Presentation on theme: "Alice W-S Horace Greeley H. S. May – June 2006. How effective was Henry VIII versus his daughter Elizabeth I in dealing with domestic issues in Tudor."— Presentation transcript:
How effective was Henry VIII versus his daughter Elizabeth I in dealing with domestic issues in Tudor England? Essential Question:
King Henry Tudor VIII Born: June 28, 1491, to King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Coronated: June 24 th, 1509 with his wife Katherine of Aragon. Died: January 28 th, 1547 at age 56
Young Life Henry was raised to be a pious and devout Catholic – He was awarded the title "Defender of the Faith by the Pope after writing a treatise denouncing Martin Luther's Reformist ideas He did not enjoy his fathers stoic and unexciting ruling style, instead favoring exciting court life. Henry wrote much poetry throughout his life
Court Life The court life initiated by his father evolved into a cornerstone of Tudor government in the reign of Henry VIII. Henry loved the extravegance and excitement of the court drama. – He spent much of his time being entertained by the nobles and met the last five of his wives from his court.
Henrys Wives Catherine of Aragon (1509-1533) Anne Boleyn (1533-1536) Jane Seymour (1536-1537) Anne of Cleves (1540) Catherine Howard (1540-1542) Katherine Parr (1543-1547)
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey Archbishop of York Wolsey was quite capable as Lord Chancellor, but his own interests were served more than that of the king – he still was subject to Henry's favor - losing Henry's confidence proved to be his downfall. Led the Church in England after being given powers by Henry to bypass the church heirarchy. He fell out of power when he failed to get an annulment from the Pope so that Henry could marry Anne Boleyn.
The Kings Great Matter Though he and Catherine of Aragon had been married twenty years, Henrys obsession with creating a male heir made him seek an annulment of his marriage. Cardinal Wolsey tried to obtain Pope Clement VIIs permission, but was unable. Henry created the Reformation Parliament in 1529
Thomas Cromwell and Thomas Cranmer Cromwell – Lord Chancellor – created new government departments to keep track of revenue and keep up to date records. – Oversaw Reformation Parlaiment Cranmer – Archbishop of Canterbury – dealt with and guided changes in ecclesiastical policy and oversaw the dissolution of the monasteries.
Reformation Parliament The break from Rome was accomplished through law, not social outcry. – This step was only taken after an annulment from the Pope was deemed impossible. 137 statutes in seven years Religious reform movements had already taken hold in England, but continental Protestantism had yet to find favor with the English people. Henry was named the Supreme Head of the Church of England 1536- all ecclesiastical and government officials were required to publicly approve of the break with Rome and take an oath of loyalty.
The Acts An Act of Submission of the Clergy (1534) – prevented the Church from making any regulations without the King's consent. The Ecclesiastical Appointments Act (1534) – required the clergy to elect Bishops nominated by the Sovereign. The Act of Supremacy (1534) – declared that the King was "the only Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England The Treasons Act (1534) – made it high treason, punishable by death, to refuse to acknowledge the King as the Church leader. Act of Succesion (1534) – Rejecting the decisions of the Pope, Parliament validated the marriage between Henry and Anne.
Dissolution of Monasteries Monastic lands and possessions were broken up and sold off. – In the 1520s, some monasteries were closed down to pay for colleges like Oxford and Ipswich – In 1535-6, another 200 smaller monasteries were dissolved – 1539, England's remaining monasteries were all dissolved, and their property transferred to the Crown.
After the Break Henry became disillusion after the break with the Catholic Church – Consequently, much of the remainder of Henrys reign is relatively unexciting. Henrys religious policies were somewhat confusing, as he considered himself a Catholic until the end of his life.
The Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542, England legally annexed Wales, uniting England and Wales into one nation. English became the official language of Wales, to be used in official proceedings.
The Royal Navy Henry is considered the father of the Royal Navy He engaged in naval warfare during his term and put a large investment into building a succesful fleet, creating dockyards and supporting naval innovations He did not, however, leave a running Navy for his succesors. – There was no structured system to continue the tradition.
Succession The Act of Succesion (1544) – Henry gave the crown to his only surviving son, Edward Edward was the first Protestant monarch to rule England. – In the event of a death without children, Edward was to be succeeded Mary, his daughter by his first wife. – If Mary did not have children, she was to be succeeded Elizabeth, his daughter by his second wife, Anne Boleyn. – Finally, if Elizabeth also did not have children, she was to be succeded by the descendants of Henry VIII's deceased sister, Mary Tudor
How He Left the Country England was an impoverished country torn apart by religious squabbles. However, Henry's reformation had produced dangerous Protestant-Roman Catholic differences in the kingdom. The monasteries' wealth had been spent on wars and had also built up the economic strength of the aristocracy and other families in the counties, which in turn was to encourage ambitious Tudor court factions.
