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Contemporary issues in Korean immigration Ann H. Kim, Department of Sociology, York University Metropolis Brown Bag Series * Citizenship and Immigration.

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Presentation on theme: "Contemporary issues in Korean immigration Ann H. Kim, Department of Sociology, York University Metropolis Brown Bag Series * Citizenship and Immigration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contemporary issues in Korean immigration Ann H. Kim, Department of Sociology, York University Metropolis Brown Bag Series * Citizenship and Immigration Canada 16 December 2008 * Ottawa Advancing a research agenda

2 A framework Sending country - Politics - Economics - Culture - Social welfare Individual/family traits Bilateral linkages between states Transnational ties Modes of incorporation - Governmental - Societal - Co-ethnic community - Institutional determinants Receiving country - Politics - Economics - Culture - Social welfare Dimensions of integration - Spatial - Economic - Social - Cultural

3 Todays presentation History of immigration History of immigration Settlement patterns and emerging gateways Settlement patterns and emerging gateways Current community profile and transnationalism Current community profile and transnationalism Economic integration and entrepreneurship Economic integration and entrepreneurship Additional areas for investigation: Additional areas for investigation: The second generation The second generation Immigrant seniors Immigrant seniors Religious organizations Religious organizations Data needs Data needs Summary of research priorities Summary of research priorities

4 A 45-year history? Diplomatic relations began in 1963 Diplomatic relations began in 1963 First Canadian embassy in Korea in 1973 First Canadian embassy in Korea in 1973 Canadas military presence during the Korean war, Canadas military presence during the Korean war, Official Canadian involvement in Korea in 1947 Official Canadian involvement in Korea in 1947 Christian missionaries, late 19 th century Christian missionaries, late 19 th century

5 Migration flows – Pre-1963: Missionary students : The business class : Permanent settlers : Asian financial crisis Sources: Landed Immigrants, CLPR, Immigration Statistics Years 1973 to 1996 (Employment and Immigration Canada), 2006 Facts and Figures (CIC) 2004-: Emerging gateways

6 Recent destinations, CMAs Source: Intended Destination, 2006 Facts and Figures (CIC)

7 Korean immigrants in Canada, CMAs (%) Source: Landed Immigrants, 2006 Census (Statistics Canada)

8 Recent arrivals Gradual dispersion to emerging gateways: Gradual dispersion to emerging gateways: Calgary, Winnipeg, Edmonton, Hamilton, Abbotsford, Atlantic Canada Calgary, Winnipeg, Edmonton, Hamilton, Abbotsford, Atlantic Canada PNP Winnipeg PNP Winnipeg Research questions: Research questions: Impact of PNP Impact of PNP Adjustment for both immigrants and local communities Adjustment for both immigrants and local communities Attraction and retention Attraction and retention

9 Ethnic Koreans by region Source: Ethnic Origins, 2006 Census (Statistics Canada)

10 Ethnic Koreans, temporary residents Source: Ethnic Origins, Immigrant Status, 2006 Census (Statistics Canada) +

11 Foreign student flows Source: Annual Flow, 2006 Facts and Figures (CIC)

12 Foreign students Growth facilitated by: Growth facilitated by: Access to money Access to money Governmental/non-governmental interventions: Governmental/non-governmental interventions: 1. Student visa exemption in Canadian Experience Class in Increasing contact between educational systems 4. Export education industry

13 Foreign students, transnational families Transnationalism and the global economy Transnationalism and the global economy Two types: kirogi families, parachute children Two types: kirogi families, parachute children Research questions: Research questions: Quality of care under legal guardians Quality of care under legal guardians Access to programs and support Access to programs and support Settlement, adaptation, health, reluctance to return Settlement, adaptation, health, reluctance to return Temporary versus permanent streams Temporary versus permanent streams Integration in existing Korean communities Integration in existing Korean communities

14 Education and income Source: Ethnic Origins, Completed Education, 25+ yrs, Mean Income, Full Time/Year, 2001 Census (Statistics Canada)

15 Ethnic entrepreneurship Source: Ethnic Origins, 25+ yrs, 2001 Census (Statistics Canada)

16 Korean entrepreneurs Earliest immigrants worked in factories then turned to self-employment Earliest immigrants worked in factories then turned to self-employment Ethnic niche for recent immigrants Ethnic niche for recent immigrants Research questions: Research questions: Determinants of self-employment Determinants of self-employment Consequences of self-employment – status loss, work-stress, family life, social engagement Consequences of self-employment – status loss, work-stress, family life, social engagement Impact of policy changes: Sunday shopping legislation, tax policies, trade and the big box stores, Business Class Program Impact of policy changes: Sunday shopping legislation, tax policies, trade and the big box stores, Business Class Program

17 The 2 nd generation ~19% of ethnic Koreans ~19% of ethnic Koreans High levels of education (60% university degree) High levels of education (60% university degree) Low levels of self-employment (<10%) Low levels of self-employment (<10%) Research questions: Research questions: Intergenerational mobility - upwardly mobile or expectedly mobile given parents education? Intergenerational mobility - upwardly mobile or expectedly mobile given parents education? Determinants of mobility of the second generation Determinants of mobility of the second generation

18 Korean seniors Two groups: Two groups: Immigrants who become seniors Immigrants who become seniors Seniors who become immigrants Seniors who become immigrants Research questions: Research questions: How the age at arrival affects the aging experience How the age at arrival affects the aging experience Implications of sponsorship provisions Implications of sponsorship provisions Access to culturally- and linguistically-relevant services Access to culturally- and linguistically-relevant services

19 Religion and religious organizations 70% Protestant or Catholic 70% Protestant or Catholic 80% members of religious organizations 80% members of religious organizations 300 churches, 10 temples 300 churches, 10 temples Research questions: Research questions: Under what conditions do Korean religious organizations facilitate the settlement and integration process of immigrants? Under what conditions do Korean religious organizations facilitate the settlement and integration process of immigrants? Role of religious organizations in community development Role of religious organizations in community development

20 Data needs Landed data, prior to 1973 Landed data, prior to 1973 PRDS data, prior to 1980 PRDS data, prior to 1980 Temporary resident data, disaggregated Temporary resident data, disaggregated Foreign student data by level of school Foreign student data by level of school Temporary to permanent status Temporary to permanent status Oversampling of smaller immigrant groups in national surveys Oversampling of smaller immigrant groups in national surveys

21 List of research priority areas 1. Recent arrivals and emerging gateways 2. Foreign students and transnational families 3. Economic integration and self-employment 4. The second generation 5. Immigrant seniors 6. Religious organizations


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