Disaster risk reduction in Norway
27. mars 2017 Disaster risk reduction in Norway Aiming for a safe and robust society where everyone takes responsibility To make the society more resilient, everyone has to take theor share – the authorities on all levels – the public services and organisations, the private and the individual. We know that undesirable events will occur We need to be proactive inorder to prfevetn og mitigate a wide specter of hazards and perils. The Norwegian vision of a safe and robust society where everyone takes their responsibility is fully in line with the aim of the Hyogo Framework for Action of “substantially reducing disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries”. It is hoped that this report will support global reviews by the ISDR system by prowiding an overview of some of the disaster risk reduction activities in Norway. Petter Nuland Strasbourg, 07 May 2007
Length (direct line N-S): 1 752 km Width: min. 1.6 km, max. 430 km
27. mars 2017 km2 Length (direct line N-S): km Width: min. 1.6 km, max. 430 km Total coast line: km Population: 4.5 million (Oslo: ) The last couple of years the west coast have expereinced more extreme rain than usual. This has led to flooding, landslides and avalances. A changing climate will make what today is regarded as extreme conditions to me more usual. How society on a local, national and global level adapts in infrastructure, landuse planning, and service functions will be crucial for how we can withstand a wilder, wetter and warmer climate. Because of our diverse country, no ”one-size” fits all, but all adaptions has to be based on local comditions. For us it is therefore important to think ”out of the box”. We can not anymer be certain that areas that have not yet been affected by flooding or landslides will not be in the future. Ewe have knowledge on aggregated level, but in Norway we a re now focusing on establishing knowledge so that the local level can make informed decissions on disaster risk reduction in a country with diversity. Various natural hazards represent severe threats to humans, property and the natural and built environment in Norway. Although Norway with its 4,6 million inhabitants is frequently affected by natural hazards like floods, strong winds, heavy snowfall, wild fires, landslides and avalanches, these incidents very seldom result in high death tolls. However small and seldom, avalanches and landslides do claim lives and damage buildings and infrastructure almost every year, and in the beginning of the 20th centry, rockslides in narrow fjords resulted in extensive tsunami-waves wiping out entire villages and their populations. Windstorms and flooding can also be costly. The floods in spring 1995 led to NOK 1,8 billion (USD 300 million) in damages.
27. mars 2017 Hyogo Framework Priority for Action 1: Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation Establishing a National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction A strengthened mandate for disaster risk reduction through a Royal Decree Adapting to the effects of a changing climate One National point of contact for the ISDR system Norway has developed a dynamic system for disaster risk reduction and civil preparedness that is constantly evolving in accordance with new knowledge. After the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe January 2005, several processes have been initiated to reduce disaster risk in Norway. Most of these initiatives are a direct result of national or local acknowledgement of present risks and vulnerabilities. In the following some of these initiatives will be linked to the five Hyogo Frame priorities for action. DSB is already a coordinating authority with wideranging mandate for approaching disaster riske reduction and societal resilience in a crosssectoral and holistic approach. NP: Only throug a good overview over risk and vulnerability can we increase the resilience. Establishing a National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction Althoug several foras already exist on different levels for cross-sectoral dialog on societal resilience and disaster risk reduction, a prosess of establishing several new platforms for cooperation and information sharing will start this year. One of the first plattforms will be dedicated as the National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction. This Plattform will be the main forum for deliberation, informationsharing and coordinating among all authorities and other stakeholders in preventing, mitigating or handling natural disasters. These cooperation plattforms will among other issues identify: a) the need for devleoping the relevant regulations, b) areas where there is a gap in knowledge, c) unclear roles and responsibities, and d) areas that need to be specially followed up. The Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning has a main facilitating role in this process. A strengthened mandate for disaster risk reduction through a Royal Decree The Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning was through a Royal decree of 24. june 2005 given an explisit and strengthened mandate related to the general responsibility for coordinating supervision of activities, objects and enterprices with a potential for large accidents or disasters. This strengthening of the coordination role of the DSB will ensure a foundation for good and holistic disaster risk reduction and preventive measures, and support the Ministry of Justice and the Police in their coordinating role within societal resilience. The DSB has started a prosess of operationalising this decree and to involve relevant authorities and non-state stakeholders. Adapting to the effects of a changing climate Ministry of Enviromnet and Ministry of Justice and the Police is in the process of establishing a framework for cooperation between sectors and involving all relevant stakeholders in an effort to fill the knowledge gaps and identify what is needed to adapt to a changing climate. This framework will cover all levels of administration and is acknowledging the difference in threats and vulnerability in the different regions in Norway. The main challenge is thus to adapt and downscale our global knowledge and predictions on climate effects to the local level. National point of contact for ISDR sytem As specified in the Hyogo Framework for Action, a national point of contact for the ISDR system is established in the Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning in close cooperation with the National Plattform for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Ministry of foreign affairs.