Queen Elizabeth Tudor I Born: September 7, 1533 to King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife. Coronated: January 15, 1559 at Westminster Abbey Died: March 24, 1603 at age 69
'Proud and haughty, as although she knows she was born of such a mother, she nevertheless does not consider herself of inferior degree to the Queen, whom she equals in self-esteem; nor does she believe herself less legitimate than her Majesty, alleging in her own favour that her mother would never cohabit with the King unless by way of marriage, with the authority of the Church.... She prides herself on her father and glories in him; everybody saying that she also resembles him more than the Queen does and he therefore always liked her and had her brought up in the same way as the Queen.' – the Venetian ambassador Giovanni Michiel describes Elizabeth; spring 1557
Pre-Ruling Conflicts Before she became Queen, Elizabeth, a Protestant, clashed with her sister Mary and other Catholics. – While her brother Edward was King, Elizabeth was unrightfully implicated in a plot to overthrow the young King by his uncle Thomas Seymour. – Then, in the Wyatt Rebellion of 1554, Queen Mary accused Elizabeth of being in the plot to overthrow her.
The Captivity of Elizabeth After the Wyatt Rebellion, Elizabeth was locked up in the Tower of London even though there was no evidence against her. She was then moved to the gate house at Woodstock Manor in Oxfordshire for one year. She was let go at the bequest of Marys husband, King Phillip of Spain.
Elizabeths Refusal to Marry Most thought that the Queen would marry within her first year or so as Queen. Elizabeth valued the independence she had and did not feel she needed a man to guide her. It would have also been politically difficult for her to choose a suitable husband. The Privy Council, whose job it was to choose a husband for the Queen, was too divided to ever agree on a suitable mate. – This made it much easier for Elizabeth to refuse any marriage suggestions or proposals.
State of Affairs in 1558 'The Queen poor; the realm exhausted; the nobility poor and decayed; want of good captains and soldiers; the people out of order; justice not executed; justices of peace unmeet for office; all things dear; excess of meat and drink, and apparel; division among ourselves; war with France and Scotland; the French King, having one foot in Calais and the other in Scotland; steadfast enmity, but no steadfast friendship abroad.' – An anonymous contemporary observer in 1558
'Semper Eadem' ('Always the Same) This was the motto of Elizabeths reign, as her main goal was to stabilize the formerly struggling country.
Re-Establishing Protestantism After Elizabeth was named Queen, she re-established the Protestant Church in England. She herself believed in toleration of all religions. – She was often forced to take a harsher stance on punishment of Catholics because of the schism between the two sects. – There is only one Christ, Jesus, one faith… all else is a dispute over trifles.
The Act of Supremacy Gave Elizabeth ultimate control of the Church of England. Title of monarch modified to "Supreme Governor of the Church in England". Also included an oath of loyalty to the Queen that the clergy were expected to take. – If they did not take it, then they would lose their office.
The Act of Supremacy: The Oath of Loyalty the Queen's Highness is the only Supream Governor of this Realm, and of all other her Highness Dominions and Countries, as well in all Spiritual or Ecclesiastical Things or Causes, as Temporal; and that no foreign Prince, Person, Prelate State or Potentate, hath or ought to have any Jurisdiction, Power, Superiority, Preheminence, or Authority Ecclesiastical or Spiritual, within this Realm;… from henceforth I shall bear faith and true Allegiance to the Queens Highness, her Heirs and lawful Successors… So help me God, and by the Contents of this Book.
The Act of Uniformity Implemented in the summer of 1559 Crux of Elizabethan Church, establishing a set form of worship. The Prayer books of Edward VI were fused into one, and were to be used in every church in the land. Church attendance on Sundays and holy days was made compulsory. The wording of the Communion was to be vague so that Protestants and Catholics could both participate, Had trouble getting passed through Parliament. – A large number of the Parliament, extremists on both sides, opposed the bill
Act of Uniformity …all and every person and persons inhabiting within this realm, or any other the queen's majesty's dominions, shall diligently and faithfully, having no lawful or reasonable excuse to be absent, endeavour themselves to resort to their parish church or chapel accustomed, … upon every Sunday and other days ordained and used to be kept as holy days, and then and there to abide orderly and soberly during the time of the common prayer, preachings, or other service of God there to be used and ministered; upon pain of punishment by the censures of the Church, and also upon pain that every person so offending shall forfeit for every such offence twelve pence, to be levied by the churchwardens of the parish where such offence shall be done, to the use of the poor of the same parish, of the goods, lands, and tenements of such offender, by way of distress.
