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Clean Coal Combustion : Meeting the Challenge of Environmental and Carbon Constraints A.R. Ericson.

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Presentation on theme: "Clean Coal Combustion : Meeting the Challenge of Environmental and Carbon Constraints A.R. Ericson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Clean Coal Combustion : Meeting the Challenge of Environmental and Carbon Constraints A.R. Ericson

2 2 3 Our Vision for New Coal Power Portfolio of Clean Technologies CO2 Capture And Sequestration COAL PARTIAL COMBUSTION Fuel Cell PETROCHEMICAL O2O2 water shift CO2 Scrubbing IGCC Air AIR BLOWN IGCC IGCC H2H2 H 2 GT CO2 2 CFB USC CFB O2O2 Oxygen Fired CFB or PC PC USC PC COMPLETE COMBUSTION Air Post- combustion capture CO2 2 Concentrated CO2 Carbonate looping CO2 2 Near-zero emissions Carbon Free Power CHEMICAL LOOPING

3 3 Presentation Roadmap Market Realities Environmental Performance – Mission Critical Advanced Cycle Designs Coal Generation in a Carbon Constrained World Outlook for New Ultra Clean Coal Capacity

4 4 Drivers for New Capacity North America Our economies continue to drive electricity demand growth Source: NERC 2006 Long Term Reliability Assessment

5 5 Existing US Coal Fleet Expanding output to meet demand Equivalent to 45 GW of new coal capacity

6 6 Drivers for New Coal Build North America Base Energy needs versus Peaking Capacity Base load demand expected to increase at roughly GDP Economics Fuel Cost End User price shocks driving demand for low cost energy Coal availability and prevalence Years of Reserves in North America Advent of OTC (over the counter) markets for coal and emissions Environmental regulations drive new clean plants Fuel diversity Source: U.S. EIA

7 7 New Coal Capacity Faces Challenges Economics Utilization of all low cost domestic coals …and opportunity fuels Competitive costs Operations Highest reliability and commercial availability Operating parameters to meet demands of grid Environmental Near zero emissions … and a carbon strategy

8 8 Meeting the Goals for Coal Based Power - Emissions

9 9 Source: Energy Velocity database ( EPA CEMS 2005 data ) SubBit. PC IGCC (operating) Bit. PC CFB PC and CFB Clean Coal technologies have demonstrated the lowest emissions : Exceed Requirements Cost Effectively Reliably 2005 Wtd Avg NOx Emissions - US Coal Units Lbs/MMBtu Top 20 - Lowest NOx emitters 2005 Wtg. Avg SO2 Emissions - US Coal Units Lbs/MMBtu Top 20 - Lowest SOx emitters Operating Coal Combustion – Best in Class Emissions

10 10 Ultra Clean Coal Combustion Emissions Control Capability Todays state-of-the-art NOx >95% reduction with optimized firing systems and SCR SO 2 >99% capture with Wet FGD and DBA Particulates 99.99% capture Hg % capture (coal dependent) Next steps Continued improvements Integrated Multi-pollutant systems to reduce costs High Hg capture on all coals (without reliance on ACI) Introduction of CO 2 capture

11 11

12 12 Karlshamn Power Plant Unit 3 Power capacity: 3 x 340 MW Fuel: Heavy fuel oil (max. 3.5% S)

13 13 FLOWPAC Karlshamm Performance Levels Inlet Gas Conditions (at ESP outlet)EnglishMetric Flue Gas Flow ~ 870,000 acfm1,080,000 Nm 3 /hr Flue Gas Temp 270°F130°C Particulate Matter (PM) lb/MMBTU30 mg/Nm 3 Outlet Gas Conditions (at stack) SO 2 (>99% w/ no additives) < 19 ppmv< 55 mg/Nm 3 SO 3 (~70% removal) < 1 ppmv< 2 mg/Nm 3 PM (>60% removal -oil soot) < 0.01 lb/MMBTU< 2 mg/Nm 3 Sulfur Content in the Fuel: 2.5%

14 14 Additives: Halogen(s) Powdered Activated Carbon Halogenated Powdered Activated Carbon = Potential additive injection points When Additional Control is Needed - Mercury Capture Technologies

15 15 Multi-pollutant APC Systems Integrated APC systems based around commercially proven and reliable technologies Use readily available reagents Produces reusable byproduct(s) – No impact on fly ash Superior cost/performance ratio: – Extremely compact design Reduces capital costs for equipment, erection and BOP – Fewer moving parts reduces maintenance costs – Superior environmental performance Reduced permitting schedule/cost Avoided cost for SO 2 credits Targeted emissions levels: – SO 2 : 0.02 lb/MMBTU (> 99.5%) – Hg: 1.0 lb/TBTU (> 90%) – PM: 0.01 lb/MMBTU (99.99%) – NO x : 0.05 lb/MMBTU w/SCR Polishing (Level TBD) w/o SCR Controls SO x, PM 10 /PM 2.5 Mercury & NOx

16 16 Meeting the Challenge - Advanced Cycles

17 17 Increased Value for Efficiency Compared to 34% subcritical efficiency, 11,000 BTU/lb coal, 80% capacity factor Efficiency Coal Price USD/Short Ton 500 MW Unit Annual Fuel Savings, MUSD 42% 40% 38% 36% ~$6.5M/yr ~$10M/yr

18 18 Efficiency – Critical to emissions strategy Coal w/ 10% co - firingbiomass 100% Coal Existing US coal avg 33% Commercial Supercritical Net Plant Efficiency (HHV), % Source: National Coal Council From EPRI study

19 19 Worldwide orders for new coal generation Clear Trend to Supercritical for Global Steam Power

20 GW, 230 Supercritical Coal Fired Boilers Ordered Since 1990 Maximum of SH or RH Temp Number of UnitsGW Clear Trend to Advanced Supercritical Cycles

