cohesion and/or disunity; – suggests that even those actions that seek to build resilience, can also have an opposite effect.
Features of Social Vulnerability in SIDS High rates of unemployment/under- employment; High dependency ratios; High poverty rates (absolute, endemic and relative 5%-60%); Marginalisation of women, children and the elderly; Dilution of local culture and values and their replacement with foreign cultures and values Increased levels of crime/drug addiction
Features of social vulnerability cont’d Increased consumption rates due to growing populations dispersed rural settlements with implications for cost of service provision Small populations but high population densities in urban/peri-urban/ coastal/valley areas with implications for health and sanitation Undeveloped social sectors Susceptibility to brain – drain Susceptibility to infectious diseases
Features of social vulnerability cont’d Vulnerability to extreme natural and man-made disasters and energy shocks High unit costs of health, administrative education, judicial services High transportation costs (inter and intra island) High rates of internal (rural to urban) and international migration Low levels of educational achievement/high dropout rates and illiteracy.
Features of Social vulnerability cont’d Insecure food situation/high food import bill with negative dietary/health implications Poor access to land/ links to food insecurity Aging populations with implications for viability of social security/ health service delivery systems and transmission of values Thinness of the insurance market
Features of social vulnerability Underdeveloped public and private sectors Low institutional capacity due limited HR capacity; Weak development planning capacity Lack of integration between economic, social and environmental aspects of planning Lack of integration between the national and regional aspects of planning Lack of participation in the planning and decision- making process Lack of effective decision-support systems
Imperatives for building resilience Strengthening development policy analysis, formulation and implementation arrangements Develop institutional and technical capacity to formulate and implement trade policy Strengthening channels for continuous participation in policy and planning processes
Imperatives for Building Resilience Establish IDP arrangements that: – Reflect a common set of guiding principles ; – Allow for incorporation of physical and/or social impacts of economic activities or for environmental protection measures; – Routinely incorporates environmental, social, physical and spatial consequences of planning
Imperatives for Building Resilience cont’d Develop the capacity of key national and regional institutions; Increase the supply, use and retention of trained human resources; Institutionalize dynamic planning and decision-making frameworks based on participatory processes; More participation by CSOs in dev. process
Building Resilience (cont’d) Generate sustained and comprehensive labour market information to better guide interventions in the labour market; Reform education systems to ensure better fit between trained HR and national/regional development goals Enhance labour market flexibility to meet productivity/competitiveness targets
Building Resilience (cont’d) Develop an approved social policy framework based on: - a clear understanding of how individuals or families react to risk; - levels of risk, incomes and prices or costs of risk management Promote the advantages of a disciplined, organised and comprehensive approach to managing risk; Increase allocation directed at improving social capital
Building Resilience Develop national and sub-regional policy frameworks for poverty eradication using the sustainable livelihood approach; Provide social safety nets for the poor; Undertake macro-economic and social analyses of social development programmes; Enhance human and physical infrastructure
Building Resilience cont’d Promote conflict resolution at h/hold, and community and national level Empower marginalised groups Ensure the livelihoods and income security of older persons Build leadership capacity at community level Better management of the expectations of the population
Building Resilience cont’d Facilitate the development of an internal entrepreneurial culture Create an environment conducive to local and foreign investment THANK YOU!!!