Puritans Puritans put power in the local parish, above anything else, which put it in direct conlict with the monarchy. The Church of England was more dedicated to England and the Queen than to God, which troubled Protestants Elizabeth's government was able to keep the Puritan movement underground. – John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, adopted some reforms, but did not want to create Puritan martyrs, as Mary I had created Protestant ones. – He was also more interested in establishing a uniform clergy rather than debating doctrine.
The Northern Rebellion In 1569, The Catholics of Northern England started a rebellion with the hopes of taking away the English crownfrom Elizabeth and giving it to Mary, Queen of Scots. Led by two members of the Northern nobility: – Charles Neville – Thomas Percy Led to a Papal Bull set forth by Pope Pius V, The Bull of Deposition (Regnans in Excelsis), excommunicating Elizabeth. – The Bull of Deposition was issued after the putting down of the rebellion but it led Elizabeth to stop her policy of religious toleration. The Catholic powers of Europe were also ordered to act against the unlawful queen as she was a heretic and enemy of the true faith.
Political Skill Elizabeths approach to the monarchy was drastically different from any of her predecessors because of her willingness to listen to those around her. – She would change a policy if it was unpopular. – Her approach to politics was serious, conservative, and cautious.
Advisors Elizabeth was especially gifted at choosing smart people to help her lead. Sir Francis Walsingham, The Queens Spymaster Sir William Cecil Secretary of State
Sir William Cecil Elizabeth and Cecil ruled England almost side by side until his death in 1598. This judgment I have of you that you will not be corrupted by any manner of gift and that you will be faithful to the state; and that without respect of my private will you will give me that counsel which you think best and if you shall know anything necessary to be declared to me of secrecy, you shall show it to myself only.
Robert Dudley The handsome Robert Dudley was appointed Master of the Horse, a position that required close contact with the Queen. Cecil and Dudley disliked each other – They were both rivals for the Queens attentione. – two rival factions developed in court around the two men It was clear from the beginning that Robert Dudley was the queen's favorite courtier. They were openly affectionate and Dudley enjoyed flaunting the queen's favor.
Indecisive or Compromising? Many were annoyed by the Queens refusal to take sides on the issue of religion. – Protestants felt that she should be more harsh in her treatment of Catholics and punish their religious worship as crime. But by not persecuting Catholics, she struck a balance that lasted through much of her reign. – She had to endure much less political struggle than her siblings, who were more extremist towards either side.
Privy Council The main job of the Council was to give advice to Queen Elizabeth. The Councilors did not always agree on matters, but Elizabeth listened to all sides of the argument, and then made up her own mind about what to do. This increased her power as she could always make the final decision The Privy Council was part of a more localized method of government which was very important in Tudor England. – Royal representatives were situated in every county in the country to make sure that the Queens wishes were carried out. Elizabeth cut down the number of councilors in her Council from the 50 the Mary had to 19 at the beginning of her term. – She believed that too many people with different ideas would only cause more problems than solve them.
Parliament The House of Lords – The Queen had a more direct effect on these members, as she appointed bishops and created many of the positions. The House of Commons. – Knights of the shire - each county sent two representatives – borough members - many towns had acquired the right to elect members The consent of both houses and the Queen was required to pass all laws. The Monarch summoned the Houses of Parliament and could prorogue (temporarily suspend) or dissolve Parliament at will. The Monarch appointed Bishops and created peers, and so had a more direct influence on the composition of the House of Lords than of the House of Commons. Only Parliament could make law and levy taxes
Court System The Great Session (Assizes), – held twice a year in each county – The Assizes in particular had the power to inflict harsh punishments. Quarter Sessions Court, – held four times a year. Between them, these courts dealt with most crimes, such as theft, witchcraft, recusancy, murder, and assault. For less important crimes, there were other courts such as the Petty Sessions, Manor courts, or even town courts. The Church Courts were important in dealing with religious or moral affairs.
Scotland After Mary was forced out of Scotland and fled to England, Elizabeth locked her up in the Tower of London for 20 years. Although Elizabeth did not want to have her cousin executed, she was forced to send Mary to execution after the plot of Babington was uncovered. Many believed that Mary, Queen of Scots, a catholic, was the rightful Queen of England. Since Mary too was a female sovereign Queen, Elizabeth was careful about how she recognized Marys power because she didnt want to be in the same situation.
Succession On her deathbed, Elizabeth passed the crown onto James of Scotland. – He was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, Elizabeths cousin Elizabeth felt comfortable in giving the crown to James because he had been raised by Protestant minister with whom Elizabeth had a correspondence.
How She Left the Country England was one of the most powerful and prosperous countries in the world. It had proved itself to be the strongest Naval force in the World.
Conclusion Overall, Elizabeth was much better at handling the conflicts between feuding portions of the country. – Elizabeths skills as a realpolitique helped her manage the balance between the Catholic and Protestant sects. – Henry was much more of a traditional monarch and spent more time on his social and romantic life than on leading the country.