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1 Immigration, Integration and Citizenship State and diversity: a ethnocultural diversity management (EDM) model Presentation by Patricia Rimok, President,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Immigration, Integration and Citizenship State and diversity: a ethnocultural diversity management (EDM) model Presentation by Patricia Rimok, President,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Immigration, Integration and Citizenship State and diversity: a ethnocultural diversity management (EDM) model Presentation by Patricia Rimok, President, Conseil des relations interculturelles (Government of Quebec) Vancouver Workshop March 25, 2006

2 2 Plan IContext II EDM model III Responsibilities at two levels IVShared responsibilities for implementation of EDM V Action plan for implementation VIMonitoring results and impact of measures VIIConclusion

3 3 I Context Globalization Economic issues Demographic issues – States, provinces, areas, cities are in competition in order to attract and to preserve specialized workers, investors or contractors (economic issues) or other candidates for immigration, as families with young children (demographic issues)

4 4 Context (contnd) Immigrant population of Quebec in 2001 – 9,9 % of the population (13 % of the immigrants established in Canada) Visible minorities – 6,9 % of the population (12,4 % of the visible minorities in Canada) Areas from where the immigrants come – Europe : 40 % – Asia : 27 % – Americas : 21 % – Africa : 11 %

5 5 Context (contnd) Period of arrival of immigrants – Before 1960: 14 % – 1960 and 1970: 32 % – 1980: 20 % – 1991 and 2001: 35 % – 1996 and 2001: 19 % Immigrants admitted in Quebec – 2000: – 2001: – 2002: – 2003: – 2004: – 2005:

6 6 Context (contnd) Concerning the integration of recent immigrants – Recognition of competences The underutilization of competences of the immigrants – Loss of incomes between $2,7 and $4,1 billion in Canada A country or a province is likely to double its loss if immigrants decide to migrate elsewhere – Economic and demographic 48 % of businesses people admitted in Quebec between 1980 and 1995 live in another province in ,4 % of the immigrants admitted between 1994 and 2003, were still in Quebec in the beginning of 2005 Toronto and Vancouver are attracting more immigrants than Montreal

7 7 Context (contnd) Other difficulties – Adaptation – Loneliness – Racism – Xenophobia – Since the terrorist attacks in the United States, Spain and Great Britain National security and internal borders – A good immigrant or descendant of immigrant/a bad immigrant or descendant of immigrant

8 8 Context (contnd) As immigration will have a cumulative effect on diversity, this one will characterize the Quebec society and its population If Quebec seeks to support social cohesion, it can become more problematic if a greater number of individuals because of their identification to an ethnic minority or to their skin color will marginalize – Where must begin the EDM and where must it finish? – Who must be concerned or implicated by this management?

9 9 II EDM model Objective – Building an interactive model Definition – Interactions that are formed between groups which are regarded as being different (majority vs minorities, minority vs minority) – Its "management" constitutes a group of principles that correspond to the adjustment of social relations based on identity or to the desire to regulate them – The result of which is a question of managing relations between groups that, for a reason or another, could be regarded as being opposite

10 10 III Responsibilities at two levels In Canada – Multiculturalism – Federal authorities grant the Canadian citizenship or the statute of permanent resident, and determine the total number of immigrants to admit annually – The Canada-Quebec Agreement (1991) recognizes the distinct character of Quebec for the integration of immigrants Canada is responsible for the national standards and objectives relating to immigration and of the admission of the immigrants Quebec is responsible for the selection, settlement and integration of immigrants in its territory

11 11 Responsibilities at two levels (contnd) In Quebec – Recognition of ethnocultural diversity (differentiation/lack of differentiation) Majority/minorities (immigrants, visible minorities and allophones: about 15 % of the population) The ministère de lImmigration et des Communautés culturelles (MICC) occupy a central position in terms of selection, settlement and integration – If other ministries are concerned with these activities, it does not necessarily appear in their strategic plans – More than a 150 community organizations offer services to immigrants in partnership with the MICC Companies can profit from programs or governmental measures in order to absorb a workforce that diversifies

12 12 Responsibilities at two levels (contnd) Legislative context – In Canada Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Employment Equity Act – Achieve equality in the workplace – Apply to various types of public and private organizations working in the sectors of federal competences – in Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms Act respecting equal access to employment in public bodies Equal access to employment in public bodies ( municipal sector, health and social services, crown corporation, Suret é du Qu é bec – The other ministries are not subjected to this law But are able to present their recruiting objectives in front of the members of Parliament

13 13 IV Shared responsibilities for implementation of EDM The State: e.g. when it seeks to foster social cohesion, in the name of public interest The civil society: e.g. when NGOs represent interests of ethnocultural communities The market: e.g. when companies manage diversity in their organization

14 14 Shared responsibilities for implementation of EDM (contnd) However, there is no real coordination between various actors: the State, the public and the market, nor between the actors in each sphere – Measures that are proposed to integrate immigrants both socially, economically and culturally seem less effective when immigration diversifies in its composition The volume of selected immigrants increases with the years and the countries from where they come from, diversify – The various actors do not necessarily work in a concerted and complementary way, but partitioned, sometimes to solve similar problems

15 15 NGOs, ministry of Education, Schools, Health and social services, MICC NGOs, Local employment center, Health and social services Neighbourhood police, NGOs, Ministry of Justice, Health and social services e.g. problems that affect young people from a minority (immigrants) School dropouts Poverty and unemployment Criminal activities Who is working with who?

16 16 Shared responsibilities for implementation of EDM (contnd) If Quebec seeks to support social cohesion, it needs to take into account that a greater number of individuals who are identified to an ethnic minority may end up more marginalized

17 17 V Action plan for implementation The State must give the example within its own ministries and organizations and develop exemplary practices in terms of EDM – A positive perception To reflect that Quebec is an inclusive society To benefit from various expertises To answer a demand for services that are changing

18 18 Action plan for implementation(contnd) The State will have to develop hiring tools to increase its diversity numbers (even in a context of compression) – In 2002, the Government of Quebec projected that half of its personnel would leave the civil service by 2012 – In , the share of the cultural communities, including the visible minorities born in Quebec in the public service, represented 2,5 % – In 2011, immigration will count for 100 % of the growth of the labour force

19 19 Action plan for implementation(contnd) To bring the actors of the State, the civil society and the market to work together in order to identify, solve and prevent the problems related to increasing diversity – The State can be the instigator for it For instance, by supporting the setting-up of a task force of EDM – However, the civil society and the market must be stakeholders of the initiative Need for a coordination of the actions so that EDM can be effective – An inclusive society in the public and the private sphere

20 20 Action plan for implementation (contnd) A task force of EDM – Collective actors who represent the interests of the immigrants (associations) – Organizations which have competences in precise sectors that relate to ethnocultural diversity – Representatives from employers' associations – Representatives from labour organizations – Representatives from social and economic development initiatives or organizations – Representatives from territories (cities and regions) – Representatives from the field of research – Representatives from State (provincial and federal government)

21 21 Civil society Market Cities and districts or neighbourhoods MSSS (and other departments and agencies) MICC (and other departments and agencies, including the Conseil exécutif) MAMR (and other departments and agencies EDM Task Force

22 22 VI Monitoring results and impact of measures Legislation framework – Representation and numerical distribution of the members of racial minority groups in organizations – Employment policy Policies, decision-making processes and business practices which affect all aspects of the career of people within an organization including minority groups – An organizational culture open to diversity To abolish discrimination in employment

23 23 Monitoring results and impact of measures (contnd) Reasons to diversify in the workplace – Legislation An obligation – Economic Competition New market Shortage of workforce Management of risk (reputation, legal proceedings) – Ethic Diversity as a basic value of the organization Diversity is firmly anchored in all aspects of the organization

24 24 Monitoring results and impact of measures (contnd) Need for a program – Leadership engagement Time devoted to the questions of diversity Communication (numbers of mention/discourse) Participation of managers – Strategy and plan of promotion of diversity Existence of a strategy (yes or no) Quality of the strategy Annual action plan – Education and training Investment or costs Participation Impact

25 25 Monitoring results and impact of measures (contnd) Results in terms of diversity – Demographic profile of workforce Number of persons from target groups Levels of wages of persons from target groups Number of persons from target groups who leave the organization – Culture and environment of work Internal complaints related to diversity number of legal proceedings related to diversity Attitude of workforce with respect to the questions related to diversity (survey, comparisons between groups, comparison with other organizations)

26 26 Monitoring results and impact of measures (contnd) Advantages for the organization – Reduction of the costs relating to Rotation of the workforce Absenteeism Direct expenses in recruitment – Access to new markets Shares of new given markets (target groups) Attitudes of the target groups selected toward products and services – Capacity for global management Proportion of the management team having a minority origin Proportion of the very promising executives having a minority origin

27 27 VII Conclusion For an effective and inclusive EDM – The State must itself give the example To hire a diversified personnel To adopt an Equality Employment Program that respect all levels of State activities – To account for the results in front of elected officials To integrate in its practices a new manner of proceeding as an employer and as a service provider – Need for a coordination between the various ministries and government agencies – Need for delegating responsibilities, for instance to the cities or the areas that are responsible in the long run for the selection, settlement and integration of immigrants – Need for seed moneys associated to new ways of doing Cost of doing business and cost of not doing business

28 28 Conclusion (countnd) State as a leader to create an EDM Task Force The private sector can and must also profit from the advantages of diversity Need for tools in order to measure impact of diversity in organizations Need for the participation of all the actors


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