21 21 Supercritical Flexible for power grid needs Operating Performance Turndown – Supercritical PC/CFB units have – Flexibility to rapidly change load – Turndown to lower minimum loads during off peak – Maintain efficiency when operating at part loads Excellent startup ramp rates to meet grid demand Hot Start Up, after 2 hr shutdown Warm Start Up, after 8 hr shutdown Cold Start Up, after 36 hr shutdown SupercriticalDrum

22 22 Progression of Plant Efficiency via Advanced Steam Conditions and Plant Designs Material Development -Efficiency (net) HHV -Typical Steam Parameters 35-37% %- 43% TARGET % Ni-based Materials T91 Mature Supercritical Advanced Austenitic Materials 3480/1005/1050 (psi/°F/°F) 2400/1005/ /540/540 Up to 5400/1300/1325(psi/°F/°F) 4000/1110/1150(psi/°F/°F) 4000/1075/1110 (psi/°F/°F) 38-41% Subcritical Technology Commercial State of Art Supercritical UltraSupercritical Advanced USC 2010 Sliding Pressure Supercritical US-DOE :Ultra-Supercritical Boiler Project Operating Target: 1400°F/5500 psig European Thermie Project Operating Target: 1292°F/ 4500 psig US-DOE :Ultra-Supercritical Boiler Project Operating Target: 1400°F/5500 psig European Thermie Project Operating Target: 1292°F/ 4500 psig

23 23 Meeting the Goals for Coal Based Power - Efficiency

24 24 Meeting the Challenge CO 2 Reduction

25 25 CO 2 Mitigation Options – for Coal Based Power Increase efficiency Maximize MWs per lb of carbon processed Fuel switch with biomass Partial replacement of fossil fuels = proportional reduction in CO 2 Then, and only then …. Capture remaining CO 2 for EOR/Sequestration = Logical path to lowest cost of carbon reduction

26 26 CO 2 Capture Innovative options continue to emerge and develop Post Combustion Capture Adsorption Absorption Hydrate based Cryogenics / Refrigeration based Oxy-fuel Firing External oxygen supply integrated membrane-based Oxygen carriers (chemical looping ) Decarbonization reforming (fuel decarbonization) carbonate reactions (combustion decarbonization )

27 27 Amine-Based Absorption - CO2 Capture MEA has demonstrated performance on coal based flue gas Work required to address: Regeneration power Compression ratio Cost of solvent SHADY POINT, OKLAHOMA, USA An AES CFB power plant with MEA CO2 separation

28 28 Advancements Absorption Stripping CO2 Capture Ionic Liquids designer solvents Piperazine - alternative solvent Process integration and improvement has driven cost down from 70 to $/ton CO further progress expected With industry focus on improvements, advanced amines likely to be competitive solution for post combustion capture Amine scrubbing continues to develop

29 29 CO2 Capture Innovations Chilled Ammonia System Flue Gas Cooling System Energy Recovery Energy Recovery CO 2 Tower Energy Recovery Existing SO 2 Scrubber Flue Gas Ammonia reacts with CO 2 and water and forms ammonia carbonate or bicarbonate Moderately raising the temperature reverses the above reactions – producing CO 2 Regeneration at high pressure CO 2 Lean CO 2 Rich CO 2 Absorption Tower Existing Stack Concentrated CO 2 to Sequestration Energy Recovery Energy Recovery Fluid Regeneration Flue Gas Cooling

30 30 Advantages of Chilled Ammonia High efficiency capture of CO 2 Low heat of reaction High capacity for CO 2 per unit of solution Easy and low temperature regeneration Low cost reagent No degradation during absorption-regeneration Tolerance to oxygen and contaminations in flue gas

31 31 We Energies Pleasant Prairie Host Site Location for 5MW Pilot

32 32 Carbon Free Power Advanced Combustion Innovative Combustion Options for 2010 and Beyond Oxygen Firing – Direct concentration of CO 2 to >90% for reduced capture costs Chemical Looping –Leapfrog technology with potential to achieve significantly lower costs than PC/CFB/IGCC

33 33 Compressor Air Separation Unit (ASU) N 2 Boiler O 2 O 2, N 2 Air in-leakage Fuel Condenser H 2 O CO 2 Recycle Oxygen Firing to produce concentrated CO 2 stream CO2 3 MWt pilot CFB Oxygen Firing – Direct concentration of CO 2 to >90% for reduced capture costs

34 34 30 MWth Oxy-fired PC Pilot Plant – Vattenfall Location of pilot plant in the Industrial Park Schwarze Pumpe

35 35 Oxidizer Reducer Calciner Cold Solids CaCO 3 CaO CaS CaSO 4 Hydrogen Coal, Steam CO 2 Air CaCO 3 Depleted Air, Ash, CaSO 4 Oxidizer Reducer CaS CaSO 4 CO 2 & H 2 O Coal, Limestone Air Depleted Air, Ash, CaSO 4 Chemical Looping Combustion Chemical Looping Gasification Future Technologies for CO 2 Capture Chemical Looping Hot Solids

36 36 Multiple Paths to CO2 Reduction Innovations for the Future No CO 2 Capture With CO 2 Capture Technology Choices Reduce Risk and Lower Costs Note: Costs include compression, but do not include sequestration – equal for all technologies Hatched Range reflects cost variation from fuels and uncertainty

37 37 Conclusions New coal fired power plants shall be designed for highest efficiency to minimize CO 2 and other emissions Lower cost, higher performance technologies for post combustion CO2 capture are actively being developed, and more are emerging There is no single technology answer to suit all fuels and all applications The industry is best served by a portfolio approach to drive development of competitive coal power with carbon capture technology


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