Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Jews of Interwar Poland, Romania and Hungary Scott Masters Crestwood College.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Jews of Interwar Poland, Romania and Hungary Scott Masters Crestwood College."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Jews of Interwar Poland, Romania and Hungary Scott Masters Crestwood College

2

3 Who are the Jews of Poland? The new, post-WWI Pol. was about 10% Jewish, w/ a total population of @3.5 million…the largest minorities in Poland overall were Ukrainians, Jews, and Germans – their rates of emancipation varied acc. to pre-WWI national affiliation…in former Russian areas, there was virtually no emanc. for Jews, where former A-H areas were fully emancipated The new, post-WWI Pol. was about 10% Jewish, w/ a total population of @3.5 million…the largest minorities in Poland overall were Ukrainians, Jews, and Germans – their rates of emancipation varied acc. to pre-WWI national affiliation…in former Russian areas, there was virtually no emanc. for Jews, where former A-H areas were fully emancipated in most of E. Eur., Jewish pops. were @ a 5-10% natl minority – in W. Eur. it was more like 1% - in Ger for ex. Jews made up a tiny urban %, and about 1/3 of them were in Berlin – this led to many stereotypes that were rooted in non- contact in most of E. Eur., Jewish pops. were @ a 5-10% natl minority – in W. Eur. it was more like 1% - in Ger for ex. Jews made up a tiny urban %, and about 1/3 of them were in Berlin – this led to many stereotypes that were rooted in non- contact

4 for the most pt. the Jewish community in Pol. was spread out and diffuse, unlike the Ukr. and Ger. minorities who were concentrated to the for the most pt. the Jewish community in Pol. was spread out and diffuse, unlike the Ukr. and Ger. minorities who were concentrated to the E. and W. Professions: 80% of Jews were in Industry and Commerce, esp. textiles and shoes Professions: 80% of Jews were in Industry and Commerce, esp. textiles and shoes But most were luftmenschen/peddlers– the majority of the Pol. Jewish community was not rich – Russian markets had been cut off after WWI, hurting the eco. overall this led to a rise in anti-Semitic feeling But most were luftmenschen/peddlers– the majority of the Pol. Jewish community was not rich – Russian markets had been cut off after WWI, hurting the eco. overall this led to a rise in anti-Semitic feeling

5 THE PARTIES Pol.- Jewish political parties were very sig. – they werent just about voting but were also about schools, youth mvmts… Pol.- Jewish political parties were very sig. – they werent just about voting but were also about schools, youth mvmts… In the 1880s, the Zionist movement amounted to @ 35% of the total Jewish community – their views were opposite to the pro-emanc. Jews, who favoured assimilation…many of them opted for socialist parties like the Bund In the 1880s, the Zionist movement amounted to @ 35% of the total Jewish community – their views were opposite to the pro-emanc. Jews, who favoured assimilation…many of them opted for socialist parties like the Bund The Zionists wanted Jews to go to Israel and thus leave the culture and communities they had been in for generations The Zionists wanted Jews to go to Israel and thus leave the culture and communities they had been in for generations

6 Most Jewish parties accepted the idea of Aaliyah and the idea of settlement (except the Mizrachi - Many Orthodox Jews did not accept the idea of moving all Jews to Israel; it was not a part of the 613 commandments, or Mitzuot) Most Jewish parties accepted the idea of Aaliyah and the idea of settlement (except the Mizrachi - Many Orthodox Jews did not accept the idea of moving all Jews to Israel; it was not a part of the 613 commandments, or Mitzuot) but after that there was not much consensus – many saw the Zionists as crazy since the Diaspora had been in place for 500-1000 yrs…only 1-2 % of E. Euro. Jews would leave during the 1880-1924 pd, and most went to America…so Jewish family and pol. life was confused and polarized, a situation that still existed in 1939 but after that there was not much consensus – many saw the Zionists as crazy since the Diaspora had been in place for 500-1000 yrs…only 1-2 % of E. Euro. Jews would leave during the 1880-1924 pd, and most went to America…so Jewish family and pol. life was confused and polarized, a situation that still existed in 1939 All of these political parties continued to exist in Poland after WWII started created many divisions w/in the community All of these political parties continued to exist in Poland after WWII started created many divisions w/in the community

7

8 After WWI, Hungary disintegrated and lost 1/3 of its population, while territory was ceded to: 1. Czechoslovakia 2. Romania (Transylvania then – in w. Romania, on the Hungarian border), northern (northwestern) Trans. was re-attached to Hung. in 1944 – so Jews there shared the fate of Hungarian Jews in 1944… 3. Yugoslavia so if you were born in 1910 Transylvania…in 1918 it was Romania, in 1940 it was Hungary, in 1944/45 it was Romania…

