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Clean Coal Combustion: Meeting the Challenge of Environmental and Carbon Constraints A.R. Ericson.

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Presentation on theme: "Clean Coal Combustion: Meeting the Challenge of Environmental and Carbon Constraints A.R. Ericson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Clean Coal Combustion: Meeting the Challenge of Environmental and Carbon Constraints
A.R. Ericson

2 Post-combustion capture
Our Vision for New Coal Power Portfolio of Clean Technologies Near-zero emissions Carbon Free Power O2 Oxygen Fired CFB Concentrated CO2 COMPLETE COMBUSTION or PC PC USC PC Post-combustion capture CO22 Air CFB USC CFB Carbonate looping CO2 Capture And Sequestration COAL CHEMICAL LOOPING CO22 CO22 PARTIAL COMBUSTION CO2 Scrubbing PETROCHEMICAL O2 IGCC H2 H2 GT water shift Air IGCC Fuel Cell 3 AIR BLOWN IGCC

3 Outlook for New Ultra Clean Coal Capacity
Presentation Roadmap Outlook for New Ultra Clean Coal Capacity Market Realities Environmental Performance – Mission Critical Advanced Cycle Designs Coal Generation in a Carbon Constrained World

4 Drivers for New Capacity North America
Our economies continue to drive electricity demand growth Source: NERC 2006 Long Term Reliability Assessment

5 Existing US Coal Fleet Expanding output to meet demand
Equivalent to 45 GW of new coal capacity

6 Drivers for New Coal Build North America
Base Energy needs versus Peaking Capacity Base load demand expected to increase at roughly GDP Economics Fuel Cost End User price shocks driving demand for low cost energy Coal availability and prevalence 200+ Years of Reserves in North America Advent of OTC (over the counter) markets for coal and emissions Environmental regulations drive new clean plants Fuel diversity Source: U.S. EIA

7 New Coal Capacity Faces Challenges
Economics Utilization of all low cost domestic coals …and opportunity fuels Competitive costs Operations Highest reliability and commercial availability Operating parameters to meet demands of grid Environmental Near zero emissions … and a carbon strategy

8 Meeting the Goals for Coal Based Power - Emissions

9 Source: Energy Velocity database ( EPA CEMS 2005 data )
Operating Coal Combustion – Best in Class Emissions 2005 Wtg. Avg SO2 Emissions - US Coal Units 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 Lbs/MMBtu Top 20 - Lowest SOx emitters PC and CFB Clean Coal technologies have demonstrated the lowest emissions : Exceed Requirements Cost Effectively Reliably 2005 Wtd Avg NOx Emissions - US Coal Units 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 Lbs/MMBtu Top 20 - Lowest NOx emitters Proven advanced clean coal combustion utilizing pulverized coal or circulating fluidized bed currently meets all emission requirements at competitive costs. State of the art emissions control systems integrated with PC/CFB can achieve extremely low emissions including NOx, SO2, particulate and mercury. This is an important point and one that is often misstated today. In fact older operating PC and CFB units, retrofit with emissions controls, are achieving emissions lower than operating IGCC plants. The first figure on this slide shows the 20 lowest SO2 emissions of older operating coal plants reporting under the EPA Acid rain program, ranging from lb/MMBTU (a PC unit burning sub-bituminous coal). It should be noted that we would have to go to #39 to find one of the two operating IGCC units. NOx emissions data also demonstrate that older operating PC’s are achieving low rates of emission. It should be noted that the several of these older units achieve these low Nox emissions by advanced burners alone ie., without an SCR. The also represent the retrofit of new firing systems in older furnace designs. The majority of new coal plants would incorporate an SCR for high levels of Nox reductions. Ultimately, IGCC technology must prove the claims of low emissions levels…. And must compete with lower cost, equally clean , combustion technology. Let the regulators set the emissions targets and let technology suppliers compete for the most reliable and cost effective solutions to meet the limits. Bit. PC SubBit. PC CFB IGCC (operating) Source: Energy Velocity database ( EPA CEMS 2005 data )

