Presentation on theme: "Essential Question: I will be able to List the important Legal Documents up to this point in history and describe their lasting impacts on the development."— Presentation transcript:
1 Essential Question:I will be able to List the important Legal Documents up to this point in history and describe their lasting impacts on the development of Law and Government.JustinianJustinian CodeHagia SophiaPatriarchIconExcommunicationCyrillic Alphabet
3 The Fall of the Roman Empire After the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire entered an era of declineThe Roman Empire had a series of weak emperorsRomans had a large trade imbalance (they bought more than they produced)As Rome grew more in debt, the military became weak & began using foreign mercenary soldiers
4 Emperor Constantine moved the Roman capital to Constantinople in the Eastern Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire continued to grow weakTextEmperor Diocletian tried to save Rome by dividing the empire
5 The Fall of the Roman Empire By 476, barbarians conquered the Western Roman EmpireThe Western Roman Empire fell into the Middle Ages (“Dark Ages”) from 500 to 1300 A.D.
11 The Byzantine EmpireCitizens in the Byzantine Empire thought of themselves as Romans & they shared some similarities with the Roman Empire:The Byzantine Empire kept alive Greco-Roman cultureConstantinople was a center for learning where schools taught philosophy, medicine, Greek and Latin grammar, geometry
12 The Byzantine EmpireCitizens in the Byzantine Empire thought of themselves as Romans & they shared some similarities with the Roman Empire:Byzantine Hagia SophiaRoman PantheonHow was architecture similar?
13 The Byzantine EmpireCitizens in the Byzantine Empire thought of themselves as Romans & they shared some similarities with the Roman Empire:Constantinople used Roman-style architecture such as arches & domesByzantine cities had forums for trade & arenas to entertain citizens
14 One of the most impressive architectural buildings in the Byzantine Empire was a Christian cathedral called the Hagia Sophia
15 The Byzantine EmpireCitizens in the Byzantine Empire thought of themselves as Romans & they shared some similarities with the Roman Empire:The official language was Latin, but most Byzantines spoke Greek
16 The Byzantine EmpireCitizens in the Byzantine Empire thought of themselves as Romans & they shared some similarities with the Roman Empire:Religion in the Byzantine EmpireReligion in the late Roman EmpireHow was religion similar?
17 Because of its location close to Judea, most Byzantines had converted to Christianity before those in the Western Roman Empire
18 How was government similar? The Byzantine EmpireCitizens in the Byzantine Empire thought of themselves as Romans & they shared some similarities with the Roman Empire:Both the Roman & Byzantine Empires were ruled by emperors who had absolute power over the empireJustinian was the most famous Byzantine EmperorRoman governmentByzantine governmentHow was government similar?
19 About 50 years after the fall of Rome, Byzantine Emperor Justinian came to power & began reconquering Roman territories
20 In addition to empire building, what else did Emperor Justinian value?
21 The Justinian CodeTo oversee his new empire, Justinian ordered legal experts to consolidate old Roman laws into a single law codeThe Justinian Code served as the legal basis for criminal justice, marriage, property, slavery, & women’s rightsThe law code became one of the most important legacies of the Byzantine Empire & served as the basis for laws for the next 900 years
22 The Justinian Code The Justinian Code had 4 components: The Law Code: Nearly 5,000 Roman laws that were still considered useful for the Byzantine EmpireThe Digest: Summarized Roman opinions about lawsThe Institutes: Textbook on how to use the lawsThe Novellae (New Laws): Contained all new laws that were passed after 534
23 JustinianIn addition to expanding the empire & creating a uniform set of laws, Emperor Justinian also began large building projectsHe ordered the construction of the Hagia Sophia to show the importance of the churchHe built hospitals, aqueducts, public baths, schools, & courts
24 Empress TheodoraJustinian’s wife Theodora had a lot of power & influence in the Byzantine Empire:She met with & wrote to foreign leadersShe advised Justinian & helped him pass lawsShe encouraged building of Christian cathedrals
25 The Development of Law & Government Legal DocumentCivilizationMain PointsHammurabi’s CodeTen CommandmentsTwelve TablesJustinian’s Code of Laws
26 The Development of Law & Government Legal DocumentCivilizationMain PointsHammurabi’s CodeMesopotamia1st legal codeVery strictJustice is different for different levels of societyLaws displayed for all to seeTen CommandmentsHebrews in MesopotamiaConnected law and religionCore teachings of the Jewish faithTwelve TablesRomeAll citizens had a right to protection of the lawJustinian’s Code of LawsByzantine EmpireConsolidated laws form across RomeBasis of criminal justice, marriage, property, slavery, & women’s rights
27 Warm-Up Question:What caused the Fall of Western Rome?What did Eastern Rome Become?What is a barbarian?
28 Essential Question:I will be able to complete a graphic organizer that lists the differences between the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches.Warm-Up Question:How did the Byzantine Empire begin?What was the Justinian Code?Name 3 differences or similarities between Rome & Byzantine Empire
29 Draw this on your notes: Christianity Roman CatholicBOTHEastern Orthodox
30 The Division of Christianity Because of the distance & lack of contact between Byzantine Empire & Western Europe, Christianity developed differentlyAll Christians based their faith on Jesus & the BibleBut they had different practices to show their faith
31 The Division of Christianity Christians were organized the same way:Archbishops & bishops oversaw regions where Christianity was practicedPriests led individual churchesBut, Christians in the East & West disagreed over leadership of the Church
32 The Division of Christianity Christians in Western Europe:Believed that there should be a Pope to oversee bishops & give authority to all ChristiansChristians in Western Europe accepted the authority of the Pope
33 The Division of Christianity Christians in Eastern Europe:Believed that the Byzantine Emperor had authority over issues involving ChristianityByzantine emperors relied on a Patriarch to oversee the church, but the emperor had final authorityChristians in the Byzantine Empire did not accept the authority of the Pope
34 Pope Francis is pope ofthe Catholic ChurchHis HolinessPatriarch Kirill
35 The Division of Christianity One of the biggest controversies among Christians was the use of icons:Icons were religious images to help Christians in their prayers & worshipSome Christians thought this was “idol worship”In 730, the Byzantine Emperor banned icons & many Christians rioted
36 You DecideYou are the Pope in Rome. You agree with the use of icons to aide in prayer and worship. The Byzantine Emperor just outlawed the use of icons, which is a direct threat to your power over the church. How would you respond?Work with a partner to decide how the Pope should respond.
37 The Pope excommunicated the emperor (kicked him out of the church) Emperor Leo III ordered the destruction of icons in the Byzantine EmpireRiots broke out between people who wanted icons & ICONOCLASTS (those who wanted to ban icons)The Pope excommunicated the emperor (kicked him out of the church)The Pope calls the Byzantine Emperor a HERETIC: (a believer of false ideas)
38 You DecideYou are the Byzantine Emperor. The Pope in Rome just excommunicated you. This is a direct threat to your power as an emperor and as the leader of the Easter Church. How would you respond?Work with a different partner to decide how the Emperor should respond.
39 The Division of Christianity These disagreements led to deep divisions among Christians & the Great Schism (split) occurred in 1054:
40 The Division of Christianity Christians in Western Europe became the Roman Catholic ChurchChristians in Eastern Europe became the Eastern Orthodox Church
41 The Division of Christianity Roman Catholics & Eastern Orthodox Christians practice their regions differently: