Presentation on theme: "Chinese Technology and Art By Susan Daly. Map of China."— Presentation transcript:
Chinese Technology and Art By Susan Daly
Map of China
Sanxingdui Bronzes Neolithic Culture Shu Kingdom Chengdu,China Sichuan Province.
Map showing location
Finding the site In the 1920s farmers started finding jade objects and a few pieces of bronze in their fields. They reported these objects and China sent out archaeologists to uncover their source. They found a large cache of jade objects from the Shu Kingdom. It wasnt until later in the century, that the two ceremonial pits were found. These contain the bulk of the bronze objects on display. The museum was built to house them and work continues to excavate the area for more Shu objects.
In July,1986 a major archaeological find emerged near Sanxingdui in western China. Two sacrificial pits were uncovered. Pit 1 was dug during the 14 th century bce while pit 2 was dug during the 11 th century bce.Over 1,000 exquisite bronze artifacts were found.
Jade Ge daggars
Jade is not found naturally in this area so it was a trade good. It was always considered valuable. Working jade required patience and technical skill.
During the 16 th -13 th centuries BCE, Chinese bronze casting evolved further. Many ritual vessels for wine were cast as well as bronze weapons.Animal mask decorations were used to decorate many of these vessels as bronze moulding techniques became increasingly sophisticated.
Top of the tree
Part of the tree
Bird at base of the Tree
Unique Bronze Masks
Braided hair in back
Inside a bronze mask- showing its construction techniques.
A Gold Covered Mask
Headgear worn by masks
The Terra Cotta Army of Emperor Shi-Huangdi Founder of the Qin dynasty Xian, China
In 1974, several farmers digging a well found the Terra Cotta Army in their field. They called in local authorities to examine the pieces they had uncovered. As they dug into this field, the archaeologists uncovered the army.They found 3 pits, each with different soldiers in them.
Digging this well caused the army to be discovered in 1974.
A group of ceremonial guards
Pit Number One
What kinds of technology would have been used to create 7,000 life-size figures out of clay ? What kinds of materials would have been needed to produce the statues and to fire them in kilns so they wouldnt break as easily?
This pit contains over 6,ooo soldiers
Putting the army back together
The army being reassembled
The bundles are missing pieces
When archaeologists work at putting the soldiers back together, they find potential pieces and create a bundle of them for each one. Then the workers searches for the location of a specific piece. If they find ONE PIECE in a day, they are very happy. Putting this gigantic puzzle back together will be the lifes work of many archaeologists.
An officer and his horse
An archer without his bow
Moustaches Archaeologists have found 24 different types of moustaches on the soldiers faces. They show the range of social classes which the army came from. Individual differences could indicate social status or simply personal preference.
Officers in the front in battle formation
Bronze Chariot with umbrella
A copy of this chariot is shown in the recent movie Hero which is about 3 people who want to kill the first emperor of China, Shi Huangdi. Because bronze was expensive, the model is only 2/3s life size.
The Great Wall Badaling Pass near Beijing
When Emperor Shi Hunagdi decided to connect all of the parts of earlier walls into one long wall, he forced thousands of peasants to work on this project for him.There are supposed to be bones from many workers buried in each section of the wall. The entire wall is about 2500 miles long.
Weve climbed up a long way.
It s a long way up !
Very smoggy day
Chinese Architecture in Beijing Forms and designs
Chinese architecture of the Ming dynasty uses bright colors, painting detailed scenes, roof tiles, roof guardians, and many marble fence posts. It looks very different than western architecture. Power is shown by space not height.
The Forbidden City was considered to be the center of the world by the Chinese. The Emperor was to be at the center of the universe,so the main axis of the city is North-South. The Hall of Supreme Harmony at the center of the city is where the Emperor held audiences.After entering the city you passed through several halls and courtyards on your way to this audience. It was meant to make you feel small.
Arial view of Forbidden City
From this view of the Forbidden City you can see the North-South axis and the way that Feng Shui was used to design it. It must have a mountain at the back so they built an artificial one called Coal Hill. It was surrounded by a moat which was the necessary water feature for an auspicious location. It is in concentric circles within a square which represents heaven and earth.
Each gate is narrow which contrasts with the large squares surrounding all gates. Together the depth and width of the space creates a sense of mystery and a regal attitude.
The dragon represents the Emperor while the phoenix represents the Empress.
Summer Palace, Beijing
The Forbidden City was designed to be both beautiful and impressive. Its golden yellow roof tiles made it stand out from all other buildings in the area.Although it covers huge areas, it maintains harmony because of how it was designed.
Nine is a lucky number in China. Notice the number of nails in each door.
Summer Palace Golden Roof Tiles for an Imperial Residence.
The dragon is associated with the Emperor and is used extensively in the Forbidden City as a decorative element. These dragons serve as downspouts to move water away from the hall to protect it. They are the embodiment of imperial power but also serve a practical purpose.
Emperors Dragon Way
Hall of Supreme Harmony
Inside the Hall of Supreme Harmony there are 66 great columns. The throne has dragon decorations as does the screen behind it. The cross beams have dragons in yellow decorating them. The Emperors cloak had dragons woven into it. Altogether there are 12,654 dragons in this room. A multiple of the auspicious number 9.
Large pots are for Fire prevention
All buildings must have water in front of them and mountains at the back pointing to the sun because of the ideas of Feng Shui. In this case the water also served the practical feature of protecting wooden structures in case of fire.The large pots are found all over the Forbidden City.
A marble railing
Private Gardens of the Emperor
Temple of Heaven
The Temple of Heaven is where the Emperor made sacrifices to assure bountiful harvests. China was an agricultural society so the importance of this sacrifice was shown by the emperor himself offering it up to the heavens.The hall itself is high and is a symbol for the heavens. All carvings inside are of clouds.
Lamma Temple was built by the Ming Emperors as a home away from home for the Dalai Lama of Tibetan Buddhism. When he visited Beijing, he lived here.
A gate to Ming Tombs
Architecture of Xian Western Capital City Starting place of the Silk Roads
Houses from the Train to Xian
Contrast of old and new
Xian Bell Tower
Xian City Wall
Mosque in Xian It looks just like a Chinese temple except the writing is in Arabic.
Cultural Diffusion of religion. Islam came to China along the famous Silk Roads
The summer Palace in Xian
A pavilion which sold fish food attracted hundreds of gold fish.
Another stone boat
Big Wild Goose Pagoda in Xian
Roof demon to scare away evil
Chinese technology and art reflects the society which created it. How many places did you see dragons? Why might they appear so often? What else did you learn about the Chinese from these photos?
Baodingshan Grotto A World Heritage Site Dazu, China
In China, Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism were all practiced together by the Chinese people. The act of creating a religious image was considered to be an act of worship. In our tour of China we saw many people worshipping in temples we visited across China.
The carved statues at Baodingshan reflect the 3 religious traditions found in China at the time they were created; Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism.The statues survived the Cultural Revolution because of isolation and the involvement of Chou Enlai,a native of the area.
Showing a son carrying his parents.
Confucius ( on the right )
Buddhist Wheel of life being held by a demon. He cant stop it.
Our guide Jeff is explaining the carvings we are learning about at Dazu.
Buddhism came to China along the Silk Roads from India where it was started in the 5 th century BCE by Siddarta Gautama.It brought with it several symbols shown in many Buddhist images. The most familiar is the lotus flower, a symbol of purity, renunciation and divinity. Buddha is often shown sitting on a lotus.
Another important symbol is the Golden Wheel. The wheel represents motion, continuity and change, forever moving onwards like the wheel of heaven.The eight spokes point in the eight directions and symbolize Buddhas Eightfold Path: right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.
Leshan carved Buddha- 25 stories tall
Buddhaa hand can hold 100 people on it.
Since the Taliban blew up the 2 Buddhas at Bamyan, Afghanistan, Leshan is the largest carved statue of Buddha in the world. It is mainly visible by boat from the river because it was carved where 3 rivers converge to stop the many drownings which took place there and quiet the water. It did stop the rapids.There are stairs which circle the statue to allow you to get several views of it as you climb around it.
30 foot tall head
Mt. Emei is over 10,000 feet tall. The act of climbing it, is also an act of worship. There are five different Buddhist monasteries at different levels of the mountain.We visited 2 monasteries, Lingyuan and Wannian. At each stage, pilgrims can stop, pray, and rest. There are four mountains sacred to Buddha in China.
Lingyan Buddhist Temple Incense burners
Lingyan Temple Bell
Wannian Temple on Mt. Emei
A fish hanging in this direction says a pilgrim may stay for free here.
A Buddhist monk
A Buddhist stupa
The dam at Duijiangyan was built 2200 years ago to stop the flooding which was destroying the crops on the Chengdu plain. It is still being used and making that plain a very fertile area. The simple bamboo technology was effective and ingenious.
Looking towards a new dam being built upstream.
A swinging bridge across the river.
Nanjing Museum Jade Gallery
Shanghai Museum Bronze Gallery
An interesting view
A Rams head detail in bronze
Another achievement is the development of written Chinese characters called calligraphy.It takes about 10,000 characters to read a simple book.Chinese is much harder to learn to write than English is.
In China, the emperor was the only person who could have a yellow roof. He also wore yellow robes embroidered with dragons on them. Red is considered the color of happiness and good luck.White was the color of mourning death. As a result brides wore red robes for weddings.