Presentation on theme: "Temporary and permanent migrations Selected data and Issues Gérard Pinsonneault Recherche et analyse prospective Immigration et communautés culturelles."— Presentation transcript:
Temporary and permanent migrations Selected data and Issues Gérard Pinsonneault Recherche et analyse prospective Immigration et communautés culturelles Québec Traitement des données: Chakib Benzakour Work in progress: please do not quote or distribute
Different data sources, different and complex concepts In 2004, in Québec : –Statistics Canada (oct) : estimated temporary residents present in the province (any status) –CIC (dec): (any status), entries (foreign students and temporary workers) –MICC: entries (foreign students and temporary workers) Concepts: –number of persons present at a determined date –number of entries during a given period –initial status, principal status, overlapping statuses, –rules to differenciate populations
From temporary to permanent: two different approaches Among the temporary, who becomes permanent and in which proportion? Among the permanent, who first entered as temporary and in which proportion? In view of their special situation, humanitarian cases must be excluded from this analysis.
Foreign students turned permanent residents Permanent status obtained between 1996 and 2005, per year of initial entry: numbers and % of the total number of annual entries –1995: 1088 (17,5)2000: 1994 (17,8) –1996: 1493 (19,2)2001: 1832 (14,7) –1997: 1564 (18,9)2002: 1145 (10,7) –1998: 1741 (19,8)2003: 561 (5,3) –1999: 1988 (19,4)2004: 166 (1,6)
Temporary workers turned permanent residents between 1996 and 2005, per year of initial entry: numbers and % of total number of annual entries –1995: 794 (8,1) –1996: 1473 (13,2) –1997: 1311 (11,4) –1998: 1318 (10,6) –1999: 1701 (12,6) –2000: 2076 (12,8) –2001: 1887 (11,5) –2002: 1407 (9,8) –2003: 1073 (7,8) –2004: 630 (4,3)
Permanent residents first entered as foreign students In 1996, 3,3 % of all immigrants landed that year had first entered the country as foreign students sometimes between 1989 and 1995: 941/ In 2000, 4,5 %: 1 444/ In 2005: 6,3 %: 2 195/35 106
Permanent residents first entered as temporary workers In 1996, 4,2 % of all immigrants landed that year had first entered the country as temporary workers between 1989 and1995: 1 195/ In 2000, 5,1 %: 1 666/ In 2005: 5 %: 1 738/35 106
Permanent residents first entered on a temporary status Portion of economic and family component first entered as foreign students: –en 1996: 3,5 % (econ) et 4,9 % (fam) –en 2005: 8,3 % (econ) et 5,7 % (fam) Portion of economic and family component first entered as temporary workers : –en 1996: 5,8 % (econ) et 4,8 % (fam) –en 2005: 5,6 % (econ) et 6,4 % (fam)
Permanent residents first entered on temporary status: distribution by immigration class First entered as foreign students: landed in 1996: 43 % (econ) et 46 % (fam) landed in 2005: 81 % (econ) et 18 % (fam) First entered as temporary workers: landed in 1996: 55 % (econ) et 36 % (fam) landed in 2005: 70 % (econ) et 25 % (fam)
Impact of temporary stay on the settlement process Survey on labour market integration of skilled workers admitted in Québec from 1997 to 2000: 50 % obtained points at the selection grid for a temporary stay prior to their permanent migration: 23 % for studies or work, or both, and 25 % for other type of stay of 2 weeks or more Significant impact of this selection criteria on the access to a first job and to a first qualified job: along with years of education
Transition from temporary to permanent Ways of dealing with the phenomenon: –Years ago, the official rules generally did not permit applicants to change status while in the country: fear to repeat situation that had occured at the end of the period when any temporary visitor could apply for permanent residence and appeal if refused. It had resulted in serious adminitrative problems which lead to important legal changes and a general amnesty program.
Transition from temporary to permanent General rules presently used: –For foreign students: dissemination, on request, of information regarding process to follow, but no promotion on request, individualized follow-up of application process –For temporary workers: employers are encouraged to hire temporary foreign workers in order to meet their temporary manpower needs or to speed up the entry of would be permanent workers. They are also supported in such process. once entered, temporary workers are informed of the process to follow in order to become landed immigrants. procedures are established to facilitate the change of status
Social services available to temporary residents: some examples Daycare at 7$/day Daycare in school at 7$/d Health insurance (prov) Drugs insurance (prov) Employment insurance Social Welfare Minimum wage Judiciary assistance Subsidized housing Settlement programs Language training Students Workers noyesyes noyesnoyesyesnonono * Certain conditions and exceptions apply
Transition from temporary to permanent Some relevant issues: –should we be more prudent and take into account past expeciences (ex: )? –do we exacerbate the brain drain from poor source countries? Is such brain drain counterbalanced by remittances, instauration of international networks for trade and business opportunities for sources countries, or even return migration of economically successfull migrants? –are we creating situations which may provoke personal tragedies? Could a provisional status be instated that might prevent the development of such risky situations?