9

10 Bukovina bordered Poland and Ukraine – was also part of the A-H Empire but under Austrian rule, so it was Ger-spkg (it was the eastern-most prov of the A-H Emp) – it was attached to Romania after 1918 and after 1944 was a part of the republic of Soviet Union called Ukraine) Bessarabia had been pt of czarist Russia – it was taken from Russia at the end of WWI and given to Romania (now it is Moldova) In 1940 (late June) Bukovina and Bessarabia were demanded in a Soviet ultimatum - had been guaranteed by a secret agreement b/n the USSR and Germany - so the 2 went to the USSR on June 29, 1940

11 June 1941 – Op. Barbarossa… Romanian army invaded the USSR along side Ger to take back Bukovina and Bessarabia –in 1944 the 2 regions were liberated by the USSR again… Bukovina is now pt of the Ukraine and Bessarabia is Moldova The point is that its tough to track what happened to the Jews of these regions during the Holocaust b/c of all the territorial changes…

12 When Czechosolvakia was partitioned, Hungary took the regions of Carpathia and Ruthenia – Hungary was looking to get back lost territory – in 1941 Hung had invaded Yugoslavia w/ Ger. 1918-1938/9 there were roughly 500 000 Jews in Hungary, based on its terr. at that time, while Rom. had @ 750 000 in Hungary there was greater assimilation, so the # may have been larger, and when the Nuremberg Laws were applied after 1938 and 1941, many converts were classified as Jews – so the #s are uncertain 1939 did not represent the start of the war here – it was 1941 when both Hung. and Rom. joined Ger in the war

13 In Rom, there were multiple Jewries – the Old Kingdom of Rom., Hung., Buk. (Yiddish), Russian… –Jews from each area didnt seem themselves as a part of a bigger group – they had diff mentalities, languages, songs…it was not one Jewish community –Each community dealt w/ pains of modernization, a pseudo-dem., a mostly agri. state where the Jews were largely cosmopolitan/urban/intellectual –Jewish civil rights were to have been respected acc. to the Great Power demands after WWI – there was a Minorities Clause in the T. of Versailles –Rom. had been happy to get all these new territories after the war – but Jews and other minorities were not given the same rights as other Romanians – the Rom. govt was suspicious and insisted on monitoring these new Romanians

14 –And Rom. Jews were further divided into Ashekenazi and Sephardic Jews (from Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Greece… – had come during Ottoman rule); each group had its own chief rabbi and neither of the two groups recognized the authority of the Hungarian Jews –Hung. had achieved full emancipation in 1867 – they were much more assimilated – Hung. Jews had split at that time into Orthodox and Neolog –Jews in Bessarabia were traditional, Yiddish, Hasidic – not Russianized even though they had been in Russia…

15 –Politically, there was a Union of Rom. Jews – wanted Jews to assim. into the Rom. nation (thus anti-Zionist) – they urged Jews to vote for the party that would best serve Jews at that moment (= pol. bargaining) –A formal Jewish party was formed in 1928 - won seat(s) in parl. –And there was a rise in anti-Semitism in Romania b/n the wars; many feared the rapid inclusion of Jews in Romanian society –After WWI, Romanian nationalists claimed Jews were working to accumulate as much wealth as they could – they came to be seen as an invading nation

16 Iron Guard – major anti-Semitic group in Romania Led by relatively young people – many were veterans of WWI Saw the poverty of Romanian small towns/cities and resented Jewish presence in these small towns Copied the Nazis - In the 30s, they started attacking Jews at universities and other places Claimed that Romania was corrupt (true) and that Jews were contributing to it (not necessarily) Held summer camps for young people in Budapest - taught about corruption and the Jewish plot…

17 King Karol was the playboy king of Romania (the royal house was of German origin) - His mistress was Jewish = fascist propaganda… Rom. Jews hoped the king would not tolerate these attacks – but the fascists got support and votes and an anti- Semitic parliament got the king expelled – the Iron Guard assumed dictatorial powers, and then the dictator Antonescu eliminated them and kept power after 1941 280,000 to 380,000 Jews from Rumania were eliminated, mostly in the regions of Bukovina and Bessarabia

18 Hungary Rejected Zionist and separatist movements - No specific Jewish political life Strong economic life - Many Jews close to leadership of Admiral Horthy mentality of Hungarian Jewish leaders (mostly lawyers, very loyal to Hungarians) –nothing can happen to the Jews because of the strong legal profession/structures –they put their complete trust in these elites Hungarian fascists = Arrow Cross Horthy didnt like this movement Jewish leaders thought Horthy would shut them down

19 The Fascists took power in 1932; the Jewish leadership told them that if they were eliminated, the economy would come crashing down…the fascists backed off – Hung. Jews thought they could bargain… Then the borders changed… Transylvania was re-attached to Hungary from Romania – Transylvanian Jews now under Hung. rule… Hungarian anti -Jewish laws were implemented in 1938, 1939, and 1940


Download ppt "The Jews of Interwar Poland, Romania and Hungary Scott Masters Crestwood College."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google