Decentralization & Design Technological: –networked info economy –distributed generation –miniaturization Ecological: economic biomimicry / ecosystem model of development Social: creativity base: human- scale Localization
Environmental Protection Perspective protection / eco-efficiency / politics of limits involves: controls on profit-motive and/or engineering incentives and disincentives to spin- off social & enviro benefits from profit motive no fundamental changes in economic and political power no fundamental change in industrialisms labour / resources relationship
Historical Trends in Regulation Early industrial capitalism: –Unconscious-decentralized / focus on material needs / subordination of state to markets: Invisible Hand / focus on production / unbridled exploitation of nature / theoretical democracy Fordist & state-socialist industrialism: –Conscious-centralized / new (and disguised) focus on non-material needs / Need for more planning: political intervention / More concern with consumption & (quantitative) demand / managed exploitation of nature / representative democracy Postindustrial Potentials (today): –Conscious-decentralized / direct focus on non-material needs / integration & transformation of state & markets / integration with nature / direct democracy –Super-industrialism: Post-Fordist globalization: avoidance, suppression or channeling of the above. Crisis.
Trends in Mainstream Regulation End-of-pipe control and cleanup : 70s Point Source Prevention : 80s Consumption Patterns and Product & System Design : today
River (Industrial-Linear) vs. Lake (Green-Cyclical) Economy resources: Life cycle approach human need: end-use approach EPR and design for environment is industrial capitalism a form of quantitative development or accumulation? –explains why efficiency or even profit isn't enough: question of self interest Stahel: issue of liability Beyond Capitalism & Socialism: What forms of Ownership support Stewardship?
Industrial Ecology & Service Industrial ecostructure: Reuse-based Manufacturing entails new levels of producer liability reduces both the flow of resources and their speed through the economy encourages local/regional economies, and facilitates high skill levels
Manufacturing & the Ecological Service Economy Production contributes to Qualitative Wealth Waste Equals Food Dematerialization of Production and Higher Resource Efficiency Reduction of the Speed of Resource Flow through the Economy Appropriate Scale Regenerative Work is Created New Rules & Closed Loops: LCA and EPR
Production in an Eco-economy Craft: money and the economy of labour time Eco-infrastructure and food, energy and water Eco-industrial Parks and Networks industrial ecosystems biorefineries eco-Flexible Manufacturing Networks
Benign Materials & the Carbohydrate Economy plant matter as the original source of synthetics & plastics –biological revolution & genetic engineering: make possible cheaper & more prolific creation of enzymes. –biochemicals: less toxic & degrade more quickly than petrochemicals. –detergents, paints, dyes, inks, adhesives, fabrics, building materials, etc. zero discharge and industrial clusters –complete use of plant materials –plantations, biorefineries and green cities
The Centrality of the Landscape The industrial age replaced the natural processes of the landscape with the global machine…while regenerative design seeks now to replace the machine with landscape. …John Tillman Lyle
The Soft Energy Path A flexible diverse mix of energy supply Primacy of Renewable energy sources Focus on End-use, on Conservation, and on efficiency of use Energy matched to the task at hand in both QUALITY and SCALE Participation-oriented structure--in both production and consumption People-intensive development and Job- creation
Energy & Spatial Organization Energy & the Landscape Eco-infrastructure: going with nature The Eco-system Model: eco-infill Integrating the Divided Economy Every place a locus of eco-production Buildings as producers not just consumers of energy
Key Areas of Green Building Green Building Certification --new construction --retrofit --neighbourhoods Natural Building & eco- community design
Loops in Building
Waste & Design for Adaptability: Shearing Layers
Localization LOIS vs. TINA Local First not buy local Multipliers Employment Stability / security –Peak Oil / Corporate Mobility Quality of Life Efficiency