10 Ultra Clean Coal Combustion Emissions Control Capability
Today’s state-of-the-art NOx >95% reduction with optimized firing systems and SCR SO2 >99% capture with Wet FGD and DBA Particulates 99.99% capture Hg % capture (coal dependent) Next steps Continued improvements Integrated Multi-pollutant systems to reduce costs High Hg capture on all coals (without reliance on ACI) Introduction of CO2 capture


12 Karlshamn Power Plant Unit 3 Power capacity: 3 x 340 MW Fuel: Heavy fuel oil (max. 3.5% S)

13 FLOWPAC Karlshamm Performance Levels
Sulfur Content in the Fuel: 2.5% Inlet Gas Conditions (at ESP outlet) English Metric Flue Gas Flow ~ 870,000 acfm 1,080,000 Nm3/hr Flue Gas Temp 270°F 130°C Particulate Matter (PM) 0.025 lb/MMBTU 30 mg/Nm3 Outlet Gas Conditions (at stack) SO2 (>99% w/ no additives) < 19 ppmv < 55 mg/Nm3 SO3 (~70% removal) < 1 ppmv < 2 mg/Nm3 PM (>60% removal -oil soot) < 0.01 lb/MMBTU

14 When Additional Control is Needed - Mercury Capture Technologies
Chemistry: Hgo: gaseous form as a result of combustion, very difficult to capture Hg2+: oxidized form, easier to capture Halogens (Br, Cl) in coal or additive promote oxidation Adsorption of Hg2+ onto particulate – unburned carbon, carbon additives, flyash, scrubber droplets Ultimate removal from the system with the flyash and with scrubber byproduct Mercury Speciation and Impact of Current Controls: The following major conclusions can be drawn from the ICR database: • There is a general trend that shows higher mercury levels in lignite followed by bituminous coal and subbituminous coal. However, the existing air pollution controls may not show the same trend at the stack outlet. • Mercury speciation depends on the type of firing, chlorine and sulfur content of the coal, and probably the ash constituents that may catalyze some of the reactions during combustion. • Fabric filters are better in capturing mercury than hot or cold ESPs or than particulate scrubbers. • Both dry and wet FGDs are excellent at capturing ionic mercury. • Both dry and wet FGDs have difficulty in capturing elemental mercury. • Dry FGDs are somewhat better in capturing elemental mercury than are wet FGDs (10%–15%). Additives: Halogen(s) Powdered Activated Carbon Halogenated Powdered Activated Carbon = Potential additive injection points

15 Multi-pollutant APC Systems
Integrated APC systems based around commercially proven and reliable technologies Use readily available reagents Produces reusable byproduct(s) No impact on fly ash Superior cost/performance ratio: Extremely compact design Reduces capital costs for equipment, erection and BOP Fewer moving parts reduces maintenance costs Superior environmental performance Reduced permitting schedule/cost Avoided cost for SO2 credits Targeted emissions levels: SO2: lb/MMBTU (> 99.5%) Hg: 1.0 lb/TBTU (> 90%) PM: lb/MMBTU (99.99%) NOx: 0.05 lb/MMBTU w/SCR “Polishing” (Level TBD) w/o SCR Controls SOx, PM10/PM2.5 Mercury & NOx

16 Meeting the Challenge -
Advanced Cycles

17 Increased Value for Efficiency
Annual Fuel Savings, MUSD 500 MW Unit Efficiency ~$10M/yr 16 42% 40% 38% 36% ~$6.5M/yr 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Coal Price USD/Short Ton Compared to 34% subcritical efficiency, 11,000 BTU/lb coal, 80% capacity factor

18 Efficiency – Critical to emissions strategy
Source: National Coal Council From EPRI study 100% Coal Coal w/ 10% co - firing biomass Commercial Supercritical Existing US coal avg 33% Net Plant Efficiency (HHV), %

