Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THE ECONOMIC CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CANADIAN CITIZENSHIP Don J. DeVoretz Co-Director Centre for Excellence Research on Immigration and Integration.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "THE ECONOMIC CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CANADIAN CITIZENSHIP Don J. DeVoretz Co-Director Centre for Excellence Research on Immigration and Integration."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE ECONOMIC CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CANADIAN CITIZENSHIP Don J. DeVoretz Co-Director Centre for Excellence Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis (RIIM) Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 Sergiy Pivnenko Senior Researcher, RIIM Centre for Excellence Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis (RIIM) Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6

2 Canadian Citizenship: Stylized Facts Basic requirements: –have lived in Canada for at least three of the four years before applying –eighteen years of age or older –knowledge of one official language –adequate knowledge of citizenship responsibilities Canada has highest citizenship ascension rate (84%) compared with other countries (75% - Australia, 56% - U.K., 40% - U.S.A. Differential ascension rates (2001 Census of Canada): –67% of immigrants from France and 60% of immigrants from Australia and Oceania –92% of immigrants from Greece and 89% of immigrants from Vietnam Recent immigrants ascend to citizenship earlier and at a faster rate than their counterparts from earlier cohorts

3 Research questions What are the individual socio-economic determinants that affect the immigrants decision to ascend to citizenship at various stages in their lifetime? –economic, social, political and demographic determinants Do immigrants economically gain in the labour market from their ascension to citizenship? –the economic impact of citizenship on the earnings of immigrants

4 Costs and Benefits of Ascending to Canadian Citizenship COSTS Unavailability of dual citizenship ( opportunity costs) Citizenship process (fees, waiting and other requirements) BENEFITS Canadian passport (better mobility) Labour market advantage (access to federal jobs)

5 Immigrants years old, eligible for naturalization (4 years or more since immigration) 1991 Census1996 Census2001 Census Citizens Non- Citizens Citizens Non- Citizens Citizens Non- Citizens Sample Size, count 62,67615,09267,91214,22273,73114,469 Sample Size, % per census Wage and Salary Earnings, 2000 dollars, mean $27,539$23,240$23,852$19,353$26,056$21,894 Highest Level of Schooling, % High school or less Certificate or diploma (below bachelor) University degree Occupational Skill Level, % Professionals – skill level A Skilled – skill level B and C Low Skill – skill levels below C Weeks Worked, % 0-25 weeks weeks weeks Mainly Full-Time Weeks, % Source: Authors tabulations from 1991, 1996 and 2001 Census of Canada PUMFs, Statistics Canada

6 Results (1): Citizenship Acquisition Model: Probability of Acquiring Canadian Citizenship VariablesExpected effect Estimated effect OECDNon-OECD Demographic Age +/- weak (-)weak (+) Gender (female) - -+ Institutional Dual Citizenship + -+ Post-1976 Arrival + ++ Economic Education + weak (-) Skill Level + weak +strong + Income + ++ Home/Host Country Context OECD Origin - (-) in pooled sample Settled in Urban Area + ++ Years in Canada + weak +strong +

7 Results (2): Economic Impact Variables Estimated effect OECD Males OECD Females Non-OECD Males Non-OECD Females Age, Age 2 concave Years since immigration weak (+)Insign.(+) Total Years of Schooling (+) Home language (+) Naturalized citizen.051 (3.370).034 (2.009).096 (5.118).140 (6.769) Professional occupation.392 (16.583).348 (14.866).230 (6.184).270 (8.313) Skilled occupation.171 (7.656).135 (6.518).040 (1.180).100 (3.541) Professional×Citizen.023 (.865).011 (.417).151 (3.621).025 (.686) Skilled × Citizen.005 (.181).009 (.403).066 (1.711) (-.036) LN(Weeks worked) (+) Mainly Full-time Weeks Worked (+)

8 Results (3): Decomposition of Earnings Gap ALL Human Capital Endowment Effect Discrimination Component Total Wage Differential Females OECD8.69%6.27%14.96% Non-OECD40.15%13.44%53.59% Males OECD8.66%4.35%13.00% Non-OECD41.43%14.62%56.05% Professionals Human Capital Endowment Effect Discrimination Component Total Wage Differential Females OECD10.55%5.44%15.99% Non-OECD44.68%21.99%66.67% Males OECD5.20%3.92%9.12% Non-OECD40.97%17.18%58.15%

9 Concluding Remarks Model better describes Non-OECD immigrant group Occupational impact of citizenship is substantial for immigrants from Non-OECD group Self-selection? Ascension to citizenship and citizenship earnings premium are simultaneously determined? Better data needed. –Realistic: 20% uncensored sample of Census of Canada. –Fantastic: citizenship records combined with the IMDB.


Download ppt "THE ECONOMIC CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF CANADIAN CITIZENSHIP Don J. DeVoretz Co-Director Centre for Excellence Research on Immigration and Integration."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google