27. mars 2017 Hyogo Framework Priority for Action 2: Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning Annual National vulnerability and preparedness report and other multidisciplinary and trans-sectoral reports Research- and science based knowledge The Åkeneset early warning system Floraprosjektet: DSB has commisioned a research-institute (Vestlandsforskning) to develop a new Risk- and vulnerability for local level municipalities that acknowledges the uncertainty in a changing climate. Annual National vulnerability and preperedness report Analyses and investigation studies are vital activities to gain an overview of which preventive measures should be given priority. The Protection of society-project (BAS) at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment and DSB’s annual National Vulnerability and Preparedness Report are such examples. The analyses are cross-sectoral and identifies vulnerabilities in the society in general and in the different sectors. Research- and science based knowledge Several research-coalitions in Norway are involved in enhancing the knowledge on natural hazards and disaster risk reduction. For instance is the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) a Centre of Excellence (CoE) and carries out research on the assessment, prevention and mitigation of geohazards, including risk of landslide in soil and rock due to rainfall, flooding, earthquakes and human intervention, and the geological risks in deep waters, especially underwater slides. The goal of the CoE has been to establish an environment for scientific and technological research on geohazards with the objective of reducing loss of life and damage to infrastructure and environment. The centre is hosted within the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) and is a consortium of two private foundations (NGI and NORSAR), one government organisation (NGU) and two universities (University of Oslo (UiO) and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (NTNU). The ICG is rapidly expanding the range of its international partners in countries like Japan, Switzerland, Hong Kong, Netherlands, USA, Germany, Spain, UK and. Nicaragua, El Salvador, India, Thailand. Almost 50% of the staff is of overseas origin.
27. mars 2017 Tsunami
27. mars 2017 Åkneset Like Italy knows that there will be an eruption in one of its active volcanoes, we know that sooner or later a rockfall into a narrow fjord will create a tsunami having devestating effect. One of the areas we are wathcing carefully and have sofisticated early warning systems is the mountain area of Åkeneset in the county of Møre og Romsdal where estimates show that a total volume of million m3 rock mass is moving at a rate of 4-15 cm/year. If a rockslide of this size were to plunge into the fjord it would generate a tsunami that will propagate in the fjord system with wave heights up to 40 meters. Last time this happened in the 1930s several settlements and villages were totally erased and many people where killed.
27. mars 2017 Hyogo Framework Priority for Action 3: Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels Disaster risk reduction in the school - Education and training for children and youths Guides and publications on aspects related to disaster risk reduction Education and training for children and youth - Disaster risk reduction in the school Currently, there are several pedagogic programs on different levels from kindergarten to university that train children or youth in aspects of practical disaster risk reduction and how to handle emergencies. However, there is no systematic or obligatory education as of today. Therefore, parallell with the ongroing ISDR campaign Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at school, a process of mapping and improving these scattered programs have been initiated. Through a dialog with relevant authorities and private stakeholders it has become clear that there is a need and a will to improve the exiting program and work towards a holistic and systematic eductation to ensure that the young is given knowledge, skills and attitudes that enable them to prevent, mitigate and handle emergencies. Guides and publications on aspects related to disaster risk reduction There are several resources where public and private actors can learn more about disaster risk reduction and societal resilience. Several guides are developed to support the municipalities in establishing a system for societal resilience and diasaster risk reduction, how to ensure that the threath- and vulnerability analysis have an all-hazard approach and how to make good emergency plans. These guides can be obtained in a hard copy or downloaded from one of the dedicated web-pages for disaster risk reduction related aspects.
27. mars 2017 Hyogo Framework Priority for Action 4: Reduce the underlying risk factors Building codes and the Planning and building act Land-use planning and Mapping risk areas Flood plain management In 2006 all 19 county governors were tasked to map all flood,- landslide and avalanche-prone areas in their county. This exposed a lack of expertise at the local and county level. Building codes and the Planning and building act The Norwegian Planning and Building Act is the main legislation regulating land use and physical planning in Norway. According to this Act local municipalities have the main responsibility for ensuring that areas in risk of flooding or other naturally occurring perils are not utilized in a way so that an unacceptable risk to human lives or material damage arises. The building codes and planning regulations set out in the Planning and Building Act and its amendments states that all buildings and infrastructure shall be so located and designed that they have satisfactory safety against being damaged by actions of nature (slides, flooding, waves and wind). The national building regulations regulates whether residential land use will be permitted stating that ground can only be built on when necessary safety towards subsistence, inundation and avalanches etc. Under the Planning and Building Act, the Government may lay down national policy guidelines relating to planning processes at local and regional levels in Norway as a whole or in parts of the country. It is now obligatory to integrate environmental considerations into land use planning at local and regional levels, and in certain sectored programmes. Land-use planning and Mapping risk areas Norwegian planning and building legislation requires natural conditions, including the possibility of natural disasters, to be taken into consideration. Norway has a programme for mapping areas that are vulnerable to flooding, avalanches, rockslides and mudslides. The DSB is systematically mapping the county and municipal overviews of areas at risk of landslides and flooding. The Directorate aims to develop a better overview of the actual situation, and encourages all municipalities to conduct thorough risk and vulnerability analyses in their land-use planning. Flood plain management Modern floodplain management in Norway was developed after the major floods in A National Flood Action Plan, presenting several measures, such as strengthened flood forecasting, a flood inundation map program and guidelines on land use in flood prone areas was put forward in The risk of flood, erosion, mass deposition and ice flows must be evaluated for all development areas. The risk must be acceptable in relation to the planned use of the area. Areas that are especially exposed to danger of flooding, erosion, landslides and ice flows may be held on trust for further regulation as a danger zone.
27. mars 2017 Hyogo Framework Priority for Action 5: Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response A new cross-departemental secure digital emergency communication network New Act concerning civil defence, civil protection, and local level disaster risk reduction A new cross-departemental digital emergency communication network The process of implementing a common cross-departmental emergency communication net will improve the emergency response. The new digital emergency radio communications network will improve the exchange and coordination of information amongst emergency personnel working in the field, their communication centers, the heads of operations, and all other involved parties. The day-to-day work will be easier, safer and more secure for the crews of the emergency services on operational duties irrespective of where they operate in the country. The process is initiated to update all 326 existing call centers. When finished more than 37,000 hand-held and vehicle-mounted radio terminals will be procured, and technical equipment for the backbone transmission system will be installed at a number of locations. It is planned that rollout of the network will be completed in 2009/10. New Act concerning civil defence, civil protection and a general preparedness The Ministry of Justice and the Police will shortly present a draft proposal for a new Act concerning Civil defence, civil protection, disaster risk reduction and general preparedness. In the draft proposal the mandate of the Norwegian Civil Defence will be strengthened by underlining that this is the main governmental response for supporting the emergency services in peacetime and in war. The Act is also regulating a general duty related to disaster risk reduction and preparedness in the municipalities, the counties and other public or private services and enterprises with key societal functions. The Act is based on an acknowledgement that the concept of civil protection needs to be developed and modernised in accordance with the current threats and hazards.
Challenges and the way forward
27. mars 2017 Challenges and the way forward Only 1/3 of municipalities have done comprehensive risk and vulnerability analysis the latest 4 years Which municipalities will need better resilience and what is national and what is local responsibility? How to ensure that local level has the appropriate knowledge and competences? How will national level vulnerability affect the local level? How to link the local, national, and international levels? Audits and guidance Excericses Risk and vulnerability Plans and structures 99% has an updated contingency plan for crisis management with a 95% exercise rate Concerns regarding preventive measures, especially systematic risk- and vulnerability analysis (RVA) 68% of our municipalities have not performed systematic RVAs for area planning analysis
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