19 Clear Trend to Supercritical for Global Steam Power
Worldwide orders for new coal generation

20 147 GW, 230 Supercritical Coal Fired Boilers Ordered Since 1990
Clear Trend to Advanced Supercritical Cycles 147 GW, 230 Supercritical Coal Fired Boilers Ordered Since 1990 GW Number of Units Maximum of SH or RH Temp Maximum of SH or RH Temp

21 Supercritical Flexible for power grid needs
Operating Performance Turndown – Supercritical PC/CFB units have Flexibility to rapidly change load Turndown to lower minimum loads during off peak Maintain efficiency when operating at part loads Excellent startup ramp rates to meet grid demand Supercritical Drum Hot Start Up, after 2 hr shutdown Warm Start Up, after 8 hr shutdown Cold Start Up, after 36 hr shutdown

22 Progression of Plant Efficiency via Advanced Steam Conditions and Plant Designs
US-DOE :Ultra-Supercritical Boiler Project Operating Target: 1400°F/5500 psig European Thermie Project Operating Target: 1292°F/ 4500 psig TARGET % 41%- 43% 38-41% Up to 5400/1300/1325(psi/°F/°F) 37-38 Advanced USC 35-37% -Efficiency (net) HHV Typical Steam Parameters 4000/1110/1150(psi/°F/°F) 3480/1005/1050 (psi/°F/°F) 4000/1075/1110 (psi/°F/°F) UltraSupercritical Commercial State of Art Supercritical 2400/1005/1005 167/540/540 Sliding Pressure Supercritical Subcritical Technology Mature Supercritical Ni-based Materials Material Development Advanced Austenitic Materials T91 1960 1980 2000 2010 2020

23 Meeting the Goals for Coal Based Power - Efficiency
Actual efficiency for operating IGCC ~ Operating (old) PC Efficiency of current proposed IGCC projected to match today’s Supercritical PC Ultrasupercritical PC and next generation IGCC goals on par Annual average IGCC efficiency up to 10% lower due to greater inefficiencies at part-load operation

24 Meeting the Challenge CO2 Reduction

25 Maximize MWs per lb of carbon processed Fuel switch with biomass
CO2 Mitigation Options – for Coal Based Power Increase efficiency Maximize MWs per lb of carbon processed Fuel switch with biomass Partial replacement of fossil fuels = proportional reduction in CO2 Then, and only then ….Capture remaining CO2 for EOR/Sequestration = Logical path to lowest cost of carbon reduction

26 Innovative options continue to emerge and develop
CO2 Capture Innovative options continue to emerge and develop Post Combustion Capture Adsorption Absorption Hydrate based Cryogenics / Refrigeration based Oxy-fuel Firing External oxygen supply integrated membrane-based Oxygen carriers (chemical looping) Decarbonization reforming (fuel decarbonization) carbonate reactions (combustion decarbonization)

27 Amine-Based Absorption - CO2 Capture
SHADY POINT, OKLAHOMA, USA An AES CFB power plant with MEA CO2 separation MEA has demonstrated performance on coal based flue gas Work required to address: Regeneration power Compression ratio Cost of solvent

28 Advancements Absorption Stripping CO2 Capture
Amine scrubbing continues to develop Ionic Liquids “designer solvents” “Piperazine” - alternative solvent Process integration and improvement has driven cost down from 70 to $/ton CO2 --- further progress expected With industry focus on improvements, advanced amines likely to be competitive solution for post combustion capture

29 CO2 Capture Innovations Chilled Ammonia System
Existing Stack Ammonia reacts with CO2 and water and forms ammonia carbonate or bicarbonate Moderately raising the temperature reverses the above reactions – producing CO2 Regeneration at high pressure Existing SO2 Scrubber Concentrated CO2 to Sequestration Flue Gas Energy Recovery Energy Recovery Energy Recovery CO Energy Recovery Energy 2 Recovery CO2 Absorption Tower Tower CO2 Lean Regeneration Fluid Cooling the flue gas to 0-10 oC. Condensing H2O and eliminating residual contamination.Reducing FG volume and increasing CO2 concentration. Operating the absorber at 0-10 oC for high CO2 capture efficiency with low NH3 emission. Regeneration at >120 oC and >20 bar to generate high pressure CO2 stream with low moisture and ammonia concentration. Flue Gas CO2 Rich Flue Gas Cooling Cooling System

30 Advantages of Chilled Ammonia
High efficiency capture of CO2 Low heat of reaction High capacity for CO2 per unit of solution Easy and low temperature regeneration Low cost reagent No degradation during absorption-regeneration Tolerance to oxygen and contaminations in flue gas

31 We Energies Pleasant Prairie Host Site Location for 5MW Pilot

32 Carbon Free Power Advanced Combustion
Innovative Combustion Options for 2010 and Beyond Oxygen Firing – Direct concentration of CO2 to >90% for reduced capture costs Chemical Looping –Leapfrog technology with potential to achieve significantly lower costs than PC/CFB/IGCC

33 Oxygen Firing to produce concentrated CO2 stream
Compressor Air Separation Unit (ASU) N 2 Boiler O , N Air in-leakage Fuel Condenser H CO Recycle 3 MWt pilot CFB Oxygen Firing – Direct concentration of CO2 to >90% for reduced capture costs

34 30 MWth Oxy-fired PC Pilot Plant – Vattenfall
Location of pilot plant in the Industrial Park Schwarze Pumpe 2020 approx. 4 - 5 Commercial Plant approx. 1000 MWel 2015 Realisation with CO2 sequestration, 1:20 Demo Plant 600 MWth Vattenfall..., ALSTOM, others 2008 Test of the oxyfuel process chain 1:60 Pilot Plant 30 MWth CEBra, BTU Cottbus, Vattenfall, ALSTOM 2005 Fundamentals of oxyfuel combustion with flue gas recirculation 1:50 Test Plant 500 kWth Universities (Stuttgart, Chalmers, Dresden) Vattenfall, ALSTOM.. 2004 Laboratory Tests 10 / 55 kWth Partners Com Objective Scale up Factor Development Steps

35 Future Technologies for CO2 Capture Chemical Looping
Oxidizer Reducer CaS CaSO4 CO2 & H2O Coal, Limestone Air Depleted Air, Ash, Chemical Looping Gasification Calciner CO2 CaCO3 Cold Solids Chemical Looping Combustion CaCO3 CaO Hydrogen Hot Solids CaS Coal is Indirectly Combusted or Gasified by Hot Oxygen Carrying Reactant The Reactant is not Consumed and is alternately Reduced (oxygen removed) and Oxidized (oxygen replenished) as it Cycles between Reactors The Reactant also Carries Heat Where Needed In ALSTOM’s process, Calcium Compounds from Limestone are used as the Reactant Several Related Processes can be Based on this Concept Depleted Air, Ash, CaSO4 Reducer CaSO4 Air Oxidizer Coal, Steam

36 Technology Choices Reduce Risk and Lower Costs
Multiple Paths to CO2 Reduction Innovations for the Future ‘Hatched’ Range reflects cost variation from fuels and uncertainty Technology Choices Reduce Risk and Lower Costs No CO2 Capture With CO2 Capture Note: Costs include compression , but do not include sequestration – equal for all technologies

37 Conclusions New coal fired power plants shall be designed for highest efficiency to minimize CO2 and other emissions Lower cost, higher performance technologies for post combustion CO2 capture are actively being developed, and more are emerging There is no single technology answer to suit all fuels and all applications The industry is best served by a portfolio approach to drive development of competitive coal power with carbon capture technology


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