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Why is optical networking interesting? Cees de Laat

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Presentation on theme: "Why is optical networking interesting? Cees de Laat"— Presentation transcript:

1 Why is optical networking interesting? Cees de Laat

2 Why is optical networking interesting? EU SURFnet University of Amsterdam SARA NIKHEF serena Cees de aat Cees de Laat aat

3 What is this buzz about optical networking Networks are already optical for ages Users wont see the light Almost all current projects are about SONET circuits and Ethernet (old wine in new bags?) Are we going back to the telecom world, do NRNs want to become telcos Does it scale Is it all about speed or is it integrated services

4 Current technology + (re)definition Current (to me) available technology consists of SONET/SDH switches Changing very soon! DWDM+switching coming up Starlight uses for the time being VLANs on Ethernet switches to connect [exactly] two ports So redefine a as: a is a pipe where you can inspect packets as they enter and when they exit, but principally not when in transit. In transit one only deals with the parameters of the pipe: number, color, bandwidth


6 Know the user BW requirements # of users C A B A -> Lightweight users, browsing, mailing, home use B -> Business applications, multicast, streaming, VPNs, mostly LAN C -> Special scientific applications, computing, data grids, virtual-presence ADSLGigE LAN (3 of 12) F(t)

7 What the user BW requirements Total BW C A B A -> Need full Internet routing, one to many B -> Need VPN services on/and full Internet routing, several to several C -> Need very fat pipes, limited multiple Virtual Organizations, few to few ADSLGigE LAN (4 of 12)

8 So what are the facts Costs of fat pipes (fibers) are one/third of equipment to light them up –Is what Lambda salesmen tell me Costs of optical equipment 10% of switching 10 % of full routing equipment for same throughput –100 Byte packet @ 10 Gb/s -> 80 ns to look up in 100 Mbyte routing table (light speed from me to you on the back row!) Big sciences need fat pipes Bottom line: create a hybrid architecture which serves all users in one consistent cost effective way (5 of 12)

9 Scale 2-20-200 (5b of 12)

10 Services 2 Metro 20 National/ regional 200 World ASwitching/ routing RoutingROUTER$ BVPNs, (G)MPLS VPNs Routing C # ~ 200/RTT dark fiber Optical switching Lambda switching Sub- lambdas, ethernet- sdh COST (5c of 12)

11 lambda for high bandwidth applications –Bypass of production network –Middleware may request (optical) pipe RATIONALE: –Lower the cost of transport per packet Application Middleware Transport Application Middleware Transport Router UvA Router 3 rd party carriers Router ams chi SURFnet5 UBC Vancouver Switch GbE 2.5Gb lambda Lambda Switch Lambda Switch Lambda Switch Lambda Switch Router High bandwidth app (6 of 12)

12 CA*net 4 Architecture Calgary Regina Winnipeg Ottawa Montreal Toronto Halifax St. Johns Fredericton Charlottetown Chicago Seattle New York CANARIE GigaPOP ORAN DWDM Carrier DWDM Thunder Bay CA*net 4 node) Possible future CA*net 4 node Quebec Windsor Edmonton Saskatoon Victoria Vancouver Boston (7 of 12)

13 R Architectures - L1 - L3 R R R SW L2 VPNs Internet Bring plumbing to the users, not just create sinks in the middle of nowhere (8 of 12)

14 Distributed L2 (8a of 12)

15 Transport in the corners BW*RTT # FLOWS For what current Internet was designed Needs more App & Middleware interaction C A B Full optical future ? (9 of 13)

16 (9a of 13)

17 Layer - 2 requirements from 3/4 TCP is bursty due to sliding window protocol and slow start algorithm. So pick from menu: Flow control Traffic Shaping RED (Random Early Discard) Self clocking in TCP Deep memory Window = BandWidth * RTT & BW == slow fast - slow Memory-at-bottleneck = ___________ * slow * RTT fast WS L2 fast->slow L2 slow->fast fast high RTT (10 of 14)

18 Forbidden area, solutions for s when f = 1 Gb/s, M = 0.5 Mbyte AND NOT USING FLOWCONTROL s rtt = 158 ms = RTT Amsterdam - Vancouver or Berkeley

19 Daisy Chain control model of administrative domains Selector Switch Distributor Switch AAA Domain XDomain Y (11 of 14)

20 Problem Solving Environment Applications and Supporting Tools Application Development Support Common Grid Services Local Resources Grid Information Service Uniform Resource Access BrokeringGlobal Queuing Global Event Services Co- Scheduling Data Cataloguing Uniform Data Access Communication Services Authorization Grid Security Infrastructure (authentication, proxy, secure transport) Auditing Fault Management Monitoring Communication Resource Manager CPUs Resource Manager Tertiary Storage Resource Manager On-Line Storage Resource Manager Scientific Instruments Resource Manager Monitors Resource Manager Highspeed Data Transport Resource Manager net QoS (Resource) layers of increasing abstraction taxonomy Grid access (proxy authentication, authorization, initiation) Grid task initiation Collective Grid Services Fabric the neck (12 of 14)

21 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 GRID-Layer 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 ISPs peering L3 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 GRID-Layer 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 CE SE UE NE L3 L2 L1 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 (13 of 14)

22 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 GRID-Layer 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 ISPs L1 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 GRID-Layer 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 CE SE UE NE L1 L2 L3/4 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 L1 -tranport 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 (13b of 14)

23 Research needed Optical devices Internet Architecture Network Elements as Grid Resources Transport protocols get in other corners How dynamic must your optical underware be Dont mix trucks and Ferraris (13c of 14)

24 Revisiting the truck of tapes Consider one fiber Current technology allows 320 in one of the frequency bands Each has a bandwidth of 40 Gbit/s Transport: 320 * 40*10 9 / 8 = 1600 GByte/sec Take a 10 metric ton truck One tape contains 50 Gbyte, weights 100 gr Truck contains ( 10000 / 0.1 ) * 50 Gbyte = 5 PByte Truck / fiber = 5 PByte / 1600 GByte/sec = 3125 s one hour For distances further away than a truck drives in one hour (50 km) minus loading and handling 100000 tapes the fiber wins!!! (14 of 14)

25 The END Thanks to TERENA: David Williams SURFnet: Kees Neggers UIC&iCAIR: Tom DeFanti, Joel Mambretti CANARIE: Bill St. Arnaud Support from: SURFnet EU-IST project DATATAG (15 of 14) 26/11/1910 -- 11/9/2002

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