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Naturalization of Immigrants: The Australian Experience in a Longitudinal Survey, circa 1996 Eduardo Azmitia, RIIM-SFU.

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Presentation on theme: "Naturalization of Immigrants: The Australian Experience in a Longitudinal Survey, circa 1996 Eduardo Azmitia, RIIM-SFU."— Presentation transcript:

1 Naturalization of Immigrants: The Australian Experience in a Longitudinal Survey, circa 1996 Eduardo Azmitia, RIIM-SFU

2 Presentation Outline Background of Australian Citizenship Economic Theory of Citizenship Data Results

3 Australian Citizenship: Historical Background Australian citizenship was created on with the passage of the Australian Citizenship Act 1948. It describes the ways in which citizenship can be obtained and lost. Current eligibility requirements include 2 years of residency and basic English

4 Australian Citizenship: Broad Numbers More 3 million immigrants have become Australian citizens since 1949 Over 70,000 immigrants become new citizens each year Approximately 900,000 permanent residents still eligible to become Australian citizens

5 Australian Citizenship: Foreign Born Australian Citizens Birth Place1996 Census2001Census U.K.654,700650,900 Italy189,600170,800 Vietnam134,200139,300 Greece121,400111,100 New Zealand93,800113,600 China94,000 Philippines76,60084,500 Germany84,80079,000 Lebanon66,30065,200

6 Australian Citizenship: Economic Theory Immigrants decision to obtain citizenship is mainly based on a evaluation of the benefits and costs of citizenship. Yang, P.Q. 1994. Explaining immigrant naturalization. International Migration Review 28(3): 449-77 Devoretz, D. J. and J. Ma. 2002. Triangular human capital flows between sending, entrepot, and the rest of the world regions. Canadian Studies in Population 29(1):53-69.

7 Australian Citizenship: Benefits Australian passport access to government labour markets and special programs registration of children born overseas as Australian by descent avoidance of deportation possible wage premiums and employment benefits

8 Australian Citizenship: Costs possible loss of former citizenship restricted access to international labour markets country (residency requirement) reduced political, economic, civic, and social rights in country of origin application costs military service if necessary

9 Australian Citizenship: Econometric Framework Demographic & Socioeconomic Variables Age (curvilinear) Gender (positive for males) Marital Status (positive) Education (positive) Time since Migration (positive) Low Income (negative)

10 Australian Citizenship: Econometric Framework Contextual Variables (country of origin) GNP per capita (negative) Refugee sending country (positive) Socialist country (positive) English Developed Country (positive) Dual Citizenship allowed ( positive) Contextual Variables (host country) Urban concentration of immigrants

11 Australian Citizenship: Data Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia (LSIA-1). This is the most comprehensive and detailed survey of immigrants that has been ever undertaken on Australia. The complete LSIA-1 sample consists of 5,192 individuals who arrived to Australia between September 1993 and August 1995

12 All Immigrants Non- Australian Citizen (39%) Australian Citizen (61%) Age37.2737.3337.23 Gender (Female)0.470.490.46 Marital Status (Married)0.730.750.72 Education (Years)14.0514.1614.0 Days since Migration1251.4112471254 Low Income0.140.180.12 GNP per capita (Adjusted)7824109005827 Refugee-sending country0.280.180.35 Socialist Country0.290.140.37 English Developed Country Urban Concentration Immigrants (non-traditional) Dual Citizenship allowed0.270.330.23

13 Age Curvilinear Strong Gender (Female)NegativeStrong Marital Status (Married)PositiveStrong Education (Years)PositiveVery Strong Days since MigrationPositiveStrong Low IncomeNegativeStrong GNP per capita (Adjusted)NegativeVery Strong Refugee-sending countryPositiveStrong Socialist CountryPositiveVery Strong English Developed CountryNegativeStrong Urban Concentration Immigrants (non-traditional) ------------------ Dual Citizenship allowedPositive Very Strong

14 Australian Citizenship: Reasons To Apply 1) To stay permanently 28,666 2) To belong / feel Australian 9,152 3) Passport related 6,913 4) To vote – Get in politics 3,464 Top Reason Not To Apply Want to retain citizenship of former home country 2,603

15 Australian Citizenship: Summary & Concluding